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Wednesday: Breslauer chapter 4. pp. 82-95. Map/MG.html Masorah Chapter numbers Targum (a few links) Sedrah.

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Presentation on theme: "Wednesday: Breslauer chapter 4. pp. 82-95. Map/MG.html Masorah Chapter numbers Targum (a few links) Sedrah."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wednesday: Breslauer chapter 4. pp. 82-95

2 Map/MG.html Masorah Chapter numbers Targum (a few links) Sedrah

3 Jewish Bibles 1“Proper” contents 2“Proper” versions of each book 3Meaning (translations) 4Traditions of reading / vocalizing 5Physical forms / Structures of Bibles. 6Uses. Ritual, private uses, etc. 7Exploring the meanings 8Preserving authoritative commentaries.

4 1. Proper content Which books were and were not, scriptural? Not finalized until early centuries C.E.

5 Post 70 c.e. Fixed canon Torah / Prophets already accepted List of other “Writings” determined. Tanakh comes into being

6 Criteria uncertain Only Hebrew / Aramaic Greek Septuagint’s extra books out. “Ancient”: Latest early 2 nd Temple (i.e., before 450 bce). Radical Apocalypses rejected. Sectarian texts rejected.

7 2. “Proper” versions Ancient manuscripts show great diversity. Rabbis determined a “correct” text. Wanted consistency to the last letter. By mid 2 nd century One version becomes standard. Some variants remain.

8 Masoretic Text Name of the modern version of biblical books Rabbi’s decided on the “Proto-M.T.” “Masorah” the rabbinic traditions of reading and recitation of the proto-M.T.

9 Proto- and early M. T. On Scrolls Multiple titles on one scroll No complete consistency in order of books No vowels. Few could read them

10 3Meaning (translations) “Targums” Aramaic In worship: Hebrew read aloud Translated orally for congregation with some added explanations.

11 Targums 2 nd century onwards Onkelos early: very literal Jonathan: interpretative. Became important in communal worship. Sometimes used in Talmud.

12 Gen. 1:2 MT: The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters. T. J. And the earth was vacancy and desolation, solitary of the sons of men, and void of every animal; and darkness was upon the face of the abyss, and the Spirit of mercies from before the Lord breathed upon the face of the waters.

13 4Traditions of reading / vocalizing Sacred text in a sacred language requires specific pronunciation. Oral reading of text without vowels difficult nd h sd t mss s t th srlts b crfl t kp ths lw

14 Masorah “Tradition” System of correct text and pronunciation. Taught by rote memorization of scripture. Later: MT copied out with vowels, accents, etc. added

15 Masoretes: Scholars who established “correct” text and vocalizations “Masoretic text” the version they adopted and further developed. Some variety remains.

16 masorah Vowels & accents Reading variations Section divisions Word lists / counts

17 Leningrad Codex Oldest complete Hebrew Bible ca. 1010 C.E.

18 5 - 6Physical forms of Bibles and Uses Scroll form generally used for ritual purposes. –All of Tanakh NOT put on a single scroll. Codex form used for study purposes.

19 Torah Scroll (unvocalized) used for synagogue worship. Codex (vocalized) for congregations to read along. “Chumash” Codex with full masorah for study

20 Haftarah Readings from the Prophets to accompany weekly Torah reading Antiochus forbade Torah readings: Jews substituted Prophets reading. Reading from Codex permitted

21 “Megillah” 5 festival scrolls Song of SongsPassover Sabbath RuthShavu’ot Lamentations Tisha B’Av Ecclesiastes / QohelthSukkoth Sabbath

22 Esther Purim

23 7Exploring the meanings Study of words, themes becomes important. Bible interpreted in the light of developed tradition. Serious questions about tradition could be raised.


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