Chemical Machining Etching: Chemical reaction between reagent (in gas, solution, or paste form) and workpiece. Main uses: - Shallow, wide cavities on plates, forgings, castings reduce weight - Electronics manufacturing (wafer fabrication) - Hydrogen Flouride, Hydrofloric acid: etching of glass
Photo-Chemical Machining Main uses: - Flat springs, metal bookmarks, encoder wheels, lead frames for IC chips, sieves for medical applications, microwave oven filters, heat-sinks for PCBs
Electrochemical Machining (ECM) Reverse of electro-plating (workpiece is anode) Main uses: - Dies and glass-making molds, turbine and compressor blades, Holes, Deburring
Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) [source: iprod.auc.dk] - Sparks between electrode-workpiece - Dielectric flushes the metal powder - Inexpensive, precise, complex shapes - Workpiece must be a conductor [source: www.magnix.co.kr] Electrode EDM Wire-cut EDM
Laser cutting Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation - High energy density (small focus area) - Uses: Cutting, welding, precision holes - Common lasers: CO 2, Nd:YAG - Continuous power or Pulsed (more precise)
Ultrasonic Machining Main uses of USM: - Welding plastics (package sealing) - Wire-bonding (IC chips) - Machining brittle materials
Water-Jet, Abrasive Water-Jet Machining - Workpiece is fractured by impact from high pressure (~400 MPa) water-jet - No heat no thermal stress, damage Common applications: - Fast and precise cutting of fabrics - Vinyl, foam coverings of car dashboard panels - Plastic and composite body panels used in the interior of cars - Cutting glass and ceramic tiles
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