Looking into Primary School Classrooms where Information and Communication Technology is being used Presenter: Þuríður Jóhannsdóttir NERA-congress in Reykjavík.
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Presentation on theme: "Looking into Primary School Classrooms where Information and Communication Technology is being used Presenter: Þuríður Jóhannsdóttir NERA-congress in Reykjavík."— Presentation transcript:
Looking into Primary School Classrooms where Information and Communication Technology is being used Presenter: Þuríður Jóhannsdóttir NERA-congress in Reykjavík March 10 -13, 2004.
Innovative change extensive collaboration among students, developed information searches and information processing, new kinds of collaboration between students and teachers and among teachers, development of collaboration projects outside schools, and emphasis on creative products (references).
Data collection Teacher students in the distance learning program for initial teacher training Living all around Iceland 200 students participated in the course Here we draw on: 15 classroom observations in primary schools with pupils from 6 to 13 years olds 15 interviews with primary school teachers.
Research questions Do we see evidence for innovative changes in pedagogy that ICT brings into the classroom? How is the use of ICT as a tool for learning affecting the learning tasks of pupils? How is the use of ICT as a tool for teaching affecting the teaching tasks of teachers? Which of the affordances offered by ICT are being used and which under-utilized? What are the potential negative side-effects or risks that the affordances offered by ICT tools bring when used in schools settings? What sort of gender differences appear when ICT is used as a learning tool for pupils ?
The situation in Icelandic schools SITES – module 1, 1998 “The goals of the study should reflect the current widely held belief that ICT is a potentially strong facilitator for realizing school reforms aimed at preparing citizens for the Information Society”. Icelandic evaluation 2002 rapport The teachers are aware of the possibilities inherent in ICT tools and they mention advantages such as more diversity, flexibility and innovations. But few seemed to be using it and it seems that most teachers needed mentoring on how to use ICT in pedagogical settings
Theoretical framework socio-cultural or cultural-historical approach Activity theory thinking, learning and cognition are inseparable from activity and the context in which the activity takes place possibilities inherent in the nature of the tool any one affordance can have negative side-effects which can bring unintended consequences into pedagogical settings Conole and Dyke use the concept affordance risk of ICT for what purpose ICT is used in schools – CPF - Twining
How is ICT used with the youngest pupils, age 6 – 8? educational programs to practise basic skills such as arithmetic, reading and spelling good for training attention and coordination of mind and body Either: learner-centered approach where the pupils move forward at their own pace the teacher controls the pace with an overhead projector and pupils are supposed to follow her and all do the same thing at the same time “Many pupils knew this program and had finished way ahead the others” “Most of them were doing their best, counting on their fingers before they answered while some just put some numbers in some boxes”
Collaboration and access to diversity of learning materials, age 9-12 accessing educational webs on the Internet present them in the form of text and pictures A learner-centered approach is common teachers collaborating
ideal computer-supported collaborative learning One group was browsing books in the library, finding pictures of whales; Another group was sitting at a computer and one of the pupils was typing in handwritten text in a word processor. Another group was trying out what kind of text they should use, the text itself was ready but they had not decided the lay-out. A group was finishing the final look of their poster, printing out a picture of the kind of whale they had been working on. Two pupils were browsing a web on whales in the computer, checking if the information they had found in books were right and if there was something new to be found….. One was at a computer looking for pictures and another was drawing a whale on his poster.
Temptations – cut and paste The affordance access to more diverse learning material, presented in multimedia and hypertext form which are perhaps likely to motivate pupil interest. The risk easy to duplicate texts, photos and even sound danger lies in the easy (and for them strategic) way pupils can cut and paste.
Access to all kind of temptations on the Internet “Most of the boys are not doing what they are supposed to do, but are on the msn, on the Internet looking at games or looking at pictures on the schools’ web-site. […] They write two lines and then they go to the Internet to fetch pictures. They enlarge one of the pictures so that it covers the entire page. […] They play with fonts and colors and duplicate the pictures. Most of the boys stop working on the project when the teacher is not observing them. The girls work conscientiously on what they are supposed to do.”
ICT supporting and extending traditional teaching methods An art teacher using a PC and a projector to access an educational web on art with 6 year-old The risk that lies in the affordances of that tool is that the teacher controls too much and does not engage the pupils in discussion and activity
Use of communication-tools to contact pupils “Like I use the computer, I am in connection with the pupils on the Internet, e.g. those who need extra assignments I would send them web-pages or interactive assignments. Then they are supposed to do the assignments at home and send to me by e-mail. In fact they send me all their assignments, essays and stuff by e-mail. They work at home, send me their solutions by e- mail, then I correct using track changes in word and then I send it back to them by e-mail. That is the way I use the computer in my teaching. Those who do not have access to Internet at home can use the computers at the library. It is a good thing not to have to deal with all the papers flowing around any more.”
Innovative use of ICT in schools to enhance collaboration among students Internet is used for information searches collaboration between students emerging collaboration of teachers seems to be a good way to organize learning with ICT In this study: No collaboration projects outside the schools one example in our study where the emphasis is entirely on creative products
Results of the SITES study 1998 “ICT was mainly used in traditional settings and the diversity of programs used was below the average of the countries taking part. Traditional programs like word processors were more commonly used than use of e.g. creative programs for artistic work and virtual simulations. Lack of access to computers as well as lack of IT skills with teachers was hindrance to use”
Teachers’ voices Many teachers see the possibilities and are ready too use them with their pupils Lack of access to computers in the schools is a problem Old and not powerful enough computers are barriers to use of more creative multimedia programs And to conclude: An articulation of affordances risk of ICT in pedagogical settings is important in dealing with new problems or unintended consequences when ICT is used in classrooms and when a learner centered approach is used.