The Problem: Teachers are not effectively using the computer for web-based activities in the classroom.
Many teachers don’t know how to: 8Create activities for their students involving the Internet 8Use WebQuests 8Use software to create web pages 8Create technology projects with educational objectives
Causes of the Problem: (Shelton, 1996) 8Perceived inadequacies in training 8Lack of time for preparation 8Limited access to computer hardware/software 8Lack of support
Additional Cause: 8Resistance to change According to Becker, (1999) teachers need to be convinced of the value of engaging students in PBL.
The Answer: Technology Training for Teachers The Four T’s (Shelton & Jones, 1996) 8 Time 8 Training 8 Technology (hardware & software) 8 Teacher-type tasks
The Answer (Part 2) Problem Based Learning The strategy explained: 8“Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an instructional strategy that promotes active learning.” (Samford University, 2000) 8“PBL is any learning environment in which the problem drives the learning. That is, before students learn some knowledge they are given a problem. The problem is posed so that the students discover that they need to learn some new knowledge before they can solve the problem.” (Woods, 1996)
Characteristics of PBL 8Learning is student centered. 8Learning occurs in small groups. 8Teachers are facilitators or guides. 8Problems form the organizing focus and stimulus for learning. 8Problems are a vehicle for the development of clinical problem-solving skills. 8New information is acquired through self-directed learning.
Process of PBL Confront a problem. Organize what Is known and identify the nature of the problem. Pose questions. Design a plan: That solves the problem That identifies needed resources. Gather information. Solve the problem.
Outcomes of PBL 8Ability to find and use appropriate resources 8Problem-solving skills 8Self-directed learning skills 8Critical thinking 8Facility with computer 8Ability to work on a team 8Communication skills
Problem-Based Learning causes a shift in roles (imsa.edu, 2001)
At PBL’s organizing center is The Ill-Structured Problem 8Complex in nature 8Requires inquiry, information-gathering, and reflection 8Is changing and tentative 8Has no simple, fixed, “right” solution
Our Study 8Research Problem: Teachers are not effectively using technology in the classroom. 8Research Questions: 3What impact will instruction in website creation have upon teacher utilization of technology in the classroom? 3What is the effect of instruction in website creation using a PBL training strategy? 3How does the use of Dreamweaver software effect teacher utilization of technology in the classroom?
Our Study 8Purpose of the study: To explore whether providing teachers with a simple format of training to create a class website will impact upon their utilization of technology in the classroom.
Procedure 8General population: Classroom teachers employed by SCOE, Grades K-8 8Sample: Volunteer teachers employed by SCOE, Grades K-8 8Survey: Administer pre- and post-surveys to the subjects.
The Survey A Likert scale questionnaire 8Assesses teacher attitudes towards technology 8Assesses teacher confidence in technology in general, and web design, specifically
The Treatment 8Three 3 hour sessions on web page design 8Teaching strategies: Problem Based Learning Mini-lectures Demonstrations, modeling Online tutorials
The Treatment (continued) 8The simulation: A letter from the Technology Director Participants in grade-level groups The assignment: to create a web page template to be used by classroom teachers at a specific grade level.
Findings 8Participants will demonstrate improvement in computer skills and confidence after the treatment. 8After a follow-up period, there will be an increase in the use of the computer for web- based activities.
More Links 8Dreamweaver tutorial and templates http://www.taskstream.com/Main/login/default.asp Http://www.trainingcafe.com/members/coursesite 8WebQuest Page http://edweb.sdsu.edu/webquest/webquest.html
Suggestions for future research: 8What would be the effect of using the PBL strategy along with the spreadsheet or database tool in teacher technology training? 8Would there be a difference in effectiveness when comparing elementary-school vs. high school teachers using the approach in this study?