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Lecture 2 Classes and objects, Constructors, Arrays and vectors.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 2 Classes and objects, Constructors, Arrays and vectors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 2 Classes and objects, Constructors, Arrays and vectors

2 Class Fundamentals Class defines a new data types
Once defined, this new type can be used to create objects of that type Class is a template for an object and, an object is an instance of a class The data or variables, defined within a class are called instance variables The code is contained within methods Collectively, the methods and variables defined within a class are called members of a class

3 The General Form of a Class
class classname{ type instance-variable1 //… type instance-variable N type methodname1(parameter-list){ //body of the method } type methodname N(parameter-list){

4 Caution General form of a class does not specify a main( ) method
Class declaration and implementation of the methods are stored in the same place and not defined separately (Different from the C++) Sometimes .java files become very large

5 A Simple Class class Box{ double width; double height; double depth; } This code does not cause any objects of type Box to come into existence To actually create a Box object, you will use a statement like: Box mybox = new Box(); // create a Box object called mybox

6 Here is a complete program that uses the Box class class Box { double width; double height; double depth; } // This class declares an object of type Box. class BoxDemo { public static void main(String args[]) { Box mybox = new Box(); double vol; // assign values to mybox's instance variables mybox.width = 10; mybox.height = 20; mybox.depth = 15; // compute volume of box vol = mybox.width * mybox.height * mybox.depth; System.out.println("Volume is " + vol);

7 Declaring Objects To obtain objects of a class, we need
First declare a variable of the class type Second, acquire an actual, physical copy of the object and assign it to that variable (by new operator) In Java, all class objects must be dynamically allocated Object references appear to be similar to pointers, but you can not manipulate references as you actual pointers

8 Declaring Objects (cont.)
Statement Effect Box mybox; mybox mybox=new Box( ); Box object null Width Height Depth

9 A Closer Look at new mybox=new Box(); The class name followed by parentheses specifies the constructor for the class If a class don’t explicitly define its own constructor, the Java automatically supply a default constructor We don’t need to use new for integers or characters. Because java’s simple types are not implemented as objects It is possible that new will not be able to allocate memory for an object because of insufficient memory. In that case, a run-time exception will occur

10 Assigning Object Reference Variables
Box b1=mew Box(); Box b2=b1; b1 and b2 will both refer to the same object b1 b2 Box object If b1 is assigned null (b1=null;), the b2 still points to the original object Width Height Depth

11 Introducing Methods class Box { double width; double height;
double depth; // display volume of a box void volume() { System.out.print("Volume is "); System.out.println(width * height * depth); } class BoxDemo3 { public static void main(String args[]) { Box mybox1 = new Box(); // assign values to mybox1's instance variables mybox1.width = 10; mybox1.height = 20; mybox1.depth = 15; // display volume of first box mybox1.volume();

12 Returning a Value class Box { double width; double height;
double depth; double volume( ) { // compute and return volume return width * height * depth; } class BoxDemo4 { public static void main(String args[ ]) { Box mybox1 = new Box(); double vol; mybox1.width = 10; // assign values to mybox1's instance variables mybox1.height = 20; mybox1.depth = 15; vol = mybox1.volume( ); // get volume of first box System.out.println("Volume is " + vol);

13 Methods having Parameters
There are two problems in the previous code Its is clumsy and error prone (you may forget to set dimension) Instance variables should be accessed only through methods defined by their class void setDim(double w, double h, double d) { width = w; height = h; depth = d; } mybox1.setDim(10, 20, 15);

14 Constructors A constructor is automatically called immediately after the object is created, before the new operator completes Its has no return types, not even void Constructors have the same name as the classname When we write Box mybox1=new Box( ); actually the constructor for the class is being called As you know, Java creates a default constructor for the class, which initializes all instance variables to zero

15 Constructor example Box() { System.out.println("Constructing Box"); width = 10; height = 10; depth = 10; } When you write Box mybox1=new Box( ); the values of height, width and depth are automatically assigned

16 Parameterized Constructors
Box(double w, double h, double d) { width = w; height = h; depth = d; } Box mybox1 = new Box(10, 20, 15);

17 The this keyword Sometimes a method will need to refer to the object that invoked it. To allow this, Java defines the this keyword this can be used inside any method to refer to the current object. this always refers to the object on which the method was invoked Box(double w, double h, double d) { this.width = w; this.height = h; this.depth = d; }

18 Where this actually used
When a local variable has the same name as an instance variable, the local variable hides instance variable. This is why width, height and depth were not used as the names of the parameters to the Box( ) Although here we can use different names, but you can resolve any name space collisions by this, which lets you refer directly to the object Box(double width, double height, double depth) { this.width = width; this.height = height; this.depth = depth; }

19 Garbage Collection In C++, dynamically allocated objects must be manually released by use of delete operator Java takes a different approach; it handles deallocation for you automatically When no references to an object exist, that object is assumed to be no longer needed, and the memory occupied by the object can be reclaimed Garbage collection only occurs sporadically during the execution of your program

20 The finalize() Method Sometimes an object will need to perform some action when it is destroyed (i.e. release some non-java resources such as file handle or windows character font) finalize( ) method allows us to define specific actions that will occurs when an object is just about to be reclaimed by the garbage collector protected void finalize( ) { //finalization code here } You cannot know when- or even if- finalize( ) will be executed. Therefore, you must not rely on it for normal program execution

21 A Closer Look at Methods and Classes

22 Overloading methods (polymorphism)
Defining two methods within the same class that share the same name, as long as their declarations are different Java uses the type and/or number of arguments as its guide to determine which version of the overloaded method to actually call The return type alone is insufficient to distinguish two versions of a methods

23 Example class Overload { public static void main(String args[ ]) {
class OverloadDemo { void test() { System.out.println("No parameters"); } // Overload test for one integer parameter. void test(int a) { System.out.println("a: " + a); // Overload test for two integer parameters. void test(int a, int b) { System.out.println("a and b: " + a + " " + b); // overload test for a double parameter double test(double a) { System.out.println("double a: " + a); return a*a; class Overload { public static void main(String args[ ]) { OverloadDemo ob = new OverloadDemo(); double result; // call all versions of test() ob.test(); ob.test(10); ob.test(10, 20); result = ob.test(123.2); System.out.println("Result of ob.test(123.2): " + result); }

24 Automatic type conversion
class Overload { public static void main(String args[]) { OverloadDemo ob = new OverloadDemo(); int i = 88; ob.test(); ob.test(10, 20); ob.test(i); // this will invoke test(double) ob.test(123.2); // this will invoke test(double) } class OverloadDemo { void test() { System.out.println("No parameters"); } // Overload test for two integer parameters. void test(int a, int b) { System.out.println("a and b: " + a + " " + b); // overload test for a double parameter and return type void test(double a) { System.out.println("Inside test(double) a: " + a);

25 Overloading Constructors

26 Using Objects as Parameters
Thus one object can be used to initialize another object Objects are always passed by reference

27 Returning Objects

28 Introducing Access Control (Encapsulation)
When correctly implemented, a class creates a “black box” which may be used, but inner workings of which are not open to tampering When a member of a class is specified as private, then that member can only be accessed by other members of its class By default, the member of a class is public within its own package, but cannot be accessed outside of its package

29 Example

30 Example:Stack

31 Understanding Static It is possible to create a member that can be used by itself, without reference to a specific instance. To create such a member, precede its declaration with the keyword static Both methods and variables can be static Instance variables declared as static are, essentially, global variables When objects of its class are declared, no copy of a static variable is made. Instead, all instances of the class share the same static variable Methods declared as static have several restrictions: They can only call other static methods They must only access static data They cannot refer to this or super any way

32 Output: Static block initialized X=42 A=3 B=12 Example

33 Introducing final A variable can be declared as final, which prevents its contents from being modified final is similar to const in C/C++ final variable must be initialized when it is declared Common convention is to use uppercase identifiers for final variables The keyword final can also be applied to methods Example: final int FILE_OPEN=2;

34 More about arrays Arrays can be implemented as objects
i.e. length instance variable of an array class Length { public static void main(String args[]) { int a1[] = new int[10]; int a2[] = {3, 5, 7, 1, 8, 99, 44, -10}; int a3[] = {4, 3, 2, 1}; System.out.println("length of a1 is " + a1.length); System.out.println("length of a2 is " + a2.length); System.out.println("length of a3 is " + a3.length); }

35 Introducing Nested and Inner Classes
The scope of nested class is bounded by the scope of its enclosing class A nested class has access to the members, including private members, of the class in which it is nested. However, the enclosing class does not have access to the members of the nested class There are two types of nested class: Static (it cannot refer to members of its enclosing class directly) Non-static/inner (it has access to all of the variables and methods of its outer class directly)

36 Example

37 Exploring the String class
Every string you create is actually an object of type String. Even string constants are actually String objects String objects are immutable; once a String object is created, its contents cannot be altered Java defines a peer class of String, called StringBuffer, which allows strings to be altered One way to create a string is: String mystring=“this is a test” + operator is used to concatenate two strings

38 Some String methods equals( ) is used to test two string for equality
length( ) is used to obtain the length of string charAt( ) is used to obtain the character at a specified index within a string Also you can have arrays of string String str[ ]={“one”, “two”, “three”};

39 Example

40 Using Command-Line Arguments
Helps us to pass information into a program when it is run class CommandLine { public static void main(String args[]) { for(int i=0; i<args.length; i++) System.out.println("args[" + i + "]: " + args[i]); } To execute a program, we write from the command prompt: java CommandLine this is a test

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