SOSC 103D Social Inequality in HK Lecture 9: Mobility Studies.
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SOSC 103D Social Inequality in HK Lecture 9: Mobility Studies
L9: 07.03.072 The rise of Middle class Did all Hong Kong people become new middle-class? Who had moved up the social ladder, and who had not? Are there bundles of opportunities for people to climb up from the working-class to the middle-class?
L9: 07.03.073 Social Mobility Usually refer to the vertical movement up and down the social structure of individuals A. Intergeneration Mobility Compare one ’ s social position with his/ her parents B. Intra-generation Mobility Compare the social position of his/ her first job and the second, third or last job before retirement
L9: 07.03.074 Social Mobility It also related to the change of economic, occupational and social structure in a society Total mobility = Structural mobility + Net mobility 1. Structural mobility Caused by changes in occupational structure 2. Circulation Mobility (Net Mobility) Real exchange movements within the occupational structure
L9: 07.03.076 Intergenerationally stable = the son stay in the same class as his father (N=176) Downward mobility = the son has lower social class when compare with his father (N=256) Upward mobility = the son has higher social class when compare with his father (N=320) Total mobility rate = 576/752=0.766 Summary of the findings
L9: 07.03.077 Distribution of father ’ s and son ’ s classes
L9: 07.03.078 Structural mobility = 20.4%+2.7%=23.1% Because the shrink of certain sectors, the son could not follow his father ’ s footsteps. They are forced to move away from their father ’ s social class. Net mobility = Total mobility – structural mobility 76.6% - 23.1% = 53.6% Findings
L9: 07.03.079 Social Mobility in Hong Kong Important expansion of professional, managerial and administrative posts (class I and II) The New (upper) middle class: They are from different class background (heterogeneous/ not homogeneous) A slight shrinkage of unskilled manual workers positions (class VII) A vast shrinkage of the small shop-owners (and self- employed artisans)
L9: 07.03.0710 Inequality in Social Mobility Mobility Chance: This is a question about the equality of opportunity Given the available opportunities, do people from different backgrounds have an equal chance of improving their social position?
L9: 07.03.0711 Outflow statistics Where have people (the sons) gone?
L9: 07.03.0712 Upper and upper-middle class: Self-recruitment (45.2%) The fathers are able to ensure their sons to stay in the advantaged social positions. The children of these managers and professionals are very likely to remain in the social position as their fathers Working class: Retention (49.6%) The fathers are unable to push their sons to leave the disadvantaged social positions. The children of manual labour (skilled to unskilled labour) are very unlikely to leave the working class. Findings from outflow statistics
L9: 07.03.0713 Inflow statistics Where are these people (the sons) from?
L9: 07.03.0714 Upper and upper-middle class: Heterogeneous Most of those who are now in advantaged positions are newcomers. People who are in high social positions actually come from different class origins. Working class: Homogeneous About half of those who are now in disadvantaged positions are actually born in disadvantaged families. Great majority of them have fathers from either working class or lower-middle class. Findings from inflow statistics
L9: 07.03.0715 Social Mobility in Hong Kong Alongside the openness, there is also some rigidity
L9: 07.03.0716 Readings: Wong, T & Lui, T.L. (1992) Reinstating Class: a Structural and Development Study of Hong Kong Society. Occasional Paper no.10.