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1 Pertemuan 23 Layer Transport Matakuliah: H0174/Jaringan Komputer Tahun: 2006 Versi: 1/0.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Pertemuan 23 Layer Transport Matakuliah: H0174/Jaringan Komputer Tahun: 2006 Versi: 1/0."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Pertemuan 23 Layer Transport Matakuliah: H0174/Jaringan Komputer Tahun: 2006 Versi: 1/0

2 2 Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Menjelaskan fungsi Transport Layer

3 3 Outline Materi TCP UDP

4 4 Transport layer duties

5 5 Addressing TCP uses the concept of source and destination port numbers which uniquely identify a particular communicating process on a host. Port numbers Well known port numbers (defined by IANA) Server applications run by privileged users to communicate on these ports (0 – 1023)  Registered ports (1024 - 49151)  Administratively assigned to some specific applications.  Private ports/Ephemereal (49152 - 65535)  application associated with them. Used by applications that are ephemeral in nature

6 6 Well-Known Port Addresses Port 80 – HTTP (web server) Port 25 – SMTP (mail server) Port 23 – Telnet Port 22 – SSH Port 110 – POP3

7 7 IP Addresses vs Port Numbers

8 8 Application Addressing Target user specified by User identification called socket in TCP/IP Consist of usually IP address (host), port Port represents a particular transport service (TS) user –Transport entity identification Generally only one per host If more than one, then usually one of each type –Specify transport protocol (TCP, UDP) –Host address An attached network device In an internet, a global internet address

9 9 Socket address

10 10 Multiplexing Multiple users employ same transport protocol User identified by port number or service access point (SAP) May also multiplex with respect to network services used

11 11 Transport Layer Protocol Transmission Control Protocol –Connection oriented –RFC 793 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) –Connectionless –RFC 768

12 12 Types of data deliveries The transport layer is responsible for process- to-process delivery

13 13 TCP segment format

14 14 TCP Services Reliable communication between pairs of processes Across variety of reliable and unreliable networks and internets Two labeling facilities –Data stream push TCP user can require transmission of all data up to push flag Receiver will deliver in same manner Avoids waiting for full buffers –Urgent data signal Indicates urgent data is upcoming in stream User decides how to handle it

15 15 TCP Mechanisms Connection establishment –Three way handshake –Between pairs of ports –One port can connect to multiple destinations

16 16 Connection Establishment

17 17 TCP Mechanisms The bytes of data being transferred in each connection are numbered by TCP. The numbering starts with a randomly generated number The value of the sequence number field in a segment defines the number of the first data byte contained in that segment The value of the acknowledgment field in a segment defines the number of the next byte a party expects to receive The acknowledgment number is cumulative. Data transfer –Logical stream of octets, Octets numbered modulo 2 23 –Flow control by credit allocation of number of octets –Data buffered at transmitter and receiver

18 18 UDP UDP is a connectionless, unreliable protocol that has no flow and error control It uses port numbers to multiplex data from the application layer (e.g. network management) Delivery and duplication control not guaranteed Reduced overhead UDP is a convenient transport-layer protocol for applications that provide flow and error control. It is also used by multimedia applications

19 19 User datagram format The calculation of checksum and its inclusion in the user datagram are optional

20 20 Pertemuan 24 Layer Application Matakuliah: H0174/Jaringan Komputer Tahun: 2006 Versi: 1/0

21 21 Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Menjelaskan peran Application Layer

22 22 Outline Materi SMTP HTTP

23 23 Electronic Mail Most heavily used application on any network Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) –TCP/IP –Delivery of simple text messages Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) –Delivery of other types of data –Voice, images, video clips

24 24 SMTP RFC 821 Not concerned with format of messages or data –Covered in RFC 822 (see later) SMTP uses info written on envelope of mail –Message header Does not look at contents –Message body Except: –Standardize message character set to 7 bit ASCII –Add log info to start of message Shows path taken

25 25 Basic Operation Mail created by user agent program (mail client) –Message consists of: Header containing recipient’s address and other info Body containing user data Messages queued and sent as input to SMTP sender program –Typically a server process (daemon on UNIX)

26 26 SMTP Sender Takes message from queue Transmits to proper destination host –Via SMTP transaction –Over one or more TCP connections to port 25 Host may have multiple senders active Host should be able to create receivers on demand When delivery complete, sender deletes destination from list for that message When all destinations processed, message is deleted

27 27 SMTP Receiver Accepts arriving message Places in user mailbox or copies to outgoing queue for forwarding Receiver must: –Verify local mail destinations –Deal with errors Transmission Lack of disk space Sender responsible for message until receiver confirm complete transfer –Indicates mail has arrived at host, not user

28 28 SMTP Mail Flow

29 29 Text Messages RFC 882 Message viewed as having envelope and contents Envelope contains information required to transmit and deliver message Message is sequence of lines of text –Uses general memo framework –Header usually keyword followed by colon followed by arguments

30 30 MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) Extension to RFC822 SMTP can not transmit executables Can not transmit text including international characters (e.g. â, å, ä, è, é, ê, ë) –Need 8 bit ASCII Servers may reject mail over certain size Translation between ASCII and EBCDIC not standard SMTP gateways to X.400 can not handle none text data in X.400 messages Some SMTP implementations do not adhere to standard –CRLF, truncate or wrap long lines, removal of white space, etc.

31 31 Overview of MIME Five new message header fields –MIME version –Content type –Content transfer encoding –Content Id –Content Description Number of content formats defines Transfer encoding defined

32 32 HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol Underlying protocol of the World Wide Web Not a protocol for transferring hypertext –For transmitting information with efficiency necessary for hypertext jumps Can transfer plain text, hypertext, audio, images, and Internet accessible information

33 33 HTTP Overview Transaction oriented client/server protocol Usually between Web browser (clinet) and Web server Uses TCP connections Stateless –Each transaction treated independently –Each new TCP connection for each transaction –Terminate connection when transaction complete

34 34 Headers HTTP uses the services of TCP on well-known port 80

35 35 Retrieve Image

36 36 Distributed services

37 37 Browser architecture

38 38 Categories of Web documents

39 39 Static document

40 40 Dynamic document

41 41 Active document

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