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Designing Classes Chapter 3. 2 Chapter Contents Encapsulation Specifying Methods Java Interfaces Writing an Interface Implementing an Interface An Interface.

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Presentation on theme: "Designing Classes Chapter 3. 2 Chapter Contents Encapsulation Specifying Methods Java Interfaces Writing an Interface Implementing an Interface An Interface."— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing Classes Chapter 3

2 2 Chapter Contents Encapsulation Specifying Methods Java Interfaces Writing an Interface Implementing an Interface An Interface as a Data Type Type Casts Within an Interface Implementation Extending an Interface Named Constants Within an Interface Interfaces Versus Abstract Classes Choosing Classes Identifying Classes CRC Cards Reusing Classes

3 3 Encapsulation Hides the fine detail of the inner workings of the class The implementation is hidden Often called "information hiding" Part of the class is visible The necessary controls for the class are left visible The class interface is made visible The programmer is given only enough information to use the class public stuff

4 4 Encapsulation Fig. 3-1 An automobile's controls are visible to the driver, but its inner workings are hidden.

5 5 Abstraction A process that has the designer ask what instead of why or how. What is it you want to do with the data What will be done to the data The designer does not consider how the class's methods will accomplish their goals The client interface is the what The implementation is the how goes into the interface

6 6 Abstraction Fig. 3-2 An interface provides well-regulated communication between a hidden implementation and a client. We are using “interface” in two senses here – public face of a class and a Java Interface. The latter is a “forced” set of rules for the former.

7 7 Specifying Methods Specify what each method does Precondition Defines responsibility of client code. What must be true before the method is called. Postcondition Specifies what will happen if the preconditions are met. What is true about the data after the method is called. Assertions can be written as comments to identify design logic // Assertion: intVal >= 0 like a precondition

8 8 Specifying Methods I also add: Overview: A simple, English-language explanation of what the method does. Exception: An explanation of any exceptions a method handles or at least encounters even if the method doesn’t “handle” them. I rename Precondition as Requires I rename Postcondition as Returns

9 9 Java Interface A program component that contains Public constants Signatures for public methods Comments that describe them Begins like a class definition Use the word interface instead of class public interface someClass { public int someMethod(); } “final” stuff

10 10 Java Interface Example public interface NameInterface {/** Task: Sets the first and last names. * @param firstName a string that is the desired first name * @param lastName a string that is the desired last name */ public void setName(String firstName, String lastName); /** Task: Gets the full name. * @return a string containing the first and last names */ public String getName(); public void setFirst(String firstName); public String getFirst(); public void setLast(String lastName); public String getLast(); public void giveLastNameTo(NameInterface child); public String toString(); } // end NameInterface javadoc comment. Look in the Javadoc view of Eclipse.

11 11 Implementing an Interface A class that implements an interface must state so at start of definition public class myClass implements someInterface The class must implement every method declared in the interface Multiple classes can implement the same interface A class can implement more than one interface An interface can be used as a data type public void someMethod (someInterface x) a promise to implement all methods in the interface. Important: someMethod() can be written before any class that implements someInterface

12 12 Implementing an Interface Fig. 3-3 The files for an interface, a class that implements the interface, and the client.

13 13 Type Casts Within an Interface Implementation In any class that implements an interface A parameter may be of type Object A type cast would probably be needed within that method public class Pet implements Comparable {private String name; private int age; // in years private double weight; // in pounds /** Task: Compares the weight of two pets. */ public int compareTo(Object other) {Pet otherPet = (Pet)other; return weight - otherPet.weight; } // end compareTo } // end Pet

14 14 Generic Comparable Interface: package java.lang; public interface Comparable { public int compareTo(T,other); } public class Circle implements Comparable, Measurable { private double radius;... public int compareTo(Circle other) { // notice; no need to cast if ( this.equals(other)) return 0; // other as a Circle; it already if ( radius < other.radius ) return -1; // is a Circle. return 1; }

15 15 Extending an Interface Use inheritance to derive an interface from another When an interface extends another It has all the methods of the inherited interface Also include some new methods Also possible to combine several interfaces into a new interface Not possible with classes not “implements”

16 16 Named Constants Within an Interface An interface can contain named constants Public data fields initialized and declared as final Consider an interface with a collection of named constants Then derive variety of interfaces that can make use of these constants public interface ConstantsInterface { public static final int STUNPort = 3478;... }

17 17 Interfaces Versus Abstract Classes Purpose of interface similar to purpose of abstract class But … an interface is not a base class It is not a class of any kind Use an abstract base class when You need a method or private data field that classes will have in common Otherwise use an interface classes are much more “valuable” than interfaces

18 18 Choosing Classes Look at a prospective system from a functional point of view Ask What or who will use the system What can each actor do with the system Which scenarios involve common goals Use a case diagram

19 19 Choosing Classes Fig. 3-4 A use case diagram for a registration system

20 20 Identifying Classes Describe the system Identify nouns and verbs Nouns suggest classes Students Transactions Customers Verbs suggest appropriate methods Print an object Post a transaction Bill the customer

21 21 Identifying Classes Fig. 3-5 A description of a use case for adding a course

22 22 CRC Cards Index cards – each card represents one class Write a descriptive name for class at top List the class's responsibilities The methods Indicate interactions The collaborations These are CRC cards "Class-Responsibility-Collaboration"

23 23 CRC Cards Fig. 3-6 A class-responsibility-collaboration card

24 24 Unified Modeling Language Used to illustrate a system's classes and relationships Provides a class diagram Class name Attributes Operations Fig. 3-7 A class representation that can be part of a class diagram.

25 25 Unified Modeling Language Fig. 3-8 UML notation for a base class Student and two derived classes

26 26 Unified Modeling Language Fig. 3-9 Part of a UML class diagram with associations.

27 27 Reusing Classes Much software combines: Existing components New components When designing new classes Plan for reusability in the future Make objects as general as possible Avoid dependencies that restrict later use by another programmer

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