2 Role of Cash Management in Personal Financial Planning Chapter 4Role of Cash Management in Personal Financial PlanningCash management deals with the routine, day-to-day use of liquid assets.Liquid assets consist of cash and other assets which can be readily converted to cash with little or no loss in value.
3 Examples of Liquid Assets: Chapter 4Examples of Liquid Assets:CashChecking AccountsSavings AccountsMoney Market Deposit AccountsMoney Market Mutual FundsU.S. Treasury BillsEE Savings BondsCertificates of Deposit (shorter-term)
4 Purpose of Liquid Assets: Chapter 4Purpose of Liquid Assets:Make purchases.Meet recurring living expenses.Provide reserve for unexpected expenses or opportunities.Used temporarily to accumulate funds for longer-term financial goals.
5 The Financial Marketplace The financial services industry markets:Financial productschecking and savings accountscredit cardsloans and mortgagesinsurancemutual fundsFinancial servicesfinancial planningtax preparationbrokerage servicesreal estatetrustsretirementestate planning
6 Types of Financial Institutions Commercial BanksLargest type of traditional financial institution.Offer full array of financial services.Only type of financial institution that can offer noninterest-paying checking accounts.
7 Savings and Loan Associations Offer many of the same services as commercial banks.Typically pay slightly more on savings deposits.Channel depositors’ savings into mortgage loans for purchasing and improving homes.Some are mutual associations.
8 Savings Banks Similar to savings and loan associations. Located primarily in New England states.Offer interest-paying checking accounts.Typically offer savings rates similar to those of savings and loan associations.Most are mutual associations.
9 Credit UnionsProvide financial products and services to specific groups of people who have a common tie.Qualified persons become members by purchasing a share of ownership.All are mutual associations; owned and sometimes operated by members.Typically pay interest rates higher than those of other financial institutions.
10 Internet Banks Offer online banking services. Feature lower fees and higher yields than “brick-and-mortar banks.”Suitable for people who do not need to physically go to a bank.
12 How Safe is Your Money?Almost all financial institutions are federally insured by either:Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) insures accounts at banks, savings banks, and S&Ls.National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) insures accounts at credit unions.Both provide government insurance up to $100,000 per depositor.
13 Truth-in-Savings Act of 1993 Chapter 4Truth-in-Savings Act of 1993Helps consumers evaluate terms and costs of banking products.Fees, interest rates, and terms of both checking and savings accounts must be fully and clearly disclosed.Places strict controls on advertising and what constitutes a free account.Standard formula for annual percentage yield (APY) must used.
14 Cash Management Products 1. Checking Accounts =Demand DepositsWith sufficient funds, banks must immediately pay the amount of your check or ATM withdrawal.
15 Types of Checking Accounts: Chapter 4Types of Checking Accounts:Regular checking accountsOffered by commercial banksPay no interestInterest-bearing checking accountsExamples include NOW, share draft, and money market deposit accountsOffered by banks, savings banks, S&Ls, and credit unions
16 Money Market Mutual Funds Offered by investment (mutual fund) companiesNot federally insured; trade on open marketInterest bearing; limited checksAsset Management AccountsPrimarily offered by brokerage firms; consolidate financial activitiesInsured by SIPC; open marketInterest bearing; check writing privileges
17 2. Savings Accounts = Time Deposits Funds are expected to remain on deposit for a longer time period than are demand deposits.Generally pay higher interest rates than demand deposits.At many institutions, the larger the balance, the higher the interest rate offered.
18 Other Money Management Services Electronic Banking ServicesElectronic Funds Transfer Systems (EFTS) make possibleATM serviceDebit cards—linked to your checking accountPre-authorized deposits and paymentsBanking by phoneOnline banking and bill payment services
19 Electronic Funds Transfer Act of 1978: Regulates EFTS Services.States that errors must be reported within 60 days.Limit your losses by immediately reporting theft, loss, or unauthorized use of your card or account!
20 Other Bank Services:Safe Deposit BoxesTrust Services—provide investment and estate planning advice and management for trust accounts.Mutual Fund Sales—along with other brokerage and investment services.
21 Starting Your Savings Program Chapter 4Starting Your Savings ProgramPAY YOURSELF FIRST!!!!Establish an emergency fund.Regularly set aside funds for financial goals.Utilize direct deposits and automatic transfers.Choose instruments best suited to your goals and time horizon.
22 Earning Interest on Your Money Chapter 4Earning Interest on Your MoneyInterest can be earned in two ways:1. Some investments are sold on a Discount Basis.Security sold for a price lower than redemption value.Difference between sales price and redemption value is the amount of interest earned.2. Other investments offer Direct Payment.
23 How is the interest calculated? Chapter 4How is the interest calculated?Simple Interest—interest paid only on initial amount of deposit.Compound Interest—interest paid at set intervals and added back to principal.
24 Nominal rate—the named or stated rate of interest. Effective rate—the annual rate of return actually earned.If interest is compounded more frequently than once a year, the effective rate will be greater than the nominal rate of interest.
25 Effective rate = Annual amount of interest earned Amount of money invested Example:Invest $1000 at 5% for 1 year.
26 If simple interest is used, there is no compounding: Interest = Principal x rate x time= $1000 x .05 x 1= $50
27 If compound interest is used and the compounding occurs semiannually— First 6 months' interest:$1000 x .05 x 6/12 = $25.00Second 6 months' interest: +$1025 x .05 x 6/12 = $25.63Total annual interest = $50.63
28 The nominal rate is 5%, the stated rate of interest. The effective rate is 5.063%.Effective Rate = $50.63 $1000== %
29 How much interest will you earn? Chapter 4How much interest will you earn?Amount of interest earned depends on:Frequency of compoundingBalance on which interest is paidInterest rate appliedTime value of money concepts are used in compounding to find interest earned.
30 A Variety of Ways to Save Certificates of Deposit (CDs)Funds are to remain on account for a given time period.Early withdrawals incur an interest penalty.U.S. Treasury BillsDebt securities issued by the U.S. Treasury.Sold at a discount; $1000 minimum.Mature in 1 year or less.
31 Series EE Bonds (Savings Bonds) Purchased at 1/2 face value.Interest paid when bonds redeemed.Newly purchased bonds must be held at least 12 months; actual maturity date unspecified.Taxes not paid until bonds redeemed.Exempt from state and local taxes.If redeemed for educational purposes, income taxes may be avoided (subject to certain qualifications and limits).
32 Maintaining a Checking Account Chapter 4Maintaining a Checking AccountDetermine services needed.Consider costs involved.Keep track of checks written, automatic deposits, and ATM withdrawals.Don’t write checks for more than you have in the account (i.e., don’t bounce checks!).Arrange for overdraft protection.Know how to stop a payment.Periodically reconcile your account.
33 Special Types of Checks: When personal checks are not accepted, special checks can be used to guarantee payment.Cashier’s—drawn on the bank.Traveler’s—used for making purchases worldwide.Certified—drawn on your account but guaranteed by the bank.