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4a-1 CSE401: Computer Networks Hierarchical Routing & Routing in Internet S. M. Hasibul Haque Lecturer Dept. of CSE, BUET.

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Presentation on theme: "4a-1 CSE401: Computer Networks Hierarchical Routing & Routing in Internet S. M. Hasibul Haque Lecturer Dept. of CSE, BUET."— Presentation transcript:

1 4a-1 CSE401: Computer Networks Hierarchical Routing & Routing in Internet S. M. Hasibul Haque Lecturer Dept. of CSE, BUET.

2 4a-2 Hierarchical Routing scale: with 200 million destinations: r can’t store all dest’s in routing tables! r routing table exchange would swamp links! administrative autonomy r internet = network of networks r each network admin may want to control routing in its own network Our routing study thus far - idealization r all routers identical r network “flat” … not true in practice

3 4a-3 Hierarchical Routing r aggregate routers into regions, “autonomous systems” (AS) r routers in same AS run same routing protocol m “intra-AS” routing protocol m routers in different AS can run different “intra-AS routing protocol”. r special routers in AS r run intra-AS routing protocol with all other routers in AS r also responsible for routing to destinations outside AS m run inter-AS routing protocol with other gateway routers gateway routers

4 4a-4 Intra-AS and Inter-AS routing Gateways: perform inter-AS routing amongst themselves perform intra-AS routers with other routers in their AS inter-AS, intra-AS routing in gateway A.c network layer link layer physical layer a b b a a C A B d A.a A.c C.b B.a c b c

5 4a-5 Intra-AS and Inter-AS routing Host h2 a b b a a C A B d c A.a A.c C.b B.a c b Host h1 Intra-AS routing within AS A Inter-AS routing between A and B Intra-AS routing within AS B r We’ll examine specific inter-AS and intra-AS Internet routing protocols shortly

6 4a-6 Internet AS Hierarchy Intra-AS border (exterior gateway) routers Inter-AS interior (gateway) routers

7 4a-7 Intra-AS Routing r Also known as Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) r Most common Intra-AS routing protocols: m RIP: Routing Information Protocol m OSPF: Open Shortest Path First m IGRP: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (Cisco proprietary)

8 4a-8 RIP ( Routing Information Protocol) r Distance vector algorithm r Included in BSD-UNIX Distribution in 1982 r Each link has cost one. r Distance metric: # of hops (max = 15 hops) m Can you guess why? r Distance vectors: exchanged every 30 sec via Response Message (also called advertisement) r Each advertisement: route to up to 25 destination nets

9 4a-9 RIP (Routing Information Protocol) Destination Network Next Router Num. of hops to dest. wA2 yB2 zB7 x--1 ….…..... w xy z A C D B Routing table in D

10 4a-10 RIP (Routing Information Protocol) Destination Network Next Router Num. of hops to dest. zC4 w--1 x--1 ….…..... Advertisement from A Destination Network Next Router Num. of hops to dest. wA2 yB2 zA5 x--1 ….…..... Updated Routing table in D

11 4a-11 RIP: Link Failure and Recovery If no advertisement heard after 180 sec --> neighbor/link declared dead m routes via neighbor invalidated m new advertisements sent to neighbors m neighbors in turn send out new advertisements (if tables changed) m link failure info quickly propagates to entire net m poison reverse used to prevent ping-pong loops (infinite distance = 16 hops)

12 4a-12 RIP Table processing r RIP routing tables managed by application-level process called route-d (daemon) r advertisements sent in UDP packets, periodically repeated

13 4a-13 RIP Table example (continued) Router: r Three attached class C networks (LANs) r Router only knows routes to attached LANs r Default router used to “go up” r Route multicast address: r Loopback interface (for debugging) Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------- UH 0 26492 lo0 192.168.2. U 2 13 fa0 193.55.114. U 3 58503 le0 192.168.3. U 2 25 qaa0 U 3 0 le0 default UG 0 143454

14 4a-14 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) r “open”: publicly available r Uses Link State algorithm m LS packet dissemination m Topology map at each node m Route computation using Dijkstra’s algorithm r OSPF advertisement carries one entry per neighbor router r Advertisements disseminated to entire AS (via flooding) m Carried in OSPF messages directly over IP (rather than TCP or UDP

15 4a-15 OSPF “advanced” features (not in RIP) r Security: all OSPF messages authenticated (to prevent malicious intrusion) r Multiple same-cost paths allowed (only one path in RIP) r For each link, multiple cost metrics for different TOS (e.g., satellite link cost set “low” for best effort; high for real time) r Integrated uni- and multicast support: m Multicast OSPF (MOSPF) uses same topology data base as OSPF r Hierarchical OSPF in large domains.

16 4a-16 Hierarchical OSPF

17 4a-17 Hierarchical OSPF r Two-level hierarchy: local area, backbone. m Link-state advertisements only in area m each nodes has detailed area topology; only know direction (shortest path) to nets in other areas. r Area border routers: “summarize” distances to nets in own area, advertise to other Area Border routers. r Backbone routers: run OSPF routing limited to backbone. r Boundary routers: connect to other AS’s.

18 4a-18 Inter-AS routing in the Internet: BGP

19 4a-19 Internet inter-AS routing: BGP r BGP (Border Gateway Protocol): the de facto standard r Path Vector protocol: m similar to Distance Vector protocol m each Border Gateway broadcast to neighbors (peers) entire path (i.e., sequence of AS’s) to destination m BGP routes to networks (ASs), not individual hosts m E.g., Gateway X may send its path to dest. Z: Path (X,Z) = X,Y1,Y2,Y3,…,Z

20 4a-20 Internet inter-AS routing: BGP Suppose: gateway X send its path to peer gateway W r W may or may not select path offered by X m cost, policy (don’t route via competitors AS), loop prevention reasons. r If W selects path advertised by X, then: Path (W,Z) = w, Path (X,Z) r Note: X can control incoming traffic by controlling it route advertisements to peers: m e.g., don’t want to route traffic to Z -> don’t advertise any routes to Z

21 4a-21 BGP: controlling who routes to you r A,B,C are provider networks r X,W,Y are customer (of provider networks) r X is dual-homed: attached to two networks m X does not want to route from B via X to C m.. so X will not advertise to B a route to C

22 4a-22 BGP: controlling who routes to you r A advertises to B the path AW r B advertises to W the path BAW r Should B advertise to C the path BAW? m No way! B gets no “revenue” for routing CBAW since neither W nor C are B’s customers m B wants to force C to route to w via A m B wants to route only to/from its customers!

23 4a-23 BGP operation Q: What does a BGP router do? r Receiving and filtering route advertisements from directly attached neighbor(s). r Route selection. m To route to destination X, which path )of several advertised) will be taken? r Sending route advertisements to neighbors.

24 4a-24 BGP messages r BGP messages exchanged using TCP. r BGP messages: m OPEN: opens TCP connection to peer and authenticates sender m UPDATE: advertises new path (or withdraws old) m KEEPALIVE keeps connection alive in absence of UPDATES; also ACKs OPEN request m NOTIFICATION: reports errors in previous msg; also used to close connection

25 4a-25 Why different Intra- and Inter-AS routing ? Policy: r Inter-AS: admin wants control over how its traffic routed, who routes through its net. r Intra-AS: single admin, so no policy decisions needed Scale: r hierarchical routing saves table size, reduced update traffic Performance: r Intra-AS: can focus on performance r Inter-AS: policy may dominate over performance

26 4a-26 End of class r Reference: m KR 4.3 + 4.5

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