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Announcements 11/23/10 Prayer Exam 3 review session: Monday 5 - 6:30 pm, room C261 Exam 3 starts Tuesday after break Lab 10 due Tuesday after break

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Reading Quiz From my point of view, objects which experience no force don’t accelerate. What type of reference frame am I in? a. a.An “enlightened” reference frame b. b.An “inertial” reference frame c. c.A “Newtonian” reference frame d. d.A “normal” reference frame e. e.A “null” reference frame

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Fictitious forces Toss a ball. Slam on the brakes. What happens? Throw a ball to a friend on a merry-go-round (as it’s spinning). What path does the ball take? Reference frames where Newton’s Laws apply: “inertial frames”

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Galilean Relativity Credit: this slide and next one from Dr. Durfee

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Galilean Relativity

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Thought question I drive past a baseball field traveling north at 25 MPH. A player throws the ball south at a speed (relative to the ground) of 70 MPH. What is the speed of the ball in my inertial reference frame (to 2 sig figs)? a. a.25 MPH b. b.45 MPH c. c.70 MPH d. d.74 MPH e. e.95 MPH

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Thought question I drive past a baseball field traveling north at 25 MPH. A player throws the ball west at a speed (relative to the ground) of 70 MPH. What is the speed of the ball in my inertial reference frame (to 2 sig figs)? a. a.25 MPH b. b.45 MPH c. c.70 MPH d. d.74 MPH e. e.95 MPH

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Flashlights I’m riding my bike at 1 10 8 m/s. I turn on my “flashlight”, front bike light (c=3 10 8 m/s). a. a.How fast do I see the light waves go away? b. b.How fast does someone on the ground see the light waves go away? http://stokes.byu.edu/emwave_flash.html Changing magnetic field electric field Changing electric field magnetic field Nothing in equations says anything about the flashlight!!! (the source of waves)

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Compare to Sound Source stationary: sound waves travel at 343 m/s (as measured by both source and observer) Source moving at 100 m/s: sound waves still travel at 343 m/s (as measured by both source and observer). Only frequency will be changed. Why is it a Big Deal that light waves do the same thing?

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Einstein: There is no problem Postulate 1: The laws of physics apply in all inertial reference frames. Postulate 2: The speed of light is the same for all inertial observers, regardless of motion of the light source. The “problem”: these two simple statements have some crazy implications Michelson-Morley experiment

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Example: Light Ray on a Train If height of train car inside is h, how long did that take (to me, inside the train)? Credit: animations from Dr. Durfee Answer: t = 2h/c

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As seen from ground If height of train car inside is h, how long did that take (to you, on the ground)? Train is traveling at speed v Answer: t = 2h/c (1-v 2 /c 2 ) -1/2 How long did it take, really? Why doesn’t this “problem” exist with sound waves? “Ether dragging” and Michelson-Morley

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Notation Time measured by me, on train: t Time measured by you, on ground: t Answer 2 (measured on ground): t = 2h/c (1-v 2 /c 2 ) -1/2 Answer 1 (measured on train): t = 2h/c For v = 0.9c: = 0.9 = 2.3 v/cv/c

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Think about this… Suppose I, Dr. Colton, (in the train) measure the time interval to be 1 second, presumably through lots and lots of light bounces or something along those lines. If the train is moving at 0.9c, you, the class (on the ground) measure that time interval to be 2.3 s. To you, it looks like things in the train are running in slow motion. However, what if you on the ground are the one that is bouncing light rays back and forth. If you measure a time interval to be 1 s, how long will that interval look like, to me on the train? a. a.1 s – to Dr. Colton, it looks like things on the ground are running normally b. b.(1/2.3) s – to Dr. Colton, it looks like things on the ground are sped up c. c.2.3 s – to Dr. Colton, it looks like things on the ground are running in slow motion. To you, my time appears to be slowed. To me, your time appears to be slowed. Who is right?

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A different effect Light from which lightning bolt will reach Jim first? Jim

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Jim’s friends all record the actual times in Jim’s reference frame Or equivalently, Jim is just smart enough to factor out the time the light took while traveling. An “array” of observers Jim Jim’s friends

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Twin “Paradox” Speedo & Goslo…which twin is older?

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Simultaneity Dr. Colton on train, again Turn the flashlights on at the same time, the photons reach the walls simultaneously. OK?

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Simultaneity Viewed from the ground; train moving to right. Which light ray travels farther? Which light ray hits the wall first? Events which happen simultaneously in one “reference frame” do NOT happen simultaneously in any other reference frame

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