2Cameras 101 Chris Soltesz SSE-DS BPSD Sony Electronics, Inc. (817)(214)
3Cameras 101: Introduction “It has been my experience that the dissemination of a little knowledge will achieve one of two possible outcomes. It will either prompt the person learning to go out and gather even more information on the subject, further expanding their knowledge base, or give them a sense of false security and make them a very dangerous source of misinformation.”
4Cameras 101: Agenda Introduction Camera Technology Types of Cameras Camera DesignLensesAccessoriesApplicationsPackages
5Cameras 101: Introduction A Video Camera is responsible for:Capturing a moving image by accurately reproducing the scene.It’s like a microphone for your eyes
6Cameras 101: Camera Parts Camera Lens Camera Focuses light onto imager in the CameraCameraLight hits prism or filter inside cameraSplit by prism or filter and then directed at imagerImager Translates light information into electrical signalSignal can then be transmitted or recorded
7Cameras 101: Camera Design Parameters Single or Multi-ImagerTube CamerasCCDCMOSImager SizeProcessingAnalogDigital (DSP)TypeStudioEFPENGImage CaptureDefinition/Aspect RatioStandard Def.High Def.Multi Def.FormOne PieceFixed LensDockableConvertibleEtc.StandardNTSCPALMulti-Std.
8Cameras 101: Imagers Single or Multi-imager cameras Cameras can generally come in two flavors. One uses a single pickup device and a optical filter to divide the light into red, green and blue to capture the different electrical signals from the three color channels. This type is known as a single CCD (or one chip) camera.The second uses three separate imagers and a prism to separate the light and capture the corresponding channel. This type is now known as a 3CCD (or three chip) camera. Today’s highest resolution cameras are all 3CCD cameras.
9Cameras 101: Imagers Imager Size 2/3” 1/2” 1/3” 1/4” 1/4.7” The more light that can be directed on the imager, the better the performance of the camera. A larger imager performs better in low light situations. Early tube imagers were 1”, 2/3”or 1/3”. Today’s 3CCD cameras come in the following sizes:2/3”1/2”1/3”1/4”1/4.7”
10Cameras 101: Imagers Tube cameras Early cameras used vacuum tube imagers that translated the optical image focused on the phosphor photosensitive surface of the tube into an electrical signal. Image Orthicons, Saticons, Vidicons, Plumbicons, Newvicons and Trinicons are all different types of cathode ray tube imagers that were used.
11Cameras 101: ImagersRCA 5820 Image Orthicon Camera Tube
12Cameras 101: Imagers CCD cameras Starting in the late 1980’s, charge coupled devices (or CCD’s) replaced vacuum tubes. CCD’s have been continually improved over the last fifteen years, with the greatest gains being made in sensitivity, noise reduction and resolution . The latest imager technology being developed is CMOS, which has the potential to be more cost effective than CCD’s.
13Sony CCD Trend of Improvement for Performance1985HAD Sensor1990On-Chip-Micro lens1998Power HAD CCD1999New Construction CCD2001Power HAD EXCCD・Internal Lens →High Sensitivity・Thinner InsulationFilm →Low Smear・Low Dark Current・E-Shutter・On-Chip-LensTechnology→High SensitivityLow Smear・Re-construction（Gapless）→High Sensitivity・Further Improvement→High SensitivityLow SmearSensor■HAD Sensor■Hyper HAD■Power HAD CCD■Power HAD EXOn-Chip-Micro lensOn-Chip-Micro lensOn-Chip-Micro lensI’nalLensSmearPhoto-ShieldingfilmPhoto-ShieldingfilmSmearPhoto-ShieldingfilmPhoto-ShieldingfilmPoly SiPoly SiPoly SiPoly SiSensorV-registerSensorV-registerSensorV-registerSensorV-registerImproved reflection,resulting in less SmearThinner Insulation Film
14Improvement of Performance by New Construction CCCD Poly SiV-registerOn-Chip-Micro lensSensorFig.-1 Power HAD CCD Sensor ConstructionImprovement of Smear by thinner insulation membranePower HAD CCD camera ：-125dB (Typical) Power HAD EX CCD camera ：-140dB (Typical)Fig.-2 New CCD Sensor ConstructionInternal LensThinner InsulationFilmPhoto-Shieldingfilm
16New Progressive Scan Mode MemoryEvenOddConventionalPower HAD EXNormal ScanProgressive1/60or1/501/30or1/25
17Cameras 101: Imagers CMOS cameras CMOS Imaging Technology for motion video has been in development for the last five years. CMOS technology differs from CCD technology in many important areas . CMOS is less expensive to manufacture, uses less power and provides the ability to process pixel by pixel. With the introduction of the Sony HVR-A1U and HVR-V1U, CMOS cameras have arrived at the entry level of professional cameras.
18Camera Features: Imager 3 ClearVid CMOS Sensor SystemSony Original Pixel Interpolation TechnologyHigher SensitivityFull HD Resolution
193 ClearVid CMOS Sensor System H:960V:1080G/R/B Channels with Sony Original Pixel Layout
28Camera Process Diagram Camera Process of the HVR-V1 is1080/60p 4:2:2 Signal Processing
29Progressive Scan is available New!!B&IExclusiveProgressive ScanProgressive Scan is available60Hz Camcorder30pp/i conv.60iShootingRecording24p2-3 pull-down60iShootingRecording50Hz Camcorder25pp/i conv.50iShootingRecording
30HVR-V1U 2:3 PulldownSame method as Varicam, DVX100, and traditional TelecineFrame is captured PROGRESSIVELY every 1/24 secondFrame is divided into 2 separate fieldsEach field is laid down to tape in a “2:3” cadence, resulting in 60 fields per second24 Progressive Frames60 Fields(30 Frames)
31NLE and 2:3 Pulldown The NLE “sees” the 2:3 Pulldown “Tags” and removes the 2:3 pulldownEnables editing on a timelinePerfect for 24 fps DVD authoringEssential for Film OutGreat for maintaining “cinema look” throughout post2:3 can be added back in for tape output, if desired
32Cameras 101: Processing Analog Processing The earliest camera designs utilized tube amplifiers. Huge multi-conductor cables connected the imagers to the electronics (they were huge). With the development of the transistor, cameras were able to offer better signal processing in a much smaller form. New developments in IC amplifiers helped, but adding analog amplifiers added noise. Improving camera design by adding advanced signal processing depended upon determining if the benefit would outweigh the noise induced by the processing circuit.
33Cameras 101: Processing Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Today’s Digital cameras maintain higher image quality by processing the signals digitally. First, the component signals are converted from analog to digital through high quality A-D converters. These converted signals are then processed in the digital domain using advanced >30bit processors. Almost every camera manufactured today uses DSP.
34Cameras 101: Processing DSP (cont.) The use of Digital Signal Processing allows complex signal manipulation that would not be possible in an analog design. Innovative picture quality improvements showing the benefits of DSP can be seen in features like: Fully adjustable Gamma, 6 vector Matrix, Detail, Knee, Clip, Stretch, Skin Tone Detail, Advanced Pixel Restoration (APR), Fine dark detail and contrast, Total Level Control System, Advanced Diagnostics True-Eye and DynaLatitude.
3512bit A/D Finer resolution 10 bit 12 bit -12 bit A/D conversion and signal processing- Better YC and S/N ratioFinerresolution10 bit12 bitBetterresolutionHigh light part is cut.
36VCX-377 DSP Bit Length Stream for Y Signal MSBMost Significant Bit322A/D C.10 bit111814D/A C.10 bitD188888888 bit1233333LSBLeast Significant BitA/D C.~PPPR inUp ConverterOutputLinear MatrixPed.MixBefore GammaDTL MixGamma InGamma OutAfter GammaKneeKnee APT MixRGB Clip OutYC Mix InYC MTXY OutY. KneeY ClipOutRC InRC OuttoVTR10 bits from MSB will be converted toanalog as camera output
37Cameras 101: Camera Types Studio and EFP Cameras Studio Cameras are meant to be kept in the studio. This traditionally would be a large, high performance broadcast camera with a lens specifically designed for close up work.EFP stands for Electronic Field Production. This camera would have the same performance characteristics as the previous type, but may be of a more portable Camcorder design.
38Cameras 101: Camera Types ENG Cameras ENG stands for Electronic News Gathering. This type of camera was developed for the rough and tumble Broadcast News industry. Usually a robust Camcorder design, and is meant to operate under all types of weather and lighting conditions. Some Sony ENG camcorders can be configured for studio use (DSR-390, DSR570WS).
39Cameras 101: Camera Types Image Capture Image Capture cameras do just that and only that. This type of camera has many uses: Security, Image Magnification, Copy Stand, Industrial, Medical, Remote Control, and Videoconferencing use to name just a few.
40Cameras 101: Design Definition and Aspect Ratio Standard Definition 720 X 486 (640 X 480)4:3 Aspect RatioHigh Definition1920 X 1080 or 1280 X 72016:9 Aspect Ratio (widescreen)Multi-DefinitionBoth SD and HDImager that can provide bothMany of today’s SD Cameras are widescreenThis preserves 16:9 Aspect Ratio for Up-conversion to HD
41Cameras 101: Design Form Convertible Etc. One Piece Camera is a one piece unitFixed LensLens is not removableDockableCamera head can docked to different backs for different usesConvertibleCan be set up for Studio (Box) or ENG Style Style Lenses. Studio design called a Sled.Etc.Up to each manufacturer.
42Cameras 101: Design Standard NTSC US (and others) Broadcast Video StandardPALEuropean Broadcast Video StandardMulti-StandardBoth
43Cameras 101: Lenses Lens choices Critical to overall Camera performanceAll Light going to camera must pass through lensFrequencies of light determined by MTF of LensBroadcast and HD Grade LensesMust Match Imager size2/3” Imager requires 2/3”Lens½” Lens Mount design ChoicesHot ShoeDouble Hot ShoeAspect Ratio also affects Lens Choice20% difference in lens telephoto
44Cameras 101: Lenses Lenses (Cont.) Lens Manufacturers Lens Length/Type Canon and Fujinon most popularLens Length/TypeDetermined by studio size, camera placement and/or shots required for productionMost ENG lenses today have zoom capabilities that are at least 18XWide angle Lenses are also used where space is criticalRear Lens Control KitsAccessories for Studio and EFP (OB) Style ShootingRear Lens controls are not interchangeable between manufacturers
45Cameras 101: Lenses All Sony ½” and 2/3” cameras have removable lenses Sony uses standard Bayonet MountLens Models are named by size:2/3” Canon “YJ”, “J” (Broadcast), “HJ” (High Def)2/3” Fujinon “A”, “HA” (High Def)½” Canon “YH”, Fujinon “S” or VCL’sSmaller lenses (1/3” and C-Mount) are also VCL’s (can be confusing)
46Cameras 101: Accessories Accessories Camera Adaptor (CA) Provides for analog or digital signal transmission and control interface to CCU.Can be sent over Multicore, Triaxial, Fiber or Wireless.Can also provide audio, prompter, return video and intercom.Camera Control Unit (CCU)Provides power to camera and accessories as well as providing remote control of image for adjustment during production. Also provides connection point for signal output. Generally a Studio or OB application.
47Cameras 101: Accessories More Accessories Remote Control Panel Provides for remote connection to CCU for shading and control of camera.Can also connect directly to camera for CCU type performance without need for CCU. Used in EFP.ViewfinderThe viewfinder is a video monitor that allows the camera operator to see what they are shooting. Can be ENG (smaller for shoulder mounted shooting ) or Studio (larger for standing behind the camera).
48Cameras 101: Accessories Even More Accessories CCU Interconnection cablesNot included.Multicore designated CCZAD.Triax designated CCTA (1/2”) or CCTB (3/8”)Sold in specific lengths (CCZAD50 with length in meters.VTR BackVideo tape recorder that mounts to the back of a Dockable Camera Head. Creates camcorder like design.Latest designs are Disc based.
49Cameras 101: Accessories Still Even More Accessories Tripod Mounting PlateProvides quick release mounting point for Tripod.Tripod or PedestalStable platform to shoot from.Fluid Head provides smooth pan and tilt.Intercom HeadsetPH8S Headset for CCU-D50, CA-D50.
50Cameras 101: Accessories Could there possibly be any more?? Batteries Different batteries for different modelsBattery ChargersNeed the correct charger to match the batteryAC AdaptorsFor use when you have AC power available.Camera CasesHard or soft cases for shipping cameras and accessories.Wireless MicsDo I really need to finish this?
51Cameras 101: Applications Camcorders provide recording capabilities directly onto tape or DiscSony Professional/Broadcast Camcorder formats:DVDVCAMBeta SXMPEG IMXXDCAMDigi-BetaHDVXDCAM HDHDCAM
52Cameras 101: Applications Camcorders features and capabilities.Very different products for different markets.Professional Wedding/ Event VideographerIndependent Film MakingBroadcast News GatheringWildlife VideographyElectronic CimematographyAll of these present different imaging demands and require a different performance level from the camera.
54Cameras 101: Applications What about Image Capture cameras?Known as Box or POV CamerasDXC-990 ½” 3CCDDXC-390 1/3” 3CCDCan be fixed or mounted on PTZ headOther manufacturer (AMX, Crestron)Needs power supplyCMA-D2 or CMA-D3Requires specialized interconnection cables (CCDC/CCMC)Remote Control for CCU type controlRMC-950Additional Specialized Lenses and Mounts for a variety of different applications (microscopy, etc)
55Cameras 101: Applications HD Image Capture POV CameraHDC-X300½” High Definition Box CameraProvides HDSDI or HD Component OutHDC-X300K package with Canon VCL719BXS LensRemote Controls for CCU type controlRCP-700RCP-750RMB-150//ANo external CCU
56Cameras 101: Applications Pan-Tilt-Zoom CamerasInclude Camera and PTZ MechanismEVI D Series 1CCD PTZ CameraBRC Series 3CCD PTZ CameraAccessoriesEVI- remote controls and dome housingsBRC- we will cover laterUses for these products can range from Videoconferencing to Security. These cameras are used in Religious, Education, Corporate and Government applications.
57Cameras 101: Applications Internet Protocol (IP) CamerasNetwork Connected CamerasSNCRZ50N IP PTZ CameraSNCRZ25N IP PTZ CameraSNCRX550N/B 360 IP PTZ CameraAccessoriesDome Housings, mounting options
58Cameras 101: Applications Application determines Camera ChoiceExample: High Definition ShootingNeed highest resolution possible for historic preservation of event.Electronic Cinema Production (Star Wars)Your Solution?
59Cameras 101: Applications Application determines Camera ChoiceExample: One piece PalmcordersUsed in high risk situations (i.e. CNN Gulf War coverage, Combat Cam)Used in documentary shooting where a smaller camera is less obtrusive on subject.Used in areas that would be sensitive to full size ENG camcorder (Hey, look!! That’s a news crew!)Your Solution?
60Cameras 101: Applications Application determines Camera ChoiceExample: Long distance camera signal transmission with sophisticated camera control, communication, etc.Sports remote shooting in a stadiumTriaxial, fiber or wireless connection?Your Solution?
61Cameras 101: Applications Application determines Camera ChoiceExample: Robotic ControlDetermined by camera placement: I need to have a shot from the gridTower camYour Solution?
62Cameras 101: Applications Application determines Camera ChoiceExample: Image CaptureManufacturing process requires monitoring and inspection, but only provides space for small sized camera.Your Solution?
63Cameras 101: Packages Cameras come in Packages Include Camera and different accessoriesStudio PackagesENG Packages (camcorders)Other types of packages
64Cameras 101: Packages Studio Triax Camera Package Example DXCD50WSHPAC1.This triax studio system 1 package includes: the new DXC-D50WSH 3CCD portable camera widescreen, CA-TX50 triax camera adaptor, CCU-TX50 triax CCU with SDI & camera controls, RCP-D50 camera remote control (joystick-type), DXF-51 viewfinder, & VCT-U14 tripod attachment.
65Cameras 101: Packages Studio Multicore Camera Package Example DXCD50WSHPAC5Mulitcore system. This package includes: the new DXC-D50WSH 3CCD portable camera widescreen, CA-D50 camera adaptor, CCU-D50 camera control unit, RCP-D50 camera remote control panel (joystick-type), DXF-51 viewfinder, & VCT-U14 tripod attachment.
66Cameras 101: Models Camera L model Example DXCD50L The DXC-D50/D50WS is the next-generation in the DXC-series of cameras, designed for even greater picture quality and operational convenience. These cameras are offered in two different versions: the DXC-D50H and L are 4:3 models and DXC-D50WS 16:9/4:3-switchable model. Both feature the new high-performance Power HAD EX CCD sensor and precise 12-bit A/D conversion built into a highly sophisticated LSI. The result is superior picture quality, high sensitivity, plus low noise and smear characteristics over previous models. A variety of automatic functions have also been included, allowing easy and convenient operation in any shooting scenario. Another important aspect of Sony DXC-D50/D50WS cameras is their excellent system versatility. Two types of camera-control units are available; the CCU-D50, for multi-core CCU operation, and the CCU-TX50, for Triax CCU operation. The new RCP-D50/D51 Remote Controllers can also be used with either system. With a host of sophisticated features, the DXC-D50/D50WS provides an ideal solution for small studio operations at an affordable price.
67Cameras 101: Models Camera H model Example DXCD50WSH The new DXC-D50WSH is the simplified version of DXC-D50WSL not including the ENG viewfinder tripod plate and microphone common to the "L" series. The DXC-D50 cameras are offered in two main different versions: the DXC-D50H/DXC-D50L at 4:3 aspect ratio models and DXC-D50WSH/DXC-D50WSL 16:9/4:3 switchable aspect ratio models. All feature the high-performance Power HAD EX CCD's and precise 12-bit A/D conversion built into a highly sophisticated LSI. The result is superior picture quality, high sensitivity, plus extremely low noise and smear characteristics. A variety of automatic functions have also been included, allowing easy and convenient operation in any shooting scenario.
68Cameras 101: Packages ENG Camera Package Example DSR400KIntroducing our new generation DSR-400 camcorder featuring 3-2/3" Power HAD EX CCD's. The DSR-400K model includes a 17X 2/3" CCD lens. Some of the features of the DSR-400 camcorder are new style and rugged alloy body construction, interchangeable 2/3" zoom-lenses, Power HAD EX CCD's, Full Digital Signal Processing, high resolution 1.5" B&W viewfinder (DXF-801) and LCD panel, Memory Stick Scene file storage and software upgrade, compact & lightweight, adjustable shoulder pad, video light connector, electronic color temperature adjustment, jog dial menu control, DV and DVCAM recording, and professional audio features. RCP-D50/RCP-D51 cannot be used (not compatible) with DSR-400 camcorders.
69Cameras 101: Packages Palmcorder Camera Package Example DSRPD170PAC This package includes the new DSR-PD170 3CCD DVCAM compact camcorder and LC-PD150BP soft carrying case.Nowhere does it say that this camera comes with a battery, A/C adaptor/charger, wide angle lens, lens hood, remote control, AA batteries for the remote, etc.You just have to know that.
70Cameras 101: Packages HD Palmcorder Camera Package Example HVRZ1U New 3CCD 1080i HDV camcorder is here! The new HVR-Z1U features three newly developed Super HAD 1/3" CCDs. These new 16:9 native CCDs, combined with a high quality 12X Optical Zoom Carl Zeiss Vario-Sonnar T* Lens and Sony's new 14 bit A/D and DXP Digital Extended Processor, result in precise image acquisition with superb detail and clarity. The advanced CCD design allows more light to reach the pixel imager, reducing video noise and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The new HVR-Z1U records this exceptional imagery using the recently adopted HDV 1080i format onto a DVCAM mini cassette.Nowhere does it say that this camera comes with a battery, A/C adaptor/charger, remote control, AA batteries for the remote, etc.You just have to know all that too.
71Cameras 101: Build your own camera package Where would you start?What is the application?Is there a budget?SD or HDIs Aspect Ratio an IssueWhat is the Camera type needed?Studio, EFP, ENG, Image Capture?What is their shooting environment?If it’s a camcorder, what recording format?What accessories will they need?Lens application, CCU’s, CA’s, viewfinders, cables, batteries, chargers, cases, etc.
72Cameras 101: Hands on Cameras Let’s get started!