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From Sgt. C.J. Soltesz (‘Cobra’)

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1 From Sgt. C.J. Soltesz (‘Cobra’)
Welcome to Boot Camp From Sgt. C.J. Soltesz (‘Cobra’)

2 Cameras 101 Chris Soltesz SSE-DS BPSD Sony Electronics, Inc.
(817) (214)

3 Cameras 101: Introduction
“It has been my experience that the dissemination of a little knowledge will achieve one of two possible outcomes. It will either prompt the person learning to go out and gather even more information on the subject, further expanding their knowledge base, or give them a sense of false security and make them a very dangerous source of misinformation.”

4 Cameras 101: Agenda Introduction Camera Technology Types of Cameras
Camera Design Lenses Accessories Applications Packages

5 Cameras 101: Introduction
A Video Camera is responsible for: Capturing a moving image by accurately reproducing the scene. It’s like a microphone for your eyes

6 Cameras 101: Camera Parts Camera Lens Camera
Focuses light onto imager in the Camera Camera Light hits prism or filter inside camera Split by prism or filter and then directed at imager Imager Translates light information into electrical signal Signal can then be transmitted or recorded

7 Cameras 101: Camera Design Parameters
Single or Multi-Imager Tube Cameras CCD CMOS Imager Size Processing Analog Digital (DSP) Type Studio EFP ENG Image Capture Definition/Aspect Ratio Standard Def. High Def. Multi Def. Form One Piece Fixed Lens Dockable Convertible Etc. Standard NTSC PAL Multi-Std.

8 Cameras 101: Imagers Single or Multi-imager cameras
Cameras can generally come in two flavors. One uses a single pickup device and a optical filter to divide the light into red, green and blue to capture the different electrical signals from the three color channels. This type is known as a single CCD (or one chip) camera. The second uses three separate imagers and a prism to separate the light and capture the corresponding channel. This type is now known as a 3CCD (or three chip) camera. Today’s highest resolution cameras are all 3CCD cameras.

9 Cameras 101: Imagers Imager Size 2/3” 1/2” 1/3” 1/4” 1/4.7”
The more light that can be directed on the imager, the better the performance of the camera. A larger imager performs better in low light situations. Early tube imagers were 1”, 2/3”or 1/3”. Today’s 3CCD cameras come in the following sizes: 2/3” 1/2” 1/3” 1/4” 1/4.7”

10 Cameras 101: Imagers Tube cameras
Early cameras used vacuum tube imagers that translated the optical image focused on the phosphor photosensitive surface of the tube into an electrical signal. Image Orthicons, Saticons, Vidicons, Plumbicons, Newvicons and Trinicons are all different types of cathode ray tube imagers that were used.

11 Cameras 101: Imagers RCA 5820 Image Orthicon Camera Tube

12 Cameras 101: Imagers CCD cameras
Starting in the late 1980’s, charge coupled devices (or CCD’s) replaced vacuum tubes. CCD’s have been continually improved over the last fifteen years, with the greatest gains being made in sensitivity, noise reduction and resolution . The latest imager technology being developed is CMOS, which has the potential to be more cost effective than CCD’s.

13 Sony CCD Trend of Improvement
for Performance 1985 HAD Sensor 1990 On-Chip- Micro lens 1998 Power HAD CCD 1999 New Construction CCD 2001 Power HAD EX CCD ・Internal Lens  →High Sensitivity ・Thinner Insulation Film  →Low Smear ・Low Dark Current ・E-Shutter ・On-Chip-Lens Technology →High Sensitivity Low Smear ・Re-construction (Gapless) →High Sensitivity ・Further Improvement →High Sensitivity Low Smear Sensor ■HAD Sensor ■Hyper HAD ■Power HAD CCD ■Power HAD EX On-Chip-Micro lens On-Chip-Micro lens On-Chip-Micro lens I’nal Lens Smear Photo-Shielding film Photo-Shielding film Smear Photo-Shielding film Photo-Shielding film Poly Si Poly Si Poly Si Poly Si Sensor V-register Sensor V-register Sensor V-register Sensor V-register Improved reflection, resulting in less Smear Thinner Insulation Film

14 Improvement of Performance by New Construction CCCD
Poly Si V-register On-Chip-Micro lens Sensor Fig.-1 Power HAD CCD Sensor Construction Improvement of Smear by thinner insulation membrane Power HAD CCD camera : -125dB (Typical)     Power HAD EX CCD camera  : -140dB (Typical) Fig.-2 New CCD Sensor Construction Internal Lens Thinner Insulation Film Photo-Shielding film

15 CCD Improvement (Smear Level)
BVP-950FIT BVP-900FIT DVW-790WS BVP-90 BVP375 BVW-D600 DVW-700 BVP-550FIT BVP-500FIT DNW-90/WS -150 BVP-70IS BVP-370A BVW-400A MSW-900 BVP-E10 Virtually No Smear HDW-750 HDC-900 -140 FIT BVP-70 BVP-370 BVW-400 -130 HDC700 HDW700 BVP-900IT BVP-950IT DXC-D35 DVW-707 DVW-709WS -120 BVP-50 DNW-7 DNW-9WS DXC-D30 -110 BVP-550IT BVP-500IT Smear Level (dB) -100 BVP-7A DXC-537 BVW-300A IT -90 BVP-7 DXC-M7 BVW-300 BVP-5 DXC-3000 -80 ’87 ‘88 ’89 ‘90 ’91 ‘92 ’93 ‘94 ’95 ‘96 ’97 ‘98 ’99 ’00 ’01 ‘02

16 New Progressive Scan Mode
Memory Even Odd Conventional Power HAD EX Normal Scan Progressive 1/60or1/50 1/30or1/25

17 Cameras 101: Imagers CMOS cameras
CMOS Imaging Technology for motion video has been in development for the last five years. CMOS technology differs from CCD technology in many important areas . CMOS is less expensive to manufacture, uses less power and provides the ability to process pixel by pixel. With the introduction of the Sony HVR-A1U and HVR-V1U, CMOS cameras have arrived at the entry level of professional cameras.

18 Camera Features: Imager
3 ClearVid CMOS Sensor System Sony Original Pixel Interpolation Technology Higher Sensitivity Full HD Resolution

19 3 ClearVid CMOS Sensor System
H:960 V:1080 G/R/B Channels with Sony Original Pixel Layout

20 Mechanism of the Interpolation Technology

21 Mechanism of the Interpolation Technology

22 Mechanism of the Interpolation Technology

23 Pixel Count H:960 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 V:1080 5 6 7 8

24 Pixel Count after Interpolation
H: 960 H: 1920 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 :Interpolated Pixels 1 2 3 4 1 2 Interpolation 3 4 5 6 7 8 V: 1080 V: 1080

25 Pixel Count after Interpolation
H:1920 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 :Interpolated Pixels V:1080

26 Before Interpolation H:960 V:1080

27 After Interpolation H:1920 V:1080

28 Camera Process Diagram
Camera Process of the HVR-V1 is 1080/60p 4:2:2 Signal Processing

29 Progressive Scan is available
New!! B&I Exclusive Progressive Scan Progressive Scan is available 60Hz Camcorder 30p p/i conv. 60i Shooting Recording 24p 2-3 pull-down 60i Shooting Recording 50Hz Camcorder 25p p/i conv. 50i Shooting Recording

30 HVR-V1U 2:3 Pulldown Same method as Varicam, DVX100, and traditional Telecine Frame is captured PROGRESSIVELY every 1/24 second Frame is divided into 2 separate fields Each field is laid down to tape in a “2:3” cadence, resulting in 60 fields per second 24 Progressive Frames 60 Fields (30 Frames)

31 NLE and 2:3 Pulldown The NLE “sees” the 2:3 Pulldown
“Tags” and removes the 2:3 pulldown Enables editing on a timeline Perfect for 24 fps DVD authoring Essential for Film Out Great for maintaining “cinema look” throughout post 2:3 can be added back in for tape output, if desired

32 Cameras 101: Processing Analog Processing
The earliest camera designs utilized tube amplifiers. Huge multi-conductor cables connected the imagers to the electronics (they were huge). With the development of the transistor, cameras were able to offer better signal processing in a much smaller form. New developments in IC amplifiers helped, but adding analog amplifiers added noise. Improving camera design by adding advanced signal processing depended upon determining if the benefit would outweigh the noise induced by the processing circuit.

33 Cameras 101: Processing Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
Today’s Digital cameras maintain higher image quality by processing the signals digitally. First, the component signals are converted from analog to digital through high quality A-D converters. These converted signals are then processed in the digital domain using advanced >30bit processors. Almost every camera manufactured today uses DSP.

34 Cameras 101: Processing DSP (cont.)
The use of Digital Signal Processing allows complex signal manipulation that would not be possible in an analog design. Innovative picture quality improvements showing the benefits of DSP can be seen in features like: Fully adjustable Gamma, 6 vector Matrix, Detail, Knee, Clip, Stretch, Skin Tone Detail, Advanced Pixel Restoration (APR), Fine dark detail and contrast, Total Level Control System, Advanced Diagnostics True-Eye and DynaLatitude.

35 12bit A/D Finer resolution 10 bit 12 bit
-12 bit A/D conversion and signal processing - Better YC and S/N ratio Finer resolution 10 bit 12 bit Better resolution High light part is cut.

36 VCX-377 DSP Bit Length Stream for Y Signal
MSB Most Significant Bit 3 2 2 A/D C. 10 bit 1 1 1 8 1 4 D/A C. 10 bit D1 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 bit 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 LSB Least Significant Bit A/D C. ~ PP PR in Up Converter Output Linear Matrix Ped.Mix Before Gamma DTL Mix Gamma In Gamma Out After Gamma Knee Knee APT Mix RGB Clip Out YC Mix In YC MTX Y Out Y. Knee Y Clip Out RC In RC Out to VTR 10 bits from MSB will be converted to analog as camera output

37 Cameras 101: Camera Types Studio and EFP Cameras
Studio Cameras are meant to be kept in the studio. This traditionally would be a large, high performance broadcast camera with a lens specifically designed for close up work. EFP stands for Electronic Field Production. This camera would have the same performance characteristics as the previous type, but may be of a more portable Camcorder design.

38 Cameras 101: Camera Types ENG Cameras
ENG stands for Electronic News Gathering. This type of camera was developed for the rough and tumble Broadcast News industry. Usually a robust Camcorder design, and is meant to operate under all types of weather and lighting conditions. Some Sony ENG camcorders can be configured for studio use (DSR-390, DSR570WS).

39 Cameras 101: Camera Types Image Capture
Image Capture cameras do just that and only that. This type of camera has many uses: Security, Image Magnification, Copy Stand, Industrial, Medical, Remote Control, and Videoconferencing use to name just a few.

40 Cameras 101: Design Definition and Aspect Ratio Standard Definition
720 X 486 (640 X 480) 4:3 Aspect Ratio High Definition 1920 X 1080 or 1280 X 720 16:9 Aspect Ratio (widescreen) Multi-Definition Both SD and HD Imager that can provide both Many of today’s SD Cameras are widescreen This preserves 16:9 Aspect Ratio for Up-conversion to HD

41 Cameras 101: Design Form Convertible Etc. One Piece
Camera is a one piece unit Fixed Lens Lens is not removable Dockable Camera head can docked to different backs for different uses Convertible Can be set up for Studio (Box) or ENG Style Style Lenses. Studio design called a Sled. Etc. Up to each manufacturer.

42 Cameras 101: Design Standard NTSC
US (and others) Broadcast Video Standard PAL European Broadcast Video Standard Multi-Standard Both

43 Cameras 101: Lenses Lens choices
Critical to overall Camera performance All Light going to camera must pass through lens Frequencies of light determined by MTF of Lens Broadcast and HD Grade Lenses Must Match Imager size 2/3” Imager requires 2/3”Lens ½” Lens Mount design Choices Hot Shoe Double Hot Shoe Aspect Ratio also affects Lens Choice 20% difference in lens telephoto

44 Cameras 101: Lenses Lenses (Cont.) Lens Manufacturers Lens Length/Type
Canon and Fujinon most popular Lens Length/Type Determined by studio size, camera placement and/or shots required for production Most ENG lenses today have zoom capabilities that are at least 18X Wide angle Lenses are also used where space is critical Rear Lens Control Kits Accessories for Studio and EFP (OB) Style Shooting Rear Lens controls are not interchangeable between manufacturers

45 Cameras 101: Lenses All Sony ½” and 2/3” cameras have removable lenses
Sony uses standard Bayonet Mount Lens Models are named by size: 2/3” Canon “YJ”, “J” (Broadcast), “HJ” (High Def) 2/3” Fujinon “A”, “HA” (High Def) ½” Canon “YH”, Fujinon “S” or VCL’s Smaller lenses (1/3” and C-Mount) are also VCL’s (can be confusing)

46 Cameras 101: Accessories Accessories Camera Adaptor (CA)
Provides for analog or digital signal transmission and control interface to CCU. Can be sent over Multicore, Triaxial, Fiber or Wireless. Can also provide audio, prompter, return video and intercom. Camera Control Unit (CCU) Provides power to camera and accessories as well as providing remote control of image for adjustment during production. Also provides connection point for signal output. Generally a Studio or OB application.

47 Cameras 101: Accessories More Accessories Remote Control Panel
Provides for remote connection to CCU for shading and control of camera. Can also connect directly to camera for CCU type performance without need for CCU. Used in EFP. Viewfinder The viewfinder is a video monitor that allows the camera operator to see what they are shooting. Can be ENG (smaller for shoulder mounted shooting ) or Studio (larger for standing behind the camera).

48 Cameras 101: Accessories Even More Accessories
CCU Interconnection cables Not included. Multicore designated CCZAD. Triax designated CCTA (1/2”) or CCTB (3/8”) Sold in specific lengths (CCZAD50 with length in meters. VTR Back Video tape recorder that mounts to the back of a Dockable Camera Head. Creates camcorder like design. Latest designs are Disc based.

49 Cameras 101: Accessories Still Even More Accessories
Tripod Mounting Plate Provides quick release mounting point for Tripod. Tripod or Pedestal Stable platform to shoot from. Fluid Head provides smooth pan and tilt. Intercom Headset PH8S Headset for CCU-D50, CA-D50.

50 Cameras 101: Accessories Could there possibly be any more?? Batteries
Different batteries for different models Battery Chargers Need the correct charger to match the battery AC Adaptors For use when you have AC power available. Camera Cases Hard or soft cases for shipping cameras and accessories. Wireless Mics Do I really need to finish this?

51 Cameras 101: Applications
Camcorders provide recording capabilities directly onto tape or Disc Sony Professional/Broadcast Camcorder formats: DV DVCAM Beta SX MPEG IMX XDCAM Digi-Beta HDV XDCAM HD HDCAM

52 Cameras 101: Applications
Camcorders features and capabilities. Very different products for different markets. Professional Wedding/ Event Videographer Independent Film Making Broadcast News Gathering Wildlife Videography Electronic Cimematography All of these present different imaging demands and require a different performance level from the camera.

53 Cameras 101: Applications
Camcorder Pricing Sony Camcorders: DSR-PD170 $3,940.00 HVR-V1U $4,890.00 HVR-Z1U $5,946.00 DSR-400L $10,800.00 DSR-450WSL $15,000.00 PDW-F350 $25,800.00 PDW-530 $34,000.00 MSW-970 $37,000.00 DVW-970 $49,700.00 HDW-750/1 $71,100.00 HDW-F900R $79,900.00

54 Cameras 101: Applications
What about Image Capture cameras? Known as Box or POV Cameras DXC-990 ½” 3CCD DXC-390 1/3” 3CCD Can be fixed or mounted on PTZ head Other manufacturer (AMX, Crestron) Needs power supply CMA-D2 or CMA-D3 Requires specialized interconnection cables (CCDC/CCMC) Remote Control for CCU type control RMC-950 Additional Specialized Lenses and Mounts for a variety of different applications (microscopy, etc)

55 Cameras 101: Applications
HD Image Capture POV Camera HDC-X300 ½” High Definition Box Camera Provides HDSDI or HD Component Out HDC-X300K package with Canon VCL719BXS Lens Remote Controls for CCU type control RCP-700 RCP-750 RMB-150//A No external CCU

56 Cameras 101: Applications
Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras Include Camera and PTZ Mechanism EVI D Series 1CCD PTZ Camera BRC Series 3CCD PTZ Camera Accessories EVI- remote controls and dome housings BRC- we will cover later Uses for these products can range from Videoconferencing to Security. These cameras are used in Religious, Education, Corporate and Government applications.

57 Cameras 101: Applications
Internet Protocol (IP) Cameras Network Connected Cameras SNCRZ50N IP PTZ Camera SNCRZ25N IP PTZ Camera SNCRX550N/B 360 IP PTZ Camera Accessories Dome Housings, mounting options

58 Cameras 101: Applications
Application determines Camera Choice Example: High Definition Shooting Need highest resolution possible for historic preservation of event. Electronic Cinema Production (Star Wars) Your Solution?

59 Cameras 101: Applications
Application determines Camera Choice Example: One piece Palmcorders Used in high risk situations (i.e. CNN Gulf War coverage, Combat Cam) Used in documentary shooting where a smaller camera is less obtrusive on subject. Used in areas that would be sensitive to full size ENG camcorder (Hey, look!! That’s a news crew!) Your Solution?

60 Cameras 101: Applications
Application determines Camera Choice Example: Long distance camera signal transmission with sophisticated camera control, communication, etc. Sports remote shooting in a stadium Triaxial, fiber or wireless connection? Your Solution?

61 Cameras 101: Applications
Application determines Camera Choice Example: Robotic Control Determined by camera placement: I need to have a shot from the grid Tower cam Your Solution?

62 Cameras 101: Applications
Application determines Camera Choice Example: Image Capture Manufacturing process requires monitoring and inspection, but only provides space for small sized camera. Your Solution?

63 Cameras 101: Packages Cameras come in Packages
Include Camera and different accessories Studio Packages ENG Packages (camcorders) Other types of packages

64 Cameras 101: Packages Studio Triax Camera Package Example
DXCD50WSHPAC1. This triax studio system 1 package includes: the new DXC-D50WSH 3CCD portable camera widescreen, CA-TX50 triax camera adaptor, CCU-TX50 triax CCU with SDI & camera controls, RCP-D50 camera remote control (joystick-type), DXF-51 viewfinder, & VCT-U14 tripod attachment.

65 Cameras 101: Packages Studio Multicore Camera Package Example
DXCD50WSHPAC5 Mulitcore system. This package includes: the new DXC-D50WSH 3CCD portable camera widescreen, CA-D50 camera adaptor, CCU-D50 camera control unit, RCP-D50 camera remote control panel (joystick-type), DXF-51 viewfinder, & VCT-U14 tripod attachment.

66 Cameras 101: Models Camera L model Example DXCD50L
The DXC-D50/D50WS is the next-generation in the DXC-series of cameras, designed for even greater picture quality and operational convenience. These cameras are offered in two different versions: the DXC-D50H and L are 4:3 models and DXC-D50WS 16:9/4:3-switchable model. Both feature the new high-performance Power HAD EX CCD sensor and precise 12-bit A/D conversion built into a highly sophisticated LSI. The result is superior picture quality, high sensitivity, plus low noise and smear characteristics over previous models. A variety of automatic functions have also been included, allowing easy and convenient operation in any shooting scenario. Another important aspect of Sony DXC-D50/D50WS cameras is their excellent system versatility. Two types of camera-control units are available; the CCU-D50, for multi-core CCU operation, and the CCU-TX50, for Triax CCU operation. The new RCP-D50/D51 Remote Controllers can also be used with either system. With a host of sophisticated features, the DXC-D50/D50WS provides an ideal solution for small studio operations at an affordable price.

67 Cameras 101: Models Camera H model Example DXCD50WSH
The new DXC-D50WSH is the simplified version of DXC-D50WSL not including the ENG viewfinder tripod plate and microphone common to the "L" series. The DXC-D50 cameras are offered in two main different versions: the DXC-D50H/DXC-D50L at 4:3 aspect ratio models and DXC-D50WSH/DXC-D50WSL 16:9/4:3 switchable aspect ratio models. All feature the high-performance Power HAD EX CCD's and precise 12-bit A/D conversion built into a highly sophisticated LSI. The result is superior picture quality, high sensitivity, plus extremely low noise and smear characteristics. A variety of automatic functions have also been included, allowing easy and convenient operation in any shooting scenario.

68 Cameras 101: Packages ENG Camera Package Example
DSR400K Introducing our new generation DSR-400 camcorder featuring 3-2/3" Power HAD EX CCD's. The DSR-400K model includes a 17X 2/3" CCD lens. Some of the features of the DSR-400 camcorder are new style and rugged alloy body construction, interchangeable 2/3" zoom-lenses, Power HAD EX CCD's, Full Digital Signal Processing, high resolution 1.5" B&W viewfinder (DXF-801) and LCD panel, Memory Stick Scene file storage and software upgrade, compact & lightweight, adjustable shoulder pad, video light connector, electronic color temperature adjustment, jog dial menu control, DV and DVCAM recording, and professional audio features. RCP-D50/RCP-D51 cannot be used (not compatible) with DSR-400 camcorders.

69 Cameras 101: Packages Palmcorder Camera Package Example DSRPD170PAC
This package includes the new DSR-PD170 3CCD DVCAM compact camcorder and LC-PD150BP soft carrying case. Nowhere does it say that this camera comes with a battery, A/C adaptor/charger, wide angle lens, lens hood, remote control, AA batteries for the remote, etc. You just have to know that.

70 Cameras 101: Packages HD Palmcorder Camera Package Example HVRZ1U
New 3CCD 1080i HDV camcorder is here! The new HVR-Z1U features three newly developed Super HAD 1/3" CCDs. These new 16:9 native CCDs, combined with a high quality 12X Optical Zoom Carl Zeiss Vario-Sonnar T* Lens and Sony's new 14 bit A/D and DXP Digital Extended Processor, result in precise image acquisition with superb detail and clarity. The advanced CCD design allows more light to reach the pixel imager, reducing video noise and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The new HVR-Z1U records this exceptional imagery using the recently adopted HDV 1080i format onto a DVCAM mini cassette. Nowhere does it say that this camera comes with a battery, A/C adaptor/charger, remote control, AA batteries for the remote, etc. You just have to know all that too.

71 Cameras 101: Build your own camera package
Where would you start? What is the application? Is there a budget? SD or HD Is Aspect Ratio an Issue What is the Camera type needed? Studio, EFP, ENG, Image Capture? What is their shooting environment? If it’s a camcorder, what recording format? What accessories will they need? Lens application, CCU’s, CA’s, viewfinders, cables, batteries, chargers, cases, etc.

72 Cameras 101: Hands on Cameras
Let’s get started!

73 Questions?

74 Thanks!!

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