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Psychology is the scientific study of

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1 Psychology is the scientific study of
A) Behavior B) the Psyche C) Sex & Aggression D) Mental Processes

2 Which of the following are the goals of Psychology?
Describe, manipulate, control, and examine behavior Describe, explain, predict, and change behavior Predict, control, examine and change behavior Manipulate, control, explain, and change behavior B) describe, explain, predict, and change behavior

3 Applied research is conducted to study
How people apply knowledge in an educational setting Theoretical questions that may or may not have real-world applications The goals of psychology A specific real-world problem D) A specific real-world problem

4 A procedure to ensure that each individual has the same probability as any other of being in a given group is called _____. Random selection Random assignment Representative selection Representative assignment B. Random assignment

5 Only the experiment allows one to investigate __________.
Relationships Correlations Causation The goals of psychology C) Causation

6 The tendency of experimenters to influence the results of their experiment in an expected direction is called ____. Experimenter bias Control bias Observational bias Experimental bias A) Experimenter bias

7 The experimental group in an experiment is the group in which the participants _____.
Do not receive the independent variable Receive the dependent variable Do not receive the DV Receive the IV D. Receive the IV

8 The first step in the scientific method is _____.
Forming a testable hypothesis Developing a theory Reviewing the literature of existing theories Designing a study C. Reviewing the literature of existing theories

9 The total of all possible cases from which a sample is selected is called the __________.
A) subject pool B) population C) selection group D) control group

10 Freud’s research is not well supported, mostly because he used _______ as a method of study.
A) naturalistic observation B) case study C) correlation D) surveys and questionnaires B) Case Study

11 The ______ variable is the variable that is measured.
A) Independent B) Intervening C) Controlled D) Dependent

12 A hypothesis is derived from a ______.
A) idea B) research paper C) brainstorming D) theory

13 The three major parts of a neuron are the _______.
glia, dendrites, and myelin Myelin, dendrites, and axon Dendrites, axon and soma Axon, glia and myelin C) dendrites, axon and soma

14 D) Potassium and sodium
The major ions involved in the resting and action potential are ________. Sodium and hydrogen Hydrogen and potassium DNA and RNA Potassium and sodium D) Potassium and sodium

15 C) Increasing the speed of the action potential
Myelin, the fatty insulation surrounding the axon, is required for ___________. Complex cognitive tasks Complex motor tasks Increasing the speed of the action potential All of these options C) Increasing the speed of the action potential

16 The parasympathetic and sympathetic are the major divisions of the __________ nervous system.
Autonomic Somatic Central Automatic A) Autonomic

17 The major divisions of the CNS are __________.
A) sympathetic and parasympathetic B) somatic and autonomic C) gray matter and white matter D) brain and spinal cord

18 The frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes make up the ________.
A) brain B) cerebral cortex C) subcortex D) brain stem B) Cerebral cortex

19 This structure at the top of the brain stem is involved in respirations, movement, waking, sleep, and dreaming. Medulla Pons Cerebellum Reticular formation B. Pons

20 The __________ system prepares your body to respond to stress.
A) central nervous B) fight or flight C) peripheral D) somatic

21 The _____ serves as the major sensory relay area for the brain.
Hypothalamus Thalamus Cortex Hindbrain B. Thalamus

22 The corpus callosum __________.
A) maintains your balance B) keeps you breathing C) connects your right and left hemispheres D) is the center of your personality

23 The limbic system is involved with your __________.
A) ability to move and maintain posture B) sense of touch and pain C) basic bodily functions D) emotional behavior

24 The __________ is the brain structure most associated with the formation of new memories.
A) hypothalamus B) thalamus C) hippocampus D) pituitary gland

25 ___, ___, ___ are the three major techniques for scanning the brain.

26 Spontaneous recovery occurs when _________ suddenly reappears.
A) your lost wallet B) a previously extinguished response C) an extinct instinct D) a forgotten stimulus-response sequence

27 A relatively permanent change in behavior is __________.
Learning Conditioning Behavior modification Modeling A) Learning

28 Once classical conditioning has occurred, the CR may be elicited by stimuli that are similar to the CS. This is called _________. Generalization Discrimination Spontaneous conditioning Replication of the effect A) Generalization

29 Higher order conditioning occurs when a(n) _________.
Previously NS elicits a CR NS is paired with a CS NS is paried with and UCS UCR is paired with a CS B) NS is paired with a previous NS

30 Anything that causes an increase in a response is a(n) __________.
A) conditioned stimulus B) reinforcement C) punishment D) unconditioned stimulus

31 Anything that causes a decrease in a response is a(n) __________.
A) conditioned stimulus B) reinforcement C) punishment D) unconditioned stimulus

32 Negative reinforcement and punishment are __________.
A) the same B) the best ways to learn a new behavior C) not the same because negative reinforcement increases behavior and punishment decreases behavior D) not the same, even though they both decrease behavior C)

33 The information processing approach is used by _________.
A) humanistic psychologists B) behaviorists C) functionalists D) cognitive psychologists

34 Gamblers continue to put their money into slot machines because they pay off __________.
A) on a variable ratio B) at variable intervals C) at fixed intervals D) on a fixed ratio

35 If you reinforce your dog for sitting by giving him a treat every third time he sites, you are using a __________. A) continuous schedule of reinforcement B) random ratio reinforcement schedule C) fixed interval reinforcement schedule D) fixed ratio reinforcement schedule

36 Individuals who believe they are unable to control or escape from sources of pain may develop __________. A) Learned Helplessness B) Panic Disorder C) Depression D) OCD

37 What was Pavlov originally trying to study?
A) Eating behavior of dogs B) saliva processes C) digestive system D) meat powder

38 Food, water and sex are examples of
A) Negative reinforcers B) Secondary reinforcers C) Positive reinforcers D) Primary reinforcers

39 Spontaneous recovery occurs when _________ suddenly reappears.
A) your lost wallet B) a previously extinguished response C) an extinct instinct D) a forgotton stimulus-response sequence

40 Dolphin training is done via what principle of learning.
A) continuous reinforcement schedule B) Generalization C) Discrimination D) Shaping

41 Developmental psychologists are NOT interested in _____
a)fetal well-being b) age-related differences c) age-related similarities d) life after death

42 Age at crawling, walking, and toilet training is primarily dependent on the _____
a) education level of the parents b) specific training techniques of the child’s caretakers c) maturational readiness of the child d) genetic influences inherited from both mother and father

43 The period of life when an individual first becomes capable of reproduction is known as_____
a) the growth spurt b) adolescence c) puberty d) the latency period

44 According to the language theory of Noam Chomsky, _____.
Children are born “prewired” to learn language Language development is primarily a result of rewards and modeling of adult speed Overgeneralizations of speech result from faulty development of the LAD Language development cannot be determined a) Children are born “prewired” to learn language

45 Harlow’s research with infant monkeys and artificial surrogate mothers indicates that ______.
The most important factor in infant development is a loving environment Attachment is not essential to normal development There is no significant difference in the choice of wire or terrycloth mothers The most important variable in attachment may be contact comfort d) The most important variable in attachment may be contact comfort

46 Schemas are cognitive structures that contain organized ideas about the world and _____
Expand or differentiate with experience May assimilate new information May accommodate new information All of the above d) All of the above

47 a) Preoperational and formal operational
Egocentrism is present in which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? Preoperational and formal operational Preoperational only Sensorimotor and preoperational Sensorimotor only a) Preoperational and formal operational

48 According to Piaget, an infant acqures _____ when he or she understands that people and things continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or be touched. Conservation Reversibility Egocentrism Object permanence d) Object permanence

49 By age _____ most children are capable of communicating adequately in their native language.
2 5 7 8 b) 5

50 Chomsky’s language acquisition device (LAD) is _____.
A child’s inborn ability to learn language A device given to deaf children to help them learn language despite their hearing loss Learned in infancy when parents use “baby talk” to stimulate its development The ability of some children to acquire many languages easily a) A child’s inborn ability to learn language

51 _____ is the basic, inborn dispositional quality that appears shortly after birth and characterizes an individual’s style of approaching people and situation. Personality Trait theory Character temperament d) Temperament

52 d) Erikson’s psychosocial
The positive or negative resolution of eight developmental challenges is characteristic of _____ theory Freud’s psychosexual Freud’s psychoanalytical Maslow’s heirarchical Erikson’s psychosocial d) Erikson’s psychosocial

53 According to Erikson, the inner conflict during which an individual examines his or her life and values and makes decisions about life roles is called a (n) _____ crisis. Midlife Climacteric Integrity Indentity d) identity

54 Moral judgment is self-centered and based on obtaining rewards or avoiding punishment in this stage of moral development Preoperational Preconventional Conventional Postoperational b) preconventional

55 A temperamental style that works best in period of famine is _____.
Attached Extroverted Difficult Imprinted c) difficult

56 According to Erikson, intimacy is the result of the successful completion of this stage of development Infancy and toddlerhood Junior and senior high school Young adulthood Middle adulthood c) Young adulthood

57 The _____ theory of aging suggests that it is natural and necessary for people to withdraw from their roles in life as they age in order to prepare themselves for death. Kubler-Ross Secondary process Developmental Disengagement d) Disengagement

58 Compared to people who show a lack of obvious grieving, people who exhibit intense initial grief work through the bereavement process _____. Faster No faster Much slower Moderately slower b) No faster

59 d) numbness; resolution
The four stages of grief begin and end with _____ and _____ respectively. numbness; yearning Numbness; disorganization and despair Resolution; yearning Numbness; resolution d) numbness; resolution

60 _____ refers to the chromosomal, gonadal, hormonal, and anatomical aspects of being male or female.
Gender identity Sex Gender role Gender B. Sex

61 _____ refers to the psychological, social, and cultural meanings added to biological maleness or femaleness. Sex differences Gender Sexual role Gender role B. Gender

62 A. Biological : Psychological/sociocultrual
Sex: Gender:: _____ Biological:psychological/sociocultural Psychology: biology Sociocultural: biological Chromosomal: anatomical/biological A. Biological : Psychological/sociocultrual

63 Your psychological perception of yourself as either male or female is called you _____.
Sex perception Perceptual gender Sex role Gender identity D. Gender identity

64 C. Gay, lesbian or homosexual
If a person is erotically attracted to member of their same sex, that individual is called _____. Unisexual Gender confused Gay, lesbian or homosexual Transexual or homosexual C. Gay, lesbian or homosexual

65 Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
Transvestite: homosexual Transsexual : Bisexual Sexual orientation : gender identity All of the above are INCORRECT D. All of the above are INCORRECT

66 D. Cognitive developmental theory
The belief that children actively create internal rules about appropriate gender behavior is consistent with _____. Biopsychosocial theory The androgyny hypothesis Social learning theory Cognitive developmental theory D. Cognitive developmental theory

67 Jesus was a carpenter, a teacher, a healer. He was strong and nurturing. He was idependet, warm and caring. This blend of masculine and feminine traits makes him a prototype for the concept of Transgenderism Androgyny Heterosexuality Bisexuality B. Androgyny

68 Havelock Ellis used _____ to study human sexuality.
Prostitutes His family Himself All of the above C. Himself

69 Kinsey and his associates used the _____ method to study human sexuality.
Case study Correlational Experimental Survey D. Survey

70 Masters and Johnson researched the _____ aspects of human sexuality.
Physiological Cultural Genetic Psychological A. Physiological

71 This is NOT in Masters and Johnson sexual response cycle.
Desire phase Excitement phase Orgasm phase Resolution phase A. Desire phase

72 During the _____ phase, pleasurable sensations peak and the body discharges its accumulated sexual tension in a burst of muscular contractions. Male climacteric Female climacteric Orgasm All of the above C. Orgasm

73 The discharge of semen and seminal fluid from the penis during orgasm is called _____.
The human race The survival of the swiftest The fantastic voyage An ejaculation D. An ejaculation

74 A homosexual orientation appears to be the result of _____.
Seduction during childhood or adolescence by an older homosexual A family background that includes a dominant mother and a passive, detached father A hormonal imbalance Unknown factors D. Unknown factors

75 A. Is not a mental illness
The current position of the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association is that homosexuality _____. Is not a mental illness Can be reversed with aversion therapy Can be reversed with psychoanalytic therapy All of the above A. Is not a mental illness

76 B. Its chronic intensity disrupts your life
Anxiety is experienced by nearly everyone, and is not a mental disorders unless _____. You experience it more than once per month Its chronic intensity disrupts your life you family has a history of anxiety disorders other people begin to notice your symptoms B. Its chronic intensity disrupts your life

77 According to learning theory, anxiety disorders are most likely caused by _____.
Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Modeling and imitation All of the above D. All of the above

78 A major depressive disorder is BEST characterized by _____.
Frequent melancholia, prolonged blues, or prolonged grief A long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with functioning, pleasure, and life interests Any depression of mood that also includes suicidal thoughts Recurring or persistent episodes of depressed mood, with or without psychotic thinking and suicidality B.

79 Someone who experiences episodes of mania or cycles between mania and depression has a _____.
Disruption of circadian rhythms Bipolar disorder Manic-depressive syndrome Cyclothymia disorder B. Bipolar disorder

80 D. Learned helplessness
Seligman found that when faced with a painful situation from which there is no escape, animals and people enter a state of helplessness and resignation. He called this _____. Autonomic resignation Helpless resignation Resigned helplessness Learned helplessness D. Learned helplessness

81 C. Schizophrenia ; dissociative identity disorder
_____ refers to “split mind”, while _____ refers to “split personality” Psychosis; neurosis Insanity ; multiple personality schizophrenia ; dissociative identity disorder paranoia; ; borderline C. Schizophrenia ; dissociative identity disorder

82 Schizophrenia is associated with _____.
Withdrawal from others Withdrawal from reality Delusions and hallucinations All of the above D. All of the above

83 This is the term for sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus.
Delusion Illusion Hallucination Flight of ideas C. Hallucination

84 This is a thought disturbance characterized by mistaken beliefs that are maintained in spite of strong evidence to the contrary. Cognitive disruption False premise Delusion Illusion C. Delusion

85 This is an example of an emotional disturbance in schizophrenia.
Exaggerated laughter Rapidly fluctuating between fear and euphoria A complete lack of emotional expression All of the above D. All of the above

86 _____ symptoms of schizophrenia refer to “excess” behaviors such as hallucinations, whereas _____ symptoms refer to “deficits” such as flattened emotions or loss of activity. Alpha : beta Type a : type b Hyperactive ; hypoactive Positive ; negative D. Positive ; negative

87 A. Dissociative disorder
This disorder is triggered by stress and characterized by amnesia, fugue or multiple personalities. Dissociative disorder Displacement disorder Disoriented disorder Identity disorder A. Dissociative disorder

88 D. Someone with an antisocial personality disorder
Egocentrism, lack of a conscience, impulsive behavior, and charisma are characteristic of _____. Bart Simpson Beavis and Butthead Politicians in general Someone with an antisocial personality disorder D. Someone with an antisocial personality disorder

89 Using therapeutic techniques to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life is known as _____. Eclectic therapy psychoanalysis/psychodynamic therapy Psychotherapy Counseling C. Psychotherapy

90 Which of the following is NOT one of the five common areas of concern for all psychotheapy?
Disturbed thoughts Biomedical disturbances Disturbed emotions Disturbed sleep D. Disturbed sleep

91 B. The types of problems addressed by psychotherapy
Disturbed thoughts, disturbed emotions, disturbed behaviors, disturbed interpersonal and life situation and biomedical disturbances are characteristic of _____. Every mental disorder The types of problems addressed by psychotherapy Normal individuals All of the above B. The types of problems addressed by psychotherapy

92 This is an approach to psychotherapy in which the therapist combines techniques from various theories to find the appropriate treatment for the client. Multimodal Multidimensional Biopsychological Eclectic D. Eclectic

93 If a therapist believes that problem behaviors are caused by chemical imbalances or other disturbances in the nervous system, they are lively to use _____ to treat the problem. Biomedical therapy Drugs or electroconvulsive shock Psychosurgery Any of the above D. Any of the above

94 Mood stabilizers are most often used to treat _____.
Bipolar disorders Major depression Anxiety disorders Psychotic disorders A. Bipolar disorders

95 A biomedical treatment that is based on passing an electrical current through the brain is called _____. EMT ECT EKG EFG B. ECT

96 In psychoanalysis, free association refers to _____.
Unproductive session for which the client is not charged A thought process which has no underlying cause or motivation Reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its content Purposefully bizarre and disconnected associations C. Reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its content

97 In dream analysis, a psychoanalyst will look for the _____ meaning that underlies the _____ content.
Conscious; unconscious Latent; manifest Dramatic; mundane Countertransferential; transferential B. Latent; manifest

98 Which of the following is an example of psychoanalytic resistance?
Arriving on time for an appointment Arriving early for an appointment Arriving late or canceling an appointment Each of these options may or may not be actual resistance D. Each of these options may or may not be actual resistance

99 Interpretation in psychoanalysis _____.
Is the analyst’s explanations of a patient’s free associations, dreams, resistance, and transference Is the analyst’s presentation of the patient’s problems in a new light or manner Must occur at the right time to be effective or useful All of the above D. All of the above

100 C. Cognitive restructuring
The process by which the therapist and client work to change destructive ways of thinking is called _____. Problem-solving Self-talk Cognitive restructuring Rational recovery C. Cognitive restructuring

101 In Ellis’s RET, the letters ABC represent _____.
Actualization of self, mental and physical behavior, coping reactions Authenticity, becoming, choice Activating event, belief system, emotional consequence Analyzing, believing, creating C. Activating event, belief system, emotional consequence

102 The belief that humans have personal freedom to make choices and that they are responsible for the choices they make characterizes the _____ approach to therapy. Psychoanalytic Humanistic Learning Gestalt B. Humanistic

103 B. Adaptive behaviors; maladaptive behaviors
The main focus in behavior therapy is to increase _____ and decrease _____. Positive thoughts and feelings; negative thoughts and feelings Adaptive behaviors; maladaptive behaviors Coping resources; coping deficits All of the above B. Adaptive behaviors; maladaptive behaviors

104 An important component in systematic desensitization is _____.
Relaxation training Aversion conditioning Operant conditioning Assertiveness training A. Relaxation training

105 B. Negative associations
In aversion therapy, _____ compete (s) with pleasurable associations someone experiences when they engage in a maladaptive behavior, like drinking. Positive punishment Negative associations Parasympathetic arousal Negative punishment B. Negative associations

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