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Biology 2 Midterm Review Miller and Levine. Which scientist observed variations in the characteristics of animals and plants on the different islands.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology 2 Midterm Review Miller and Levine. Which scientist observed variations in the characteristics of animals and plants on the different islands."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology 2 Midterm Review Miller and Levine

2 Which scientist observed variations in the characteristics of animals and plants on the different islands of the Galapagos? James Hutton Charles Darwin Charles Lyell Thomas Malthus Charles Darwin

3 In addition to observing living organisms, Darwin studied the preserved remains of ancient organisms called _______. homologous structures adaptations fossils vestigial organs fossils

4 Which of the following ideas proposed by Lamarck was later found to be incorrect? acquired characteristics can be inherited all species were descended from other species living things change over time organisms are adapted to their environment

5 Differences among individuals of a species are referred to as __________. natural variation natural selection fitness adaptation natural variation

6 Which would an animal breeder use to produce cows that give more milk? overproduction genetic isolation acquired characteristics artificial selection

7 An inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce in its specific environment is called a(an) _______. vestigial organ speciation adaptation radiation adaptation

8 The concept that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time is called ____. descent with modifications artificial selection theory of acquired characteristics natural selection descent with modifications

9 Fitness is a result of ______. adaptations common descent homologies variation adaptations

10 Which of the following is an important concept in Darwin’s theory by natural selection? struggle for existence survival of the fittest descent with modification all of the above

11 A farmer’s use of the best livestock for breeding is an example of _____ natural selection artificial selection common descent fitness artificial selection

12 Please complete 11 -18 of the review.

13 The combined genetic information of all members of a particular population forms a _______ gene pool phenotype niche population gene pool

14 The success of an organism in surviving and reproducing is a measure of its _____. gene pool fitness polygenic speciation fitness

15 Traits that are controlled by more than one gene, such as human height, are known as ______ single-gene traits recessive traits polygenic traits dominant traits polygenic traits

16 The type of selection in which individuals of average size have greater fitness than small or large individuals is called ______ disruptive selection stabilizing selection directional selection genetic drift stabilizing selection

17 The type of selection in which individuals at one end of a curve have the highest fitness is called ___ stabilizing selection disruptive selection directional selection the founder effect directional selection

18 A change in allele frequency that results from the migration of a small subgroup of a population is called ___ natural selection the Hardy-Weinberg principle the founder effect genetic equilibrium the founder effect

19 A group of individuals that interbreed and have fertile offspring make up a __ gene pool species population genetic drift species

20 The evolution of Darwin’s finches is an example of _________. equilibrium stabilizing selection speciation artificial selection speciation

21 In a certain population, disruptive selection is occurring. In this population, which is most likely to survive? organisms with average traits organisms with extreme traits organisms that are small none of the above organisms with extreme traits

22 What type of selection does this graph show?

23 Woolybeasts with long snouts tend to survive better on an island that has burrowing termites. Over time, the woolybeast population consists of individuals with extremely long snouts. This is an example of: disruptive selection stabilizing selection random selection directional selection

24 Speciation occurs when ______. population becomes geographically isolated a population becomes temporally isolated a population becomes behaviorally isolated all of the above

25 When two species reproduce at different times, it is called ______ speciation geographic isolation temporal isolation genetic drift temporal isolation

26 A situation in which a population’s allele frequencies remain relatively constant is called ____ polygenic traits a gene pool fitness genetic equilibrium

27 Does this graph show artificial, disruptive, directional or stabilizing selection?

28 Which graph shows single gene trait and polygenic trait?

29 Sedimentary rocks form when layers of small particles are compressed __. in the atmosphere in mountains in a snowy field under water

30 Radioactive dating of rock samples ____ is a method of absolute dating is a method of relative dating forms a geologic column forms a geologic time scale is a method of absolute dating

31 Half life is the length of time required for half the atoms in a radioactive sample to __. double expand decay be created decay

32 Earth’s first atmosphere contained little or no ________. hydrogen cyanide nitrogen hydrogen sulfide oxygen

33 In Miller and Urey’s experiments with the origin of life, electric sparks were passed through a mixture of gases to ____ simulate temperature sterilize the gases simulate sunlight simulate lightning

34 Which type of event occurred around 65 million years ago? coevolution punctuated equilibrium mass extinction convergent evolution mass extinction

35 The process that produces a similar appearance among unrelated groups of organisms is ______ coevolution punctuated equilibrium mass extinction convergent evolution coevolution

36 The science that specializes in the classification of organisms is ___ anatomy botany taxonomy paleontology taxonomy

37 From its name, you know that Panthera tigris must be ____. a plant an animal in the genus tigris in the genus Panthera

38 In classifying organisms, orders are grouped together into __. classes phyla families genus classes

39 The largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus’s taxonomic categories is the _____. phylum kingdom order species kingdom

40 Which of the following shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms? taxon domain binomial nomenclature cladogram

41 The three domains are _____. Animalia,Plantae, Archaebacteria Plantae, Fungi, Eubacteria Archae, Bacteria, Eukarya Protista, Bacteria, Animalia Archae, Bacteria, Eukarya

42 A kingdom that includes only heterotrophs is ______ Protista Fungi Plantae Eubacteria Fungi

43 All members of the domain Bacteria __________ have eukaryotic cells are multicellular have cell walls containing lipids are prokaryotic

44 Mushrooms, yeast and molds have been placed in their own kingdom, called ____. Fungi Protista Eubacteria Plantae Fungi

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