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TEACHING VOCABULARY To English Learners For Reading And Writing Mastery Margarita Calderón, Professor Emerita, JHU Elma Noyola, Lead Trainer Margarita.

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Presentation on theme: "TEACHING VOCABULARY To English Learners For Reading And Writing Mastery Margarita Calderón, Professor Emerita, JHU Elma Noyola, Lead Trainer Margarita."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEACHING VOCABULARY To English Learners For Reading And Writing Mastery Margarita Calderón, Professor Emerita, JHU Elma Noyola, Lead Trainer Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. 1

2 Academic Language: Language Functions & Discourse
words words words words words words words words words words words words Language Functions & Discourse Writing Conventions & Skills Reading Strategies & Skills Demands for 21st Century Skills: So, essentially, from every angle: linguistic, reading, writing, we know that in order to effectively be speaking, listening with understanding, reading, writing and using multimodal technologies, we need the new literacies’ skills to locate, evaluate, analyze, synthesize, and communicate solutions to information problems. And what supports all of this? words words words. TLC DISCUSSIONS: How can we integrate language, reading, writing and content in a more efficient way? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

3 The Writing Process for ELLs
Pre-teach key vocabulary. Select key words that students will need to understand and use for writing assignments. Develop background knowledge. Students from different cultures approach writing differently and they also have different schooling experiences. Develop background knowledge or explanations of unfamiliar concepts and mechanics for writing. Describe it. Discuss and present the strategy, its purpose, benefits, and goals, and the grading rules of finished products. Consider differentiated grading scales for ELLs, depending on their level of English proficiency. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

4 The Writing Process for ELLs
Model it. Show the writing you want them to emulate. Model each phase of the strategy. Memorize it. Ensure that students memorize the language and steps of the strategy. Support it. Support or scaffold the student’s use of the strategy until he/ she can apply it with few or no supports. Model self-regulated learning and the use of mnemonic devices. Ample use of student interaction. Model and implement collaborative/cooperative writing strategies to plan, draft, revise, and edit composition. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

5 ROUNDTABLE Clear your desks. Only one paper and pencil.
Each student writes one answer and passes the paper to the right. Everyone must write an answer. Continue this process until the teacher calls time out. Count the number of correct responses by your team. Delete repeated words and report your numbers. Round Table is a consolidation activity. Here are the general directions. How would you use it in your class? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

6 the text and pass the paper.
ROUNDTABLE Write a key word from the text and pass the paper. Keep writing one word at a time until time is up. The words must be Tier 2 or 3. These are additional directions to clarify the activity. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

7 Round 2 Put your heads together and come up with a strategy to improve your team total. Apply your strategy in Round 2 of Round Table. Follow the same rules as for Round 1. What strategies do you think your students will suggest? The objective of Round 2 is to increase the number of words students generate and help students see how they might study by recalling key words related to the topic. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

8 Key: Teach vocabulary before, during and after students read
Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading comprehension. Reading comprehension correlates with procedural and content knowledge. Content knowledge correlates with academic success. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. 8

9 Key: Teach vocabulary before, during and after students read
Comprehension depends on knowing between 90% and 95% of the words in a text. Knowing words means explicit instruction not just exposure. Students need 12 production opportunities to own a word. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. 9

10 Multiple Applications of Words
Text structure Writing strategy Signal words Problem – solutions problems are identified and solutions are provided supporting details describe the problem and solution accordingly, answer, as a result, because, challenge, decide, fortunately, if ___then, issue, one reason is, outcome is, problem, so, solution, the problem is solved by, therefore, thus, unfortunately, trouble As our students attempt to communicate solutions to information problems, they will need to know and use words such as these. The internet is changing the way we interact with information, communication, and how we learn today. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

11 Identify and Classify Vocabulary:
Selecting words to teach before, during, and after reading: Select Tiers 1, 2, & 3 from students’ texts. From your explanations, for class experiments, demonstrations you will present to them. From instructional activities, for class discussions during and/or after reading. For the oral and written summaries of what they have learned. From and for assessments. Before any type of instruction or learning event, it is important to select words that need to be taught before reading, during reading, and after reading. In the next few slides, we will see examples and explanations of Tier 1, 2, and 3 words. Categorizing by Tier 1, 2, 3 helps to see if a piece of text is too difficult or too easy for our students. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

12 Tier 3 academic content specific
Square root Photosynthesis Government Rectangle Germ Bylaws Radical numbers Atom Bailout Circumference Matter Congressional Pi square Osmosis Capital Power SOCIAL STUDIES MATH SCIENCE Take a look at this chart. Can you tell me what content area each of these columns belong to? You were able to do that because Tier 3 words are subject-area specific words. They tell us immediately what discipline is being studied, as we can see under each category here. Language arts, technology, physical education, music, and other electives have their own jargon, discourse, Tier 3 words. Tier 3 words are usually in bold letters, and defined in the glossary of most textbooks Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

13 Identify & Classify Words
Type of Words Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Polysemous Phrases (bundled up words, idioms) Cognates Connectors & transition Info processing Homophones Other Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

14 Always display Tier 1, 2, 3 words during pre-teaching.
Tier 1 for ELLs Simple words for English speakers, but might create difficulty for ELLs due to: Spelling Pronunciation Background knowledge Unfamiliar word False cognate What are some Tier 1 words your students have trouble with? Always display Tier 1, 2, 3 words during pre-teaching. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. 14

15 Sample Tier 2 Words & Clusters
Phrasal clusters: stored energy, skim through, run your hand over, stimulus package, over the course of Idioms, social function words/clusters In your dreams. Break a leg. It’s over his head. You can lead a horse to water, but . . . I’m just looking. I’m good. I know what you mean [agreement]. If then . . . The problem is solved by . . . Polysemous words trunk, power, cell, left, right, light, prime, table Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

16 Sample Tier 2 Words Information-processing words
apparent, assortment, assumption, basis, crucial, display, illustrate, generate, effect, affect, allow Connectors subsequently, although, as well as, however, as a result of, in order to, in contrast, for instance Sophisticated words and words to provide specificity shuddered, scrutiny, celestial, wholesome Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

17 Sample Sentence Frames
For example, when writing a summary, sentence starters such as these can help: ● The author is writing about ● The author is comparing ... with .... ● Three facts I learned are (1) ..., (2) ..., (3) .... ● First of all, ● One important thing is ● We read about ... and discovered Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

18 Tier 2 Sub-category: Words that nest academic content
Some Examples of Transition Words & Connectors for: Cause & Effect -- because, due to, as a result, since, for this reason, therefore, in order to, so that, thus… Contrast -- or, but, although, however, in contrast, nevertheless, on the other hand, while … Addition or comparison -- and, also, as well as, in addition, likewise, moreover, by the way … Giving examples -- for example, for instance, in particular, such as … Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. 18

19 ELLs can begin by using connectors such as and, but, and because, …
then proceed to in addition, however, and due to. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

20 Getting off to a Good Start
During a student’s initial writing phases in English, it is important to: Focus on ideas the student has, rather than the ones he/she lacks. Teach the vocabulary or key words you want the student to use. Provide opportunities to interact with peers; allow joint authorships. Set high but flexible standards. Develop separate rubrics and criteria for each individual student and increase in complexity every three weeks or so. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

21 Contextualized Grammar
Through extensive conversations on students’ writing For students to play with and then use in their writing Using authentic examples from authentic texts; Teaching about how different choices of modal verbs in argument can position the writer Teaching about how expanded noun phrases can create great mind-movies Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

22 Assessing Progress Allow ELLs to work on one or two skills per week, focusing on proofreading and editing skills. A rule of thumb might be to let the student write only one paragraph and use three or four new vocabulary words. The student and teacher will increasingly target other skills to assess. Samples of work can be included in personal portfolios to track growth. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

23 Teaching vocabulary before, during, and after writing
Assessing Progress Teaching vocabulary before, during, and after writing Highlighting grammatical features to use Providing language tools for each objective Allocating ample time for peer interaction. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

24 Some Cautionary Notes Graphic organizers may not be the best way to start writing. ELLs need substantial guidance for understanding graphing ideas. When brainstorming requires rapid responses, ELLs are at a disadvantage because they need additional time to pull thoughts together into sentences. By then, the class or the group has moved on to another topic. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

25 Revising: Cut and Grow Students will need the following:
-- their compositions -- a blank piece of paper (preferably pastel-colored) -- scissors -- tape Students cut their compositions right after their unelaborated sentence and glue it onto the colored sheet of paper. The elaborated sentences are written on the colored sheet. Once written, the students tape the rest of their composition onto the colored sheet. Students reread their improved compositions. Students are usually reluctant to do multiple rewrites of their compositions. The “Cut and Grow” allows students to make revisions without having to do a complete rewrite of their paper. By using a sheet of colored paper on which to write their elaborated sentences and then taping the pieces together, students can visually see how their paper was improved. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

26 Revising: Find a simple declarative sentence in your composition, one that lacks specificity and details. Do not choose the first or last sentence in the composition or the first or last sentences in a paragraph. Underline the sentence that you select. Examples of sentences: -- The girl is pretty. -- The book was interesting. -- The man was important. Dr. JAC’s Guide to Writing with Depth, Joyce Armstrong Carroll Dr. JAC’s Guide to Writing with Depth, by Joyce Armstrong Carroll, was published in Prove Its is one of many different revision activities. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

27 Revising by Elaborating
The girl is pretty. Have students elaborate or extend the sentence: The girl’s blue eyes contrast with her dark hair and olive complexion. When she smiles, she lights up the room. Her slim, lithe figure gracefully and confidently glides as she moves through the room. The elaborated sentences can be written on a post-it note and affixed to the composition or they can do a “cut and grow” in order to add the elaborated sentences to their composition. Add adjectives, adverbs, specificity, polysemous words, sophisticated words, compound sentences, etc. Allow students to work together in groups to elaborate the sample sentences. Then, have them share their elaborations/extensions with the class. A great piece of mentor text to use to teach Prove Its is Click, Clack, Moo, Cows that Write by Doreen Cronin. The book has a page with a letter that needs elaboration. The passage is: Dear Farmer Brown, The barn is very cold at night. We’d like some electric blankets. Sincerely, The Cows Students will have fun elaborating or extending the underlined sentence. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

28 Add an Introduction or Lead and a Conclusion or Ending
Add an introduction that will hook the reader to the composition. Write a conclusion appropriate to the genre and purpose of the composition. Review the paper for errors in spelling and/or conventions. Reread the improved composition aloud to your group. Teach students the many different kinds of leads. Be sure to model for the students. Some different introductions or leads include: Dialogue Setting Action Reaction Character Description A statistic A quotation A flashback A problem A historical perspective Teach students the different ways to include or end a composition. Be sure to model for the students. Some conclusions include: A summary Call to action Surprise Clincher Question Call back Image Quotation Using mentor text is a great way to teach both leads/introductions and conclusions/endings. Have students bring in books that they are reading and categorize the different types of leads and endings. Ask students to write several different leads (or endings) for their papers. In their writing group, peers can help students decide which lead (or ending) is the most effective. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

29 Revising: Ratiocination
Students create a chart with three columns. Label the columns: Code, Clue, Decoding. The students check their papers for a particular purpose, such as overuse of the “to be” verbs. Teachers may need to do a mini-lesson before the particular skill is checked for. Teachers should start by checking for one clue per paper and add more for different writings. Students should have colored markers, pencils, or crayons available for this activity. Acts of Teaching, Joyce Armstrong Carroll Ratiocination is a strategy where students re-enter their writing in order to make their papers better. It is explicit and systematic. Through ratiocination, teachers teach and students apply specific grammar skills in context. The teacher guides students in each item and students are responsible for checking their own papers, thus reducing the paper load for the teachers. The teacher should select only one or two items to revise at a time. Students will need highlighters and /or colored pencils or pens for this activity. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

30 Make a list of every first word.
Chart for Ratiocination Code Clue Decoding Circle “to be” verbs: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been do not change change to a vivid verb indicates passive voice indicates a weak sentence do not change if the “to be” verb is in a quote or dialogue Square Make a list of every first word. first word in every sentence vary sentence beginnings Teachers need to explicitly demonstrate and model this strategy. Only do ratiocination on items that the students have practiced and learned. Teachers should create the ratiocination chart based on the kinds of errors the students are making. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

31 Always display Tier 1, 2, 3 words during pre-teaching.
Tier 1, 2 & 3 for ELLs What are the differences between Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3? Chat with your buddy or your inner self and review. Write in the question box a nice succinct definition for the 3 Tiers. What are some Tier 1 words your students have trouble with? Always display Tier 1, 2, 3 words during pre-teaching. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. 31

32 Academic Language: Selecting 6 words to pre-teach:
Which words are going to be most important for learning this content? Start with tier 3 – words that are content specific. Next, find tier 2 words that nest those concepts. Finally, select tier 1 words that students do not know and you need to teach those in order to better comprehend the tier 2 and 3 words. If none are necessary, select two tier 2 instead. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

33 Equivalent Non-Negative Rational Numbers
Math Equivalent Non-Negative Rational Numbers Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

34 Equivalent Non-Negative Rational Numbers
As a 5th graders, we worked with fractions. We learned about equivalent fractions which are two fractions that look different but have the same value. For example, 1/2 =8/16. We also studied relationships of fractions and decimals. Now as 6th graders, we will convert decimals to percents to fractions. Therefore we will match equivalent forms of non-negative rational numbers. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

35 Pre-teach vocabulary Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3
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36 Aim: SWBAT describe mercantilism.
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37 Language Objective Students will orally describe the events that helped develop mercantilism Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

38 Mercantilism During the 17th and 18th centuries, Europeans believed in an idea called mercantilism, the idea that a nation’s existence depended on power, and power depended on wealth. To gain wealth a country had to have colonies. The colonies were to provide a constant source of raw material and become markets for the manufactured goods to the country that owned them or their “Mother Country”. For example, the colonists cut down trees, these trees were sent to England where craftsmen made furniture, paper, barrels, and tools. These goods were then sent back to the colonies and sold to the colonists. The money went back to England. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

39 Pre-teach vocabulary Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Wealth power Raw materials
revenue Mercantilism Navigation Act Trade vessel Colony Colonists Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

Teacher says the word. Asks students to repeat the word 3 times. Teacher states the word in context from the text. Teacher provides the dictionary definition(s). Explains meaning with student-friendly definitions.  Engages students in activities to develop word/concept knowledge. Highlight grammar, spelling, polysemy, etc. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. 40

41 Step 6: Student Engagement
1. criteria 2. criteria, criteria, criteria 3. Use the word in context 4. Dictionary definition 5 Student friendly definition 6. 100% student engagement: give students a football picture and a basketball picture. They select which sport is more rigorous.. What criteria did they use for making their choice. My criteria for selecting _____is_______________. 7. ??? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

42 Buddy Buzz Think-Pair-Share Come up with a long sophisticated complete sentence using the word __________________ Try to put it together orally. Turn to Your Partner Collect all the Step 6 strategies you and your students invent to share in our next workshop. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

43 Before Reading Science, Math, Social Studies, and Language Arts
Hook the Reader Build Background Connect with Prior Knowledge Pre-teach Vocabulary Explicitly Preview Text with Students Set Purpose for Reading Hook: Teachers might use pictures, a quote, an analogy, a demonstration or other devise to capture the students’ interest in the topic. Build Background: The purpose of the activity is also to elicit additional information from the students or to provide an opportunity for students to draw inferences from new information presented and add this to their background knowledge. Prior Knowledge: Use pre-reading strategies that help students activate what they know in order to connect. Teachers give students the opportunity to share and make connections. Students pair up and share briefly. Then a few report to the class or have class call out their responses in popcorn fashion. The activity is brief to allow for quick connections, but not lengthy discussions. Note: “Strategies for guiding students to activate their knowledge include PReP (PReP Reading Plan; Langer, 1981), Advanced Organizers (Ausubel, 1968), Anticipation Guides (Readence, Bean, & Baldwin, 1998), Text Previews (Graves, Cook, & LaBerge, 1983).” bin/mysql/buildingreading.cgi Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

44 Standards/Objectives
State/District Science Standard/Instructional Objective Example: Interdependence of living things, climate and the environment Comprehension Objective: Identify main idea and supporting details Academic Standards Standards provide student learning expectations in the core subjects…expectations that students must also know and work towards. When students know what they are learning and how they are expected to demonstrate their knowledge, they have a better understanding of the purpose of instruction. Teachers then plan activities that will get students to the standard. These activities should be work that challenges students within their reach. The standard is set, but it is up to teachers to provide the means for students to meet the standard successfully. Since vocabulary and reading comprehension are major factors in learning; in addition to the content standards, teachers need to plan to meet the demands of vocabulary and reading skills needed. Refer to you state/district standards. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

45 Modeling Comprehension
Engagement with Text – Step 2 Modeling Comprehension Why Do Teacher Read and Think Alouds? Fluency Comprehension Strategies Self-correction Fix-it strategies Extend comprehension Teach more words M O D E L The ExC-ELL teacher-read aloud Reading aloud while also thinking aloud is a strategy for modeling the thinking processes involved in comprehending text. The teacher and the students have the same text. As the teacher reads and thinks aloud, students follow and are involved in visualizing and experiencing what is being modeled. Teachers take time to think about the strategies they use and put them into words, questions and actions they take as they read. Proficient readers take these processes for granted, but this is precisely what some students have not learned to do automatically. Once students get the idea, teachers involve students in helping them self-question, make suggestions and apply other reading strategies. The manner in which each teacher reads and the problem-solving processes each uses depends on the type of content class as well as the genre. Students learn to think aloud and make their thought process transparent. How would your students benefit from applying this strategy? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

46 What is the most powerful test?
Assessment & Writing The ultimate proof -- at the end of each week: Write one or two paragraphs summarizing what you learned about _______________ using as many tier 2 and tier 3 words as you have learned. Use appropriate connectors, transition or signal words. Use compound sentences or different types of clauses. We know if the students own the word(s) when they use them in their free-writes, in their summaries, in their discourse. How do we know if students have mastered the words by the end of the week? What is the most powerful test? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. 46

47 EXIT PASS Name _______________________ Subject _____________________
_________________________________________________________ Students benefit by writing in all content areas. They need to learn how to read and write but must also be able to apply those skills to content area material. “Writing a lab project for biology requires a different set of writing skills than writing a poem for English. Teachers must model with students such skills as how to organize thoughts, develop ideas, and revise for clarity.” --National Writing Project and Nagin, 2003 Allowing students to choose writing topics creates two immediate benefits: Choice fosters a feeling of ownership in the writer Choice drives better revision. --Teaching Adolescent Writers, Kelly Gallagher Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

48 Teaching Words After Reading or for Anchoring Knowledge
Cooperative Learning strategies -- RoundTable, Tea Party, Write-Around, 3-Step Interview, 8-Rectangles, Corners, etc. Word journals, Freyer graphs, semantic webs, etc. Games -- Jeopardy, Charades, let students invent! Charts, graphs, cognitive organizers, semantic maps, word webs! Poems, chants, songs, rhymes! Summaries, syntheses, story-related writing, reports, related research, personification plays, cartoons, comic books -- all should include as many of the key words as possible. There are many ways to anchor vocabulary mastery after students have read a text. What are some other strategies you have used? Intro to word Reading in context Depth of word Writing with word Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. 48

Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Process – 1 THINKING PROCESS VERBS FOR OBJECTIVES MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES (Knowledge-1) Shallow processing: drawing out factual answers, testing recall and recognition R E M B choose describe define identify label list locate match memorize name omit recite recognize select state Who? Where? Which one? What? How? What is the best? Why? How Much? When? What does it mean? Highlighting Rehearsal Memorizing Mnemonics Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

50 Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Process – 2
THINKING PROCESS VERBS FOR OBJECTIVES MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES (Comprehension-2) Translating, interpreting and extrapolating U N D E R S T A classify, defend demonstrate distinguish explain, express extend give example illustrate indicate interrelate interpret infer, judge match paraphrase represent restate rewrite select, show summarize tell, translate State in your own words. Which are facts? What does this mean? Is this the same as…? Give an example. Select the best definition. Condense this paragraph. What would happen if…? State in one word… Explain what is happening. What part doesn’t fit? Explain what is meant. What expectations are there? Read the graph (table). What are they saying? Key examples Emphasize connections Elaborate concepts Summarize Paraphrase STUDENTS explain STUDENTS state the rule Why does this example…? Create visual representations (concept maps, outlines, flow charts, organizers, analogies, pro/con grids) PRO/CON NOTE: The faculty member can show them, but they have to do it. Metaphors, rubrics, heuristics Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

51 Instructional Sequence - For every teacher action there is a student reaction!
Teacher Students Introduces concepts/vocab Provide examples, questions, usage 2. Thinks aloud to model comprehension strategies Apply the strategies with partners 3. Reads aloud for fluency Read along silently or whisper 4. Models how to partner read Conduct partner reading for fluency 5. Monitors & records partners Partners reread to practice strategies 6. Conducts cooperative activity Work in teams to process & summarize 7. Conducts debriefing Discuss words, concepts, summaries 8. Models writing strategies Do content-related writing using vocab 9. Assesses vocabulary & content Analyze their test results and go back to learn the missing pieces 10. Assesses a second time All students should be successful Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

52 Thank you! 202-368-4621
Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

53 THANK YOU!!! Calderón, M. E., (2007). Teaching reading to English language learners, Grades 6-12: A framework for improving achievement in the content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Calderón, M. E. (2007). RIGOR! Reading Instructional Goals for Older Readers: Reading Program for 6th – 12th Students with Interrupted Formal Education. New York: Benchmark Education Co. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

54 THANK YOU!!! Calderón M.E. & Minaya-Rowe, L. (2011). Preventing Long-Term English Language Learners: Transforming schools to meet core standards. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Calderón, M. E. (2011). Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners in K-5th. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.

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