Presentation on theme: "Cells and Their Environment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cells and Their Environment Biology Chapter 8Cells and Their Environment
2 Sodium-Potassium Pump Carrier protein that uses ATP as it moves potassium ions and sodium ions across the cell membrane.
3 CellsThe human body contains two hundred and ten different cell types, that are found only in humans. Every cell in the body has a sodium-potassium pumpAlong with that there is the fact that there are over one hundred trillion cells in the body at any given time.
4 CellsEach cell has a sodium potassium pump, this pump operates on an automatic mechanism of active movement that move the ions of potassium into the plasma membrane of a cell and the ions of sodium out of the plasma membrane of a cell.
5 Lipid BilayerDouble layer that makes up a cell membrane
6 Concentration Gradient The difference in the concentration of a substance across a region.
7 Facilitated Diffusion A form of passive transport that involves membrane proteins that aid the movement of substances.
8 Active TransportThe moving of a substance to an area of higher concentration, using energy
9 Passive TransportThe moving of a substance to an area of lower concentration without any energy use.
10 EquilibriumThe state that exists for a substance when the substance is distributed evenly across a space.
15 CellsThe cell-surface markers identifies the cell type.
16 Cell MembranesThe outer surface is polar, while the interior is nonpolar.
17 CellsBy controlling what enters and leaves a cell, the cell membrane aids in maintaining homeostasis within the cell.
18 CellsSmall nonpolar molecules can pass unaided through the cell membrane
19 DiffusionIs the movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
20 Facilitated Diffusion When particles move out of a cell through facilitated diffusion, the cell does not experience any change related to energy.
21 OsmosisThe diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
22 EndocytosisMolecules that are too large to be moved through a cell membrane can be transported into the cell by endocytosis.
23 OsmosisIf the concentration of a sugar solution is lower outside outside the cell than inside the cell, water will move into the cell
24 Sodium-Potassium Pump Is used to remove sodium from a cell and bring potassium into a cell against their concentration gradients
25 VesiclesEndocytosis always involves the movement of a vesicle.
26 Cell SurfacesWhen a molecule fits into the binding site of a receptor protein on a cell’s surfaceThe receptor can open an ion channel in the cell membraneThe receptor can act as a n enzyme, causing chemical changes in the cytoplasmThe receptor can cause the information of a second messenger
27 Receptor ProteinMembrane receptor proteins transmit information into the cell by responding to signal molecules
28 MessengersA second messenger always carries a signal within a cell