Memory Hierarchy: Some Facts CPU Registers 100s Bytes <10s ns Cache K Bytes 10-100 ns $.01-.001/bit Main Memory M Bytes 100ns-1us $.01-.001 Disk G Bytes ms 10 - 10 cents -3 -4 Capacity Access Time Cost Tape infinite sec-min 10 -6 Registers Cache Memory Disk Tape Instr. Operands Blocks Pages Files Staging Xfer Unit prog./compiler 1-8 bytes cache cntl 8-128 bytes OS 512-4K bytes user/operator Mbytes Upper Level Lower Level faster Larger
Virtual Memory: Motivation If Principle of Locality allows caches to offer (usually) speed of cache memory with size of DRAM memory, then recursively why not use at next level to give speed of DRAM memory, size of Disk memory? Treat Memory as “cache” for Disk !!!
Share memory between multiple processes but still provide protection – don’t let one program read/write memory of another Address space – give each program the illusion that it has its own private memory –Suppose code starts at addr 0x40000000. But different processes have different code, both at the same address! So each program has a different view of memory
Advantages of Virtual Memory Translation: –Program can be given consistent view of memory, even though physical memory is scrambled –Makes multithreading reasonable (now used a lot!) –Only the most important part of program (“Working Set”) must be in physical memory. –Contiguous structures (like stacks) use only as much physical memory as necessary yet still grow later. Protection: –Different threads (or processes) protected from each other. –Different pages can be given special behavior (Read Only, Invisible to user programs, etc). –Kernel data protected from User programs –Very important for protection from malicious programs => Far more “viruses” under Microsoft Windows Sharing: –Can map same physical page to multiple users (“Shared memory”)
Virtual to Physical Address Translation Each program operates in its own virtual address space; ~only program running Each is protected from the other OS can decide where each goes in memory Hardware (HW) provides virtual -> physical mapping virtual address (inst. fetch load, store) Program operates in its virtual address space HW mapping physical address (inst. fetch load, store) Physical memory (incl. caches)
Mapping Virtual Memory to Physical Memory 0 Physical Memory CodeStatic Heap Stack 64 MB Divide into equal sized chunks (about 4KB) 0 Any chunk of Virtual Memory assigned to any chuck of Physical Memory (“page”)
Paging Organization (eg: 1KB Page) Addr Trans MAP Page is unit of mapping Page also unit of transfer from disk to physical memory page 0 1K 0 1024 31744 Virtual Memory Virtual Address page 1 page 31 1K 2048 page 2... page 0 0 1024 7168 Physical Address Physical Memory 1K page 1 page 7...
Virtual Memory Mapping Virtual Address: page no.offset Page Table Base Reg Page Table located in physical memory (actually, concatenation) index into page table + Physical Memory Address Page Table Val -id Access Rights Physical Page Address. V A.R. P. P. A....
Issues in VM Design What is the size of information blocks that are transferred from secondary to main storage (M)? page size (Contrast with physical block size on disk, I.e. sector size) Which region of M is to hold the new block placement policy How do we find a page when we look for it? block identification Block of information brought into M, and M is full, then some region of M must be released to make room for the new block replacement policy What do we do on a write? write policy Missing item fetched from secondary memory only on the occurrence of a fault demand load policy pages reg cache mem disk frame
Virtual Memory Problem # 1 Map every address 1 extra memory accesses for every memory access Observation: since locality in pages of data, must be locality in virtual addresses of those pages Why not use a cache of virtual to physical address translations to make translation fast? (small is fast) For historical reasons, cache is called a Translation Lookaside Buffer, or TLB
Memory Organization with TLB TLBs usually small, typically 128 - 256 entries Like any other cache, the TLB can be fully associative, set associative, or direct mapped Processor TLB Lookup Cache Main Memory VA PA miss hit data Trans- lation hit miss
Typical TLB Format VirtualPhysicalDirtyRef Valid Access Address AddressRights TLB just a cache on the page table mappings TLB access time comparable to cache (much less than main memory access time) Ref: Used to help calculate LRU on replacement Dirty: since use write back, need to know whether or not to write page to disk when replaced
What if not in TLB Option 1: Hardware checks page table and loads new Page Table Entry into TLB Option 2: Hardware traps to OS, up to OS to decide what to do MIPS follows Option 2: Hardware knows nothing about page table format
TLB Miss If the address is not in the TLB, MIPS traps to the operating system The operating system knows which program caused the TLB fault, page fault, and knows what the virtual address desired was requested 291 valid virtual physical
TLB Miss: If data is in Memory We simply add the entry to the TLB, evicting an old entry from the TLB 7321 291 valid virtual physical
What if data is on disk ? We load the page off the disk into a free block of memory, using a DMA transfer –Meantime we switch to some other process waiting to be run When the DMA is complete, we get an interrupt and update the process's page table –So when we switch back to the task, the desired data will be in memory
What if the memory is full ? We load the page off the disk into a least recently used block of memory, using a DMA transfer –Meantime we switch to some other process waiting to be run When the DMA is complete, we get an interrupt and update the process's page table –So when we switch back to the task, the desired data will be in memory
Virtual Memory Problem # 2 Page Table too big! –4GB Virtual Memory ÷ 4 KB page ~ 1 million Page Table Entries 4 MB just for Page Table for 1 process, 25 processes 100 MB for Page Tables! Variety of solutions to tradeoff memory size of mapping function for slower when miss TLB –Make TLB large enough, highly associative so rarely miss on address translation
Summary Apply Principle of Locality Recursively Reduce Miss Penalty? add a (L2) cache Manage memory to disk? Treat as cache –Included protection as bonus, now critical –Use Page Table of mappings vs. tag/data in cache Virtual memory to Physical Memory Translation too slow? –Add a cache of Virtual to Physical Address Translations, called a TLB
Summary Virtual Memory allows protected sharing of memory between processes with less swapping to disk, less fragmentation than always swap or base/bound Spatial Locality means Working Set of Pages is all that must be in memory for process to run fairly well TLB to reduce performance cost of VM Need more compact representation to reduce memory size cost of simple 1-level page table (especially 32- 64-bit address)