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Concurrency, Race Conditions, Mutual Exclusion, Semaphores, Monitors, Deadlocks Chapters 2 and 6 Tanenbaum’s Modern OS.

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Presentation on theme: "Concurrency, Race Conditions, Mutual Exclusion, Semaphores, Monitors, Deadlocks Chapters 2 and 6 Tanenbaum’s Modern OS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Concurrency, Race Conditions, Mutual Exclusion, Semaphores, Monitors, Deadlocks Chapters 2 and 6 Tanenbaum’s Modern OS

2 CS350/BU Concurrency versus Parallelism  Concurrency  When two or more control flows (threads) of execution share one or more CPUs.  In such cases, the CPU scheduler is responsible for deciding when each thread gets to execute and on which CPU.  For example, even if there is only one CPU, but two or more threads share the CPU, then its considered concurrent execution.  Parallelism  Is a subset of concurrency.  Its when two or more threads execute at the same real time on two or more CPUs.  For example, three threads executing on three different CPUs simultaneously.  Note: We use the term “thread” above loosely to refer to either threads or processes.

3 CS350/BU Critical Sections  A section of code that modifies or accesses a shared resource which can be modified by another process concurrently.  Examples  A piece of code that reads from or writes to a shared memory region  Or a code that modifies or traverses a linked list that can be accessed concurrently by another thread.

4 CS350/BU Race Condition  Incorrect behaviour of a program due to concurrent execution of critical sections by two or more threads.  For example, if thread 1 deletes an entry in a linked list while thread 2 is accessing the same entry.

5 CS350/BU Deadlocks  Deadlock occurs when two or more processes stop making progress indefinitely because they are all waiting for some inter-dependent events to occur.  For example:  If process A waits for process B to release a resource, and  Process B is waiting for process A to release another resource at the same time.  In this case, neither A not B can proceed because both are waiting for the other to proceed.

6 Solving Race Conditions

7 CS350/BU Mutual Exclusion Region of code that two or more related processes must not execute at the same time in order to avoid race-conditions.

8 CS350/BU Mutual Exclusion Four conditions for correct mutual exclusion 1.No two processes simultaneously in critical region 2.No assumptions made about speeds or numbers of CPUs 3.No process running outside its critical region may block another process running in the critical region 4.No process must wait forever to enter its critical region  Waiting forever indicates a deadlock condition

9 CS350/BU Mutual Exclusion with Busy Waiting Process 0 Process 1

10 CS350/BU Semaphore  Semaphore is a powerful synchronization primitive that can be used for both  Inter-process synchronization and  Locking around critical regions  Semaphore is basically a special type of integer on which only two operations can be performed.  DOWN(sem)  UP(sem)

11 CS350/BU The DOWN(sem) Operation  If (sem > 0) then  This operation simply decrements the value of semaphore sem by 1 and the calling process continues executing.  This is called a “successful” down operation.  If (sem == 0) then  This operation puts the calling process to sleep.  Meaning: the calling process is placed in “blocked” state  The process continues to sleep until some other process performs an UP operation on the semaphore.  At this time the process wakes up and tries to perform DOWN again.  If it succeeds, then it wakes up (moves to “ready” state) and continues executing.  Otherwise it goes back to sleep.

12 CS350/BU The UP(sem) Operation  This operation increments the value of semaphore sem by 1.  If the original value of the semaphore was 0, then UP operation wakes up any process that was sleeping on the DOWN(sem) operation.  All woken up processes compete to perform DOWN(sem) again.  Only one of them succeeds and the rest go back to sleep till the next UP(sem) operation.

13 CS350/BU Mutex  Mutex is simply a binary semaphore  It can have a value of either 0 or 1  Mutex is normally used as a lock around critical sections  Locking a mutex – Down(mutex)  If mutex==1, decrement mutex value to 0  Else, sleep until someone performs an UP  Unlocking a semaphore – UP(mutex)  Increment mutex value to 1  Wake up all sleepers on DOWN(mutex)  Only one sleeper succeeds in acquiring the mutex. Rest go back to sleep.  For example: Down(mutex) // Acquire the lock, sleep if mutex is 0 Critical Section… Up(mutex) // release the lock, wake up sleepers

14 CS350/BU Example: Producer-Consumer Problem  Producers and consumers run in concurrent processes.  Producers produce data and consumers consume data.  Producer informs consumers when data is available  Consumer informs producers when a buffer is empty.  Two types of synchronization needed  Locking the buffer to prevent concurrent modification  Informing the other side that data/buffer is available Full Empty Producers Consumers Common Buffer

15 CS350/BU Using Semaphores for the P-C problem Note: Two types of semaphores used here. A binary semaphore to lock the queue (mutex) Regular sems to block on event (empty and full). Up: Increments the value of semaphore, wakes up sleepers to compete on sem Down: Decrements semaphore, but blocks the caller if sem value is 0

16 CS350/BU Using Semaphores – POSIX interface  sem_open() -- Connects to, and optionally creates, a named semaphore  sem_init() -- Initializes a semaphore structure (internal to the calling program, so not a named semaphore).  sem_wait(), sem_trywait() -- Blocks while the semaphore is held by other processes or returns an error if the semaphore is held by another process.  sem_post() -- Increments the count of the semaphore.  sem_close() -- Ends the connection to an open semaphore.  sem_unlink() -- Ends the connection to an open semaphore and causes the semaphore to be removed when the last process closes it.  sem_destroy() -- Initializes a semaphore structure (internal to the calling program, so not a named semaphore).  sem_getvalue() -- Copies the value of the semaphore into the specified integer.  Semaphore overview : Do “man sem_overview” on any linux machine

17 CS350/BU Another way for using Semaphores - System V interface  Creation  int semget(key_t key, int nsems, int semflg);  Sets sem values to zero.  Initialization (NOT atomic with creation!) union semun arg; arg.val = 1; if (semctl(semid, 0, SETVAL, arg) == -1) { perror("semctl"); exit(1); }  Incr/Decr/Test-and-set  int semop(int semid,struct sembuf *sops, unsigned int nsops);  Deletion  semctl(semid, 0, IPC_RMID, 0); Examples: seminit.c semdemo.c semrm.c

18 Atomic Locking – TSL Instruction

19 CS350/BU Test-and-Set Lock (TSL) Instruction  Instruction format TSL Register, Lock  Lock  Located in memory.  Has a value of 0 or 1  Register  One of CPU registers  TSL does the following two steps atomically  Copies the current value of Lock to Register  Sets the value of Lock to 1  TSL is a basic primitive using which other more complex locking mechanisms can be implemented.

20 CS350/BU Busy waiting solution implemented using the TSL instruction Entering and leaving a critical region using the TSL instruction

21 CS350/BU Implementation of Mutex Using TSL #1

22 CS350/BU Implementing a generic semaphore down: mutex_lock(&mutex)); if(sem == 0) { add_to_wake_q(&sem); mutex_unlock(&mutex); sleep_on_sem(&sem); goto down; /* try again*/ } sem--; /*down operation*/ mutex_unlock(&mutex); up: mutex_lock(&mutex); sem++; /* up operation */ wake_all_sleepers(); mutex_unlock(&mutex); Use a mutex to guard changes to the semaphore sem Note: sleep_on_sem(&sem) should check if the wake signal has been already delivered.

23 Monitors and Condition Variables

24 CS350/BU Monitors and condition variables Function1() Function2() wait(c); signal(c);  Monitor is a collection of procedures (functions).  Only one procedure can be active at a time  wait(c) : releases the lock on monitor and puts the calling process to sleep. ALSO:Automatically re- acquires the lock upon return from wait(c).  signal(c): wakes up all the nodes sleeping on c; the woken nodes then compete to obtain lock on the monitor.

25 CS350/BU P-C problem with monitors and condition variables

26 Solving Deadlocks

27 CS350/BU Deadlock when using multiple locks  Say you have two processes P1 and P2  Both need to acquire two locks L1 and L2 to access a resource.  Consider the following sequence  P1 acquires L1  P2 acquires L2  P1 tries to acquire L2 and blocks  P2 tries to acquire L1 and blocks  We have a deadlock!  Solution: Sort the locks in a fixed order (say L1 followed by L2)  Always acquire locks in the sorted order.  P1 acquires L1  P2 tries to acquire L1 and blocks  P1 acquires L2  P1 executes critical section  P1 releases L2  P1 releases L1  P2 wakes up  P2 acquires L1  P2 acquires L2  P2 executes critical section  P2 releases L2  P2 releases L1  No deadlock!  Basic principle: All processes must acquire locks in the same order.  Same principle applies to any number of locks and any number of processes.

28 CS350/BU Priority Inversion  Say there are three processes using priority based scheduling.  Ph – High priority  Pm – Medium priority  Pl – Low priority  Pl acquires a lock L  Pl starts executing critical section  Ph tries to acquire lock L and blocks  Pm becomes “ready” and preempts Pl from the CPU.  Now, a high priority process Ph is blocked waiting for a low priority process Pl, and Pl cannot proceed because a medium priority process Pm is executing.  Solution: Priority Inheritance  Temporarily increase the priority of Pl to HIGH PRIORITY so that it can exit critical section quickly and allow Ph to execute.

29 CS350/BU Dining Philosophers (1)  N Philosophers either eat or think  Eating needs 2 forks per philosopher.  But only N forks available  All philos get hungry at the same time.  Everyone picks their left fork at the simultaneously  Then everyone tries to pick their right fork, then there’s a deadlock  How to prevent deadlock?  Besides giving them more forks for better hygiene!

30 CS350/BU Dining Philosophers (2) A non-solution to the dining philosophers problem

31 CS350/BU Dining Philosophers (3) Solution to dining philosophers problem (part 1)

32 CS350/BU Dining Philosophers (4) Solution to dining philosophers problem (part 2)

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