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Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 The Evolution of Protoplanetary Disks and the Diversity of Giant Planets Diversity.

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Presentation on theme: "Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 The Evolution of Protoplanetary Disks and the Diversity of Giant Planets Diversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 The Evolution of Protoplanetary Disks and the Diversity of Giant Planets Diversity of Giant Planets The Evolution of Protoplanetary Disks and the Diversity of Giant Planets Diversity of Giant Planets Extreme Solar Systems II September 2011 Ben Bromley Physics & Astronomy, University of Utah Scott Kenyon Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Extreme Solar Systems II September 2011 Ben Bromley Physics & Astronomy, University of Utah Scott Kenyon Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

2 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 Diversity of planets the Solar System: Is it extreme?

3 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 Planet formation theory and practice n Young stars: gas/dust disk n Coagulation and dynamics; collisional accretion (many, small  few, large) n Debris disks are signposts of planet formation n Massive cores accrete gas (entrained debris helps, t Gas ~ Myr)

4 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 n Dust-to-planetesimals How do planetesimals grow from micron-sized dust? n Migration How do planetary cores survive (fast, <Myr) migration? n Gas giant formation How do gas giants grow as gas disks vanish? Evolution of the gas disk is critical! Planet formation: difficulties

5 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 Modeling disk evolution Timing is everything.  H Solid ~ √α 

6 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 Simulating planet formation C OAGULATION CODE mergers, fragmentation growing planetesimals collisional cascade FORMATION TIME: 0.1—1 Myr (cores) 1—10 Myr (J,N,SE) 10—100 Myr (Earths) N-BODY CODE scattering, collisions photoionization  -viscosity… gas accretion atmospheres (L,R) migration PLANETESIMALS: pebbles—plutos evolve gas, planetesimals, planets in concert

7 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 log time (yr) Growth of a planetary system m / M Earth semimajor axis (AU) 150 15 300 1000 10

8 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 Growth of planetary systems: Jupiters++ (> 1 M Jupiter ) cumulative fraction log semimajor axis (AU)

9 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 cumulative fraction log semimajor axis (AU) Growth of planetary systems: Saturns ( 15 M Earth — 1 M Jupiter )

10 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 cumulative fraction log semimajor axis (AU) Growth of planetary systems: Earths++ ( 1—15 M Earth )

11 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 cumulative fraction log mass (M Jupiter ) Growth of planetary systems: planetary masses

12 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 cumulative fraction Growth of planetary systems: Earths+ ( 1—15 M Earth ) Diversity of planets: disk properties (1—4) (5—10) (0—3) (no gas giants) (0—3) (2—4) Jupiters Saturns Super-Earths Earths log disk viscosity parameter (α) initial disk mass (M  )

13 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 Results Diverse systems of gas giants in alpha-disk model n Predictions: Multiplanet systems, ~M Earth —10’s of M jupiter High mass, low viscosity disks: Jupiters Low mass, high viscosity disks: Neptunes, super-Earths n Next step: Include photoionization, migration….

14 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 Simulation summary photoionization

15 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 Simulation summary migration photoionization

16 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011 Diversity of planets Planetary structure (Radius – Mass, …) Dynamics (Architecture) Goal: consistent evolution of full system

17 Physics and Astronomy University of Utah Extreme Solar Systems II Fall 2011


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