Presentation on theme: "UNIT II SITE PLANNING Syllabus: Surveys – Site analysis – Development Control – Layout regulations- Layout design concepts."— Presentation transcript:
1 UNIT II SITE PLANNINGSyllabus: Surveys – Site analysis – Development Control – Layout regulations- Layout design concepts.
2 SURVEYSCarried out by looking for facts already recorded by investigators and authorities and by original field work
3 The town planning survey tells the present state of the town and finds out the details of The people, their needs and occupations and how they follow them.The land and building and how they satisfy the needs of the people.
4 NecessityThe two mail advantages of a fully documented survey is as followsThe survey helps to find the relationship between complicated activities of a town life.It helps to give solution towards the local requirements.
5 Collection of dataThe following four surveys are carried out to collect dataFunctional surveySocial surveyTerritorial surveyVital survey
6 Functional survey The functional aspects of town life are studied. The items included are- means of communication-conditions of industryTypes of information collected in functional surveyRoadsRailways
7 3. Air ports and sea ports 4. Waterways and canals 5 3. Air ports and sea ports 4. Waterways and canals 5. Local industries 6. Mines and their location 7. Probable cost of the scheme.
8 Social survey: Town- history, architecture, health, housing Types of information collectedAncient ruins of historical buildingArchitectural characterHistory of growthPreservation of wild lifeParks and play groundsPublic services- water supply, sewerage, electricity, telephones, street lighting.
9 Territorial surveyPhysical features, agricultural soil, forests, climatic conditions are studiedGeologyContours of landRivers, oceans and lakesClimatic conditionsForest and other natural vegetation
10 Vital survey-The population aspects. History of the past growth of populationDensity of population
11 Types of survey Preliminary Survey National Survey Regional survey Civic Survey
12 I.Preliminary Survey The data collected- preliminary in nature Electric power and its distributionHighways- conditions of roadHousing – Existing housingIndustriesLand use- Density and character of townsRailwaysWater supply and Sewage
13 II.National Survey- A study of natural resources Administration- The aspects of land surveyAgriculture- Types of agricultural soil & crop PatternsCommunication facilities- Roads, Railways, WaterwaysGeography- Extent of sea coast
14 III. Regional survey IV. Civic Survey The town to be planned – should fit into the conditions prevailing in the regionIV. Civic SurveySurvey done by the conditions in and around the townCommunication amenitiesContour- helps in deciding gradients of roadsExisting land use and land value
15 4. Historical background 5. Housing – Characteristics of houses 6 4. Historical background 5. Housing – Characteristics of houses 6. Industries 7. Population 8. Preservation of natural features 9. Public buildings 10. Public health 11. Public services 12.Topography.
16 Site Analysis What is Site planning? Site planning is the art of arrangingStructures on the land and Shaping, spaces between themArt linked to Architecture, Engineering, Landscape Architecture and City PlanningSite plan locate objects and activities in space and timeThe site plan may be concerned with a small cluster of houses, a single building and the surrounding space and a small community built in a single operation.
17 Site Identity and Change Site and the purpose for which it is used should be identifiedEvery site, when disturbed it takes time to experience the mutual adjustment of its elementsThe flow of water has created a drainage patternA site is composed of many factors above, below and on the ground
18 Many factors are involved in the analysis of the site which are to be considered Natural Factors1. Geology2. Topography3. Hydrography4. Soil5. Vegetation6. Wild Life7.Climatic factors
19 II. Cultural Factors 1. Existing Land use 2. Linkages 3 II. Cultural Factors 1. Existing Land use 2. Linkages 3. Traffic and Transit 4. Density and Floor area ratio 5. Utilities 6. Existing Buildings 7. Historic factors III. Aesthetic Factors 1. Natural Features 2. Spatial Pattern
20 Development ControlDevelopment Control is the process involving land use control in which the development carried out by any agencies both private and public is checked in the benefit of whole society.Modern town planning helps in a systematic regulation to be followed in the use of land.
21 Factors to be considered in the complex urban system Physical factor – based on size and density of populationFunctional factor – based on predominance of activitiesAdministrative factorCertain issues to be consideredSporadic growth of private propertiesSprawl of slumsMajor transportation congestion
22 Need for Development Control 4. Crowding of residential and industrial zones5. Availability of land for reclamation and thus offering new opportunities for development.Need for Development ControlControl over development and use of land and buildings by local authorities may appear to be an interference with –Traditional property rights and– Individual liberty
23 It helps to avoid the chaotic growth of towns and to promote – Health – Safety morals– General welfare of the community
24 Aims and Objectives of development control Guides development or the use of land and preserves other sites from the undesirable developmentPrevents the misuse of land so that it will not injuriously affect the interests of the communityIt sets certain frame work of the development process – help in the improvement of the total environment
25 4. The rules should be flexible enough for the changing population and the complex needs of urban society
26 Tools of development control The most common tools areSub division controlHeight controlPlot coverage controlSet back controlFloor Area Ratio(FAR) controlDensity controlBuilding line controlArchitectural controlAdvertisement control
27 Layout RegulationsRole played by local authority The local authority can regulate -the individual plot development by regulating building line -specifying land use -controlling density and building heights -controlling the use of special building materials -insisting on specific designs of elevations in certain areas
28 Aim of layout regulations Preparation of layouts which will satisfy -higher standards with respect to open spaces outside -adequate area inside the building -to provide good light and ventilation
29 Layout regulationsA good layout can be prepared by planning a high density of order of persons/acre.The buildings should be located taking care of the prevailing breeze and day light.Large scale layouts can use all the various shapes, forms and types of buildings.
30 Layout regulations4. In large scale developments, as it takes time for completion provisions should be made for any adjustments. 5. To evolve a good layout design the following facilities have to be taken care - Traffic Engineering - Housing design - Recreational facilities -Social aspects -Architectural treatment.
31 Layout regulations6. No incentives is given for planning problem in small scale layouts. 7. Large scale development- take care of both social and individual needs. 8. When large scale development is done new cities are developed, old cities are improved. 9. Isolated plot by plot development are not be allowed as they don’t provide all the facilities for good. 10. The main objective of preparing layout has not changed over the years.
32 Layout regulations11. By adopting new planning trends, it can evolve model layouts providing traffic safety and health safety. 12. A good layout can be made, it is not costly, it can be made economical in many ways.
33 Layout Design Concepts What is layout? The term layout refers to establishing proper relationship between buildings, roads and surrounding open spaces on a reasonably big area of land.
35 Design concepts involved The concept should give standards, principles for any development so that individual plots can be developed following the standards and principles. The principles that are followed are -Size, -Boundaries of plots, -Local shops should be provided -Internal roads -Open space - Recreational areas should be provided.