Presentation on theme: "United Nations Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination"— Presentation transcript:
1 United Nations Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination This presentation will provide you with an introduction to United Nations Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination, or so called UN-CMCoord.We would like to stress the term humanitarian. The term civil includes namely much more than humanitarian alone, since it also covers police or elections etc. UN-CMCoord brings only the humanitarian perspective.
2 OutlineUnited Nations Humanitarian Civil- Military Coordination (UN-CMCoord)Use of Foreign Military Assets in support of Humanitarian EmergenciesUN-CMCoord Support Activities & StructureThe discussion is divided in three parts:First we look into the definition of UN-CMCoord. What it means, what it covers and why it is different from terms as CIMIC.Second, we provide you with the basic principles and accepted framework of the use of foreign military assets in support of humanitarian emergencies.Finally, we look how OCHA supports the UN-CMCoord activities, mainly through the existence of a specialized unit in Geneva.
3 1. What is UN CMCoord?UN Humanitarian Civil Military Coordination (UN-CMCoord)The essential dialogue and interaction between civilian and military actors in humanitarian emergencies necessaryto protect and promote humanitarian principles, avoid competition, minimize inconsistency, and when appropriate pursue common goals.The key elements are information sharing, task division, and planning.Coordination is a shared responsibility facilitated by liaison and common trainingBasic strategies range from coexistence to cooperation.What is UN-CMCoord?… Definition….Key elements areThe sharing of information between military and civilians. How the information is shared and what can be shared depends on the specific context of the situation.Task division between military and humanitarians. Who does what, when and are these actors capable?Joint planning between the different actors is only possible in certain situations. We will discuss this later again.It is important to stress that just as coordination between humanitarians is a shared responsibility, UN-CMCoord depends on the initiative and continuous efforts from both sides. Liaison and common training facilitates the coordination and the mutual understanding.How UN-CMCoord is done depends very much on the possible room for coordination in the specific situation.
4 Humanitarian Principles Guiding Humanitarian Action Humanity > Human suffering must be addressed wherever it is found, with particular attention to the most vulnerable in the population, such as children, women and the elderly. The dignity and rights of all victims must be respected and protected.Neutrality > Humanitarian assistance must be provided without engaging in hostilities or taking sides in controversies of a political, religious or ideological nature.Impartiality > Humanitarian assistance must be provided without discriminating as to ethnic origin, gender, nationality, political opinions, race or religion. Relief of the suffering must be guided solely by needs and priority must be given to the most urgent cases of distress.UN-CMCoord is thus the essential dialogue and interaction between civilian and military actors in humanitarian emergencies to protect and promote humanitarian principles.The main three humanitarian principles that should guide humanitarian action in general are listed here.Humanity implies that humanitarian suffering must be addressed no matter where it is found, but with focus on the most vulnerable parts of the population being children and women. It also implies that dignity of the beneficiaries must be respected.For example, this entails no use of pictures of starving childrenNeutrality means that humanitarian action should not become a party to the conflict and should remain neutral vis-à-vis the conflicting parties. Humanitarians should not take side or support one party.Humanitarian assistance should be carried out in an impartial way and should not favour one group according to race, age, gender or any other discrimination. Needs is the only indicator of when and where humanitarian assistance is given first.
5 Civil-Military Relations CivilianDomesticInternationalTraditional Focus of Humanitarian ActorsInternalCivil-MilitaryRelationsDomesticMilitaryOur FocusTraditionalFocus of MilitaryCIMIC“UN-CMCoord”UN-CMCoord is only one form of Civil-Military Relations which covers many more forms of interaction between civilian and military actors.UN-CMCoord deals in the first place with the interaction between international military and international humanitarian actors. However, in some specific cases, UN-CMCoord may have to deal with the interaction between international humanitarian and national military actors. This was the case for example in the Earthquake in Pakistan in 2005.CIMIC at the other end is the interaction of international military with the local civilian actors, mainly with the civilian population. CIMIC is a military task in support of the military mission. CIMIC is not guided by humanitarian principles.Further, there is still the relation between the domestic military and the domestic civilian actors, which is an internal affair for each country.Finally, the traditional focus of the humanitarian actors is on the interaction with the domestic military actors, both in natural disasters as in complex emergencies.International
6 Humanitarian Assistance vs.Military Civic ActionHumanitarian acts are guided by humanitarian principles. ….assistance is provided based on need. It is …impartial… without discrimination. Humanitarian providers strive to deliver this help in a neutral manner, without taking sides in disputes or political positions on the underlying issues.Military civic action is conducted based on needs of the force and the mission… (it) is conditional and may cease when the mission changes or the unit moves.CIMIC is not UN-CMCoord, because of the different requirements and the different contexts where this activities fit in.UN-CMCoord is a humanitarian activity. Humanitarian acts are based upon the principles, as described previously: Humanity, neutrality and impartiality.CIMIC on the other end is a part of a military civic action. These activities are defined through the needs of the force, not the humanitarian needs of the beneficiaries. A military mission, while it can include support to humanitarian activities, is conditional and can change quickly depending on political decisions.
7 What is Humanitarian Space ? = A conducive humanitarian operating environment where the receipt of humanitarian assistance is not conditional upon the allegiance to or support to parties involved in a conflict but is a right, independent of military and political action. (MCDA Guidelines)It is achieved through acceptance of and adherence to humanitarian principles.Civil-Military Coordination is essential for the establishment and protection of humanitarian space in emergencies.Another term we would like to get you familiar with is, is humanitarian space.Aim: gain access and provide assistance.Not a spatial term.UN-CMCoord is important for humanitarian space, since humanitarian space can only be achieved through acceptance by all parts.
8 Spectrum of Strategies and Approaches PlanningTask DivisionInformation SharingCooperationCo-existenceCoordinationThis slide pictures the different range of strategies on a picture.Coordination is always necessary and cooperation is only one form of UN-CMCoord. This leads to the different use of the term “cooperation” between CIMIC and UN-CMCoord.When the room for coordination is large, planning and task division are the main issues for coordination.When the room for coordination is small, UN-CMCoord will focus on the minimal aspects of coordination. This is least information sharing, with an exchange of information focused in terms of not putting in danger the civilian population.
9 Coordination, Cooperation & Co-existence Cooperation is one form of Civil-Military Relations.Coexistence is another. Unfortunately competition and conflict occur.At a minimum, the responding military and civilian actors must coordinate in critical areas in order to enhance cooperation and coexistence and minimize competition and conflict Security, logistics, communications, transportation, informationAs we referred to earlier, the way how UN-CMCoord depends very much on the opportunities in the field, the room for coordination and the needs of the situation especially in terms of perception and security.There are different strategies of UN-CMCoord. Cooperation is one form at the one hand of the spectrum and this can take place where there is a good mutual understanding between the civilian and military actors and when the security situation is reasonable.Coexistence is another form that can take place when there is little room for coordination.Of course, both actors have to strive to and be interested in coordination. When this does not occur, competition and conflict can also take place.Nevertheless, in any case, both actors must always aim for coordination in critical areas being security, logistics, communications, transportation and information. If this is not done, it can jeopardize a positive result of both military and humanitarian operations.
10 Possible Interfaces for Humanitarian-Military Coordination Liaison OfficerHumanitarianThird-PartyLiaison OfficerLiaison OfficerMilitaryDepending on the UN-CMCoord Strategy, different interfaces can be used between the civilian and military actors.Co-location is the interface that goes the furthest and brings the actors even physically together. This is more likely to happen in natural disaster.Through Liaison Exchange, Liaison Officers are respectively placed with the other actor.When the room for coordination becomes smaller, limited liaison where the liaison officers meet in a neutral place, may be advised.The extreme interface is that the coordination happens through a third party and where the military and civilian actors are not able to meet directly.MilitaryMilitaryMilitaryLiaison Officer
11 2. Use of Foreign Military Assets in Support of Humanitarian Operations and Civil Defence AssetsNeed for AssistanceInternational Civilian ReliefSo far, the basic background on UN-CMCoord.The use of Military and Civil Defence Assets = MCDA is only one form of providing assistance in a humanitarian emergency and it is also the form that should be last used.When an emergency happens, the local and national responders will be first on the spot. These also include the national militaryIf the resources of the local relief system is exhausted, a call for international assistance will be made by the national authorities. Upon this call, the international civilian relief will come in. This is the UN, but also international NGOs and actors.It is only when also these responders can not cope with the situation, that a call to the international military will be made. This is when the need for assistance is high and can only take place in a limited time frame. As soon as the need goes down, it is advised to fall back on international civilian and the local response system to handle the situationLocal/National Response incl. militaryTime
12 Hierarchy of Humanitarian Tasks Direct AssistanceFace-to face distribution of goods and services – handing out relief goods, providing first aid, transporting victims, interviewing refugees, locating families, etc…Indirect AssistanceAt least one step removed from the population -- transporting relief goods, building camps and shelters, providing water sources, clearing mines and ordinance, etc…Infrastructure SupportGeneral services that facilitate relief, but are not necessarily visible to or solely for the benefit of the affected population -- repairing infrastructure, operating airfields, providing weather info, ensuring access to communications networks, etc…Not only the size of the needs and the time frame determines when the use of MCDA is appropriate. Also the sort of humanitarian assistance requires consideration.There are three sorts of humanitarian tasksDirect assistance: physically handing out the energetic biscuit to the populationIndirect assistance: driving the truck that carries the cookie to the distribution pointInfrastructure point: building the bridge so the truck with the cookies can pass the riverThrough this hierarchy, the person is always one step further away from the beneficiariesThe division of these humanitarian activities has consequences for the use of military support in emergencies.
13 Appropriate Relief Tasks Visibility of Task IncreasesHumanitarian TasksMission of MilitaryInfrastructure SupportIndirectDirectPeacefulYesMaybePeacekeepingPeace EnforcementNoCombatAvailability and Impartiality of Forces IncreasesHere you see a matrix with on one axis the different humanitarian tasks. The more we go down, the more we are on a distance from the beneficiaries and the less visibility of the task.On the other axis you see different missions of the military. The further we go to the right, the more the availability and impartiality of the international forces decrease.In combat situations, military support can perhaps be an option for infrastructure support, but is a definite no for handing out the biscuits or driving the truck. No link between military and humanitarian tasks should be perceived,On the other end in a peaceful situation, the military support is appropriate in almost all situations, with some exceptions for the direct support depending on the situation., All the range of situations in between depends on the situation on the ground and on a number of other aspects we will discuss in more detail further in the presentations.Of course, this is not a black/white picture.
14 Humanitarian Emergencies Applicability of Guidelines Need for Assistance IncreasesConditionsMission of MilitaryStableUnstableFailed StatePeacefulPeacekeepingPeace EnforcementCombatOslo GuidelinesMCDA GuidelinesAvailability and Impartiality of Forces IncreasesNatural disastersHere you see a matrix with on one axis the different humanitarian tasks. The more we go down, the more we are on a distance from the beneficiaries and the less visibility of the task.On the other axis you see different missions of the military. The further we go to the right, the more the availability and impartiality of the international forces decrease.In combat situations, military support can perhaps be an option for infrastructure support, but is a definite no for handing out the biscuits or driving the truck. No link between military and humanitarian tasks should be perceived,On the other end in a peaceful situation, the military support is appropriate in almost all situations, with some exceptions for the direct support depending on the situation., All the range of situations in between depends on the situation on the ground and on a number of other aspects we will discuss in more detail further in the presentations.Of course, this is not a black/white picture.GenevaConventionsConventional War
15 3. UN-CMCoord Support Activities Focal point for UN-CMCoord policy and operations in the UN SystemCustodian of 4 sets of civil-military related guidelinesDeploys UN-CMCoord Officers for short-term field operationsMobilizes foreign military and civil defence assets in emergency, upon requestThe Civil-Military Coordination in Geneva is part of the Emergency Services Branch of OCHA.Abbreviated, CMCS is- Focal point in the UN-systemCustodian of the civil-military guidelinesIs responsible for selection and/or deployment of UN-CMCoord Officers to natural disasters and complex emergenciesCan deploy MCDA from countries upon request
16 The Civil-Military Coordination Section (CMCS) CMCS is the focal point for mobilization of military assets within the UN SystemUN Country Representatives request the assets through the UNRCCMCS requests personnel, specific expertise and/or equipment from donors statesDonors provide assets at no cost to the disaster-stricken communityThe mobilization of MCDA happens upon request of UN Country Representations through the UN Resident Coordinator,When CMCS receives a request for personnel, specific expertise or equipment it contacts the donors.Countries can answer this request positively, and it will be at no cost for the affected country.
17 UN-CMCoord Global Presence OCHA has developed a global system to support UN-CMCoord activities.There are some UN-CMCoord Officers that remain in the field on a longer time than only for natural disasters. These are:- Darfur in Sudan- Afghanistan- ChadThere are also other UN-CMCoord capacities providing liaison with key partners, being- New York- African Union- Regional Office BangkokIn total, some people that are in close contact and meet regularly.