Presentation on theme: "Meteorology: The Science of the Atmosphere"— Presentation transcript:
1 Meteorology: The Science of the Atmosphere Day 1
2 Characteristics of the Atmosphere 1 OBJ 1: Explain that Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of particles which are made up of matter. OBJ 2: Describe the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere.Warm-up: Make a list of all the ways the atmosphere is different from outer space.Homework: 1- Review all notes- remember to be ready for a QUIZ at any time! *SF 5 testable questions due 9/10. Science in the News #2 due 9/12Day 1 & 2: ADStand. S Charts how the atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace amounts of other gases, including water vapor. MDStand. 4.0-A Structure of matter. DO NOT COPY THE FOLLOWING: *Hint: a little more than a century ago, many scientists believed that the Earth’s atmosphere blended with a hypothetical substance called ether that filled the entire universe. In 1887, the physicist A.A. Michelson demonstrated that the universe is not filled with ether.
3 Things to think about…The atmosphere:1. What is it exactly?2. What is its composition?First, let’s revisit OBJ 1:“Explain that Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of particles which are made up of matter.”Hypothesize. Use OBJ 1 to help you. What key words should we pay attention to?
4 What is the Atmosphere? Air What is air? A gas(es) *Made up of particles or molecules
5 Earth’s atmosphere is… A mixture of gases and other particles that surrounds the Earth*Other particles: solids= dust, ash, sea salt, dirt & smokeLiquids= water and gases = oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon and others
6 Air = Gases and other particles Made up of particles or molecules: *balloonMatterAnything that has mass and takes up space. THINK: solid, liquid, gas or *plasma.e.edu/gchelp/liquids/ character.htmlIs air matter? Yes- has mass and takes up space (balloon). Weigh balloon on triple beam balance. Remember: Mass= how much matter and object has. Space= volume
7 DensityBecause all objects are made out of molecules, it is possible to determined how tightly packed those molecules are. This is known as density. The more tightly packed the molecules of an object, liquid or gas are, the more dense we say they are.DEMO- air pressureThis density of particles helps determines whether an object is a solid, liquid or gas.*balloon
8 However, the density of a gas changes drastically. The density of an object doesn’t change. Or does it? It shows a relationship.WHY?The density of a solid will remain the same no matter where we place the object. For a liquid, density will change only slightly.However, the density of a gas changes drastically.Remember: matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Density is a measure of the amount of matter in a given space.
9 What gases is the atmosphere composed of? Textbook page 4
11 QuestionWhat do you think the Earth’s atmosphere would be like if plants did not exist?Group Work:Read “How Earth’s Atmosphere Got It’s Oxygen” independentlyIn groups answer questions 1-3
12 Facts to remember! Conclusion The atmosphere is made up of a mixture of atoms & molecules.Air or gases are made up of matter- they have mass and take up space. Think of the BALLOON.Density is the concentration of particles in a given space.Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphereEarth’s atmosphere makes conditions on Earth suitable for living things.What is the atmosphere? Name at least three gases the atmosphere is composed of.Conclusion
13 Characteristics of the Atmosphere 3 OBJ 3: Explain how temperature changes with altitude. OBJ 4: Describe the layers of the atmosphere.Warm-up: Which gas- oxygen or nitrogen – is the major component of Earth’s air? Homework: 1- Read & take notes on pgs 3-9 do SR on pg 9. (Notes on the layers of the atmosphere.) 2- Science in the News #2 due 9/12. *Look ahead on SF timeline- what is coming up!!!Day 3. OBJ S : Examines how the atmosphere has different properties at different altitudes.
14 Characteristics of the Atmosphere: Air Pressure What is air pressure?Air pressure:Is the measure of force with which the air molecules push on a surface.*Read the article for HW. DEMO “Air Pressure”(cup of water & cardboard &/or paper towel)High pressure = high density Low pressure = low density
15 3 Factors that affect air pressure AltitudeDensityTemperatureAir PressureWe will discuss the following 3 factors. There are more!
16 Factors: AltitudeAltitude: Height of an object above Earth’s surface.What do you think happens to air molecules as they go up into the atmosphere?Hypothesize! Think about your own experiences- riding on an air plane, hiking up a mountain.
17 Factors: Pressure & Altitude The atmosphere becomes less dense the higher you go away from Earth’s surface -altitude. Atmosphere has weight (pull of gravity). It is the weight of the air above which compresses the air below it to greater density. Air pressure decreases the higher up in the atmosphere you go.The density of the atmosphere: varies with latitude and altitude.
18 Classzone 1901: Pressure & Altitude ntent/visualizations/es1901/es1901page01.cfm?chapter _no=19Classzone 1901: Pressure & AltitudeBalloon demo. *Hopefully this will work on an updated computer!!
19 Factors: TemperatureWhat is temperature? Temperature is the average energy of particles in motion. High temperature means that particles are moving very fast.
20 Factors: Temperature & Water Liquid water: What do you think happens when water evaporates into the atmosphere?
21 Factors: Density What is density? How tightly molecules are packed within a given space.Density = MassVolume
22 Density of Air at Two Altitudes Reminder: what is density? Think about what happens to the gas particles.Use the image on the following slide to answer the following:*Describe the differences in air pressure between points A and B.
23 Density of Air at Two Altitudes At AirLevelA.DensityAt SeaLevelB.
24 Density of a gas A gas will expand to fill the space it is provided. If we take a certain amount of gas out of one container and place it into another container that is twice as large the gas will expand, filling the larger container. We still have the same number of gas molecules, but now, they are filling a much larger area.Thus, the gas is half as denseas it was before. There is twiceas much space between themolecules as there was in thesmaller container.Slide 11- if reinserted in slide show!
25 3 Factors that affect air pressure decreases with an increase inAltitudeDensityincreases withTemperatureAir PressureIs affected by bothaltitude and temperatureWe will discuss the following 3 factors. There are more!AneroidtypesBarometersmeasured withMercury
26 BarometerAn instrument to measure air pressureAneroidMercury
27 Conclusion a.) Name 3 factors that affect air pressure. b.) Explain how temperature changes with altitude.c.) Why does it feel more humid in the summer time?
28 Characteristics of the Atmosphere- 4 OBJ 3 & 4 from yesterday. Warm-up: Have out yesterday’s notes and SR from page 9. While you’re waiting for class to start complete “Layers of the Sky” (OPTION). Homework: Complete Ch. 1 Directed Reading worksheet packet- Due Monday. Science in the News #2 due 9/12Day 4 of atmosphere.
29 Independent Activity- graded CW Agenda:Complete chart: column titled “Major features or characteristics”. (Use your textbook, notes, and partner to help you.)Discuss profile on textbook page 6.Begin reading through tomorrow’s lab: “Layers of the Atmosphere”Begin tonight’s homework- IF time!
30 Profile of Earth's Atmosphere See page 6 of your text. Answer the following.Which layer of the atmosphere is closest to Earth?How does temperature change within the stratosphere?Which atmospheric layer has the greatest range of temperatures?Approximately how thick is the Earth’s atmosphere?What is the iridescent cloud in the thermosphere as seen on page 6?What is the white layer at the top of the stratosphere as seen on page 6?
31 Conclusion Things to think about. Cold air is more dense than warm air. This is an important fact for pilots to know. Why did the Wright brothers test their biplane early in the morning?Apply this logic to the following: Why do people driving jet-powered rocket cars attempt to break the land- speed record at midday on hot salt flats?
32 Layers of the Atmosphere- Day 5 OBJ 3 & 4: Same as yesterday. OBJ S Layers of the Atmosphere- Day 5 OBJ 3 & 4: Same as yesterday. OBJ S Examines how the atmosphere has different properties at different altitudes.Warm-up: none. Turn in SitN #2 in BIN!Homework: 1- Finish “Layers of the Atmosphere”. All Tasks- due Monday. 2- Ch. 1 packet due Monday. QUIZ on is coming! Science in the News #3 due 9/19. *FINAL SF questions are due 9/17.Day 5 atmosphere.
33 AgendaNotes on layers of atmosphere- take out chart. Add notes to “Major features or characteristics”“Layers of the Atmosphere” labTasks 1 & 2Independent time for Tasks 3 & 4 and Chapter 1 packet
34 Layers of the Atmosphere The atmosphere has 4 main layers. Based on your reading what can you tell me about Earth’s atmosphere?Let’s investigate!
35 What layers make up the atmosphere? What is air? What is the atmosphere?
37 http://bedavis. wicomico. wikispaces Does anyone recognize the graph displayed above?!
38 90% of molecules in atmosphere are here, including: almost all of CO2, water vapor, clouds, air pollution, weather, and life. Particles are bumping into one another and therefore transferring energy (IF particles move rapidly but DON’T touch they cannot transfer energy.)
39 Air is thin & has little moisture Air is thin & has little moisture. As altitude increases so does temperature. This is because of ozone (3 oxygen atoms) which absorbs UV radiation, warming air. Ozone- near the top of this layer; protects life at surface.
41 Due to combination of gases, temperature increases with altitude as UV radiation is absorbed. Although temperatures in Thermosphere can reach high temperatures, it may not feel hot. This is because temperature and heat are different.
42 Temperature vs. HeatTemperature is the average energy of particles in motion. High temperature means that particles are moving very fast.Heat is the transfer of energy between objects. In order to transfer energy, particles MUST touch.See textbook page 8
43 Contains charged ions, affects radio waves. See next slide.
44 IonosphereUpper part of mesosphere & lower part of thermosphereNitrogen & Oxygen atoms absorb harmful solar rays (like gamma rays, x-rays)Causes gas particles to become electrically charged (ions)And thus…
45 Aurora BorealisSometimes the ions- charged particles, radiate light energy in the form of different colors. See link.
47 Exosphere Last layer Sits above Thermosphere Border between Earth’s atmosphere and spaceHas no “end” just goes into spaceRegion where atoms and molecules escape into space
48 Layers of the Atmosphere Group work: Complete tasks 1 & 2 in groups.Task 1: Create a temperature profile of the atmosphere. See textbook page 6.Task 2: Graph analysis. See textbook page 6.Task 3: Comparing the Layers of the AtmosphereTask 4: Summary Questions 1-4 Do NOT answer question # 5.
50 Wrap Up Can you anyone name the four major layers of the atmosphere? How can the thermosphere have high temperatures but not feel hot?What are the other three layers we discussed? Describe them.
51 Layers of the Atmosphere- Day 6 OBJ: 5- Summarize the process of radiation, conduction, & convection Warm-up: Turn in Ch. 1 Self Directed packet for section 1 Homework: 1- Read pages 10 – 13. Take notes on “terms to learn” (radiation, conduction, convection, greenhouse effect, and global warming). 2- “Layers of the Atmosphere” lab due tomorrow. 3- Science in the News #3 due 9/19Day 6
52 Agenda Finish notes from yesterday QUIZ Time to finish “Layers of Atmosphere” lab
53 ConclusionAfter completing Task 1 on “Layers of the Atmosphere” what does this graph remind you of?What is the difference between this graph and a profile of Earth’s atmosphere?What is the difference between heat and temperature?
54 Layers of the Atmosphere- Day 7 OBJ: 5- Summarize the process of radiation, conduction, & convection Warm-up: Suppose that you will be vacationing in two unique spots- the Sahara Desert and the Antarctic ice sheet. Decide whether white or black clothing would be best for each location. Explain your choices. Homework: 1- Answer Section Review Question on textbook page Begin working on Ch.1, Sect. 2 Directed Reading Worksheet. 3- Science in the News #3 due 9/19.Day 7
55 Agenda Quiz Continue Task#2 on “Layers of the Atmosphere” Group Activity: Conduction, convection, radiation.You will be put into groups.Each group will be assigned 1 of the ways energy is transferred in the atmosphere.Turn to page 10 & find your assigned term.With your group, determine how you will demonstrate that term using pictures or materials found at home or in the classroom.Each group will present their demonstration to the class.Presentations!
56 Conclusion Answer the following: Describe three (3) things that can happen to energy when it reaches the Earth’s atmosphere.How does the process of convection rely on conduction?
57 Quiz on Section 1 What are the two main gases in Earth’s atmosphere? What is atmospheric pressure?Name the layers of the atmosphere, starting with the one closest to Earth (List ONLY the main 4.)In which layer is the ozone layer located? Why is it important to Earth?What is the difference between heat and temperature?
58 Conclusion- Let’s check your quiz! What are the two main gases in Earth’s atmosphere?What is atmospheric pressure?Name the layers of the atmosphere, starting with the one closest to Earth (List ONLY the main 4.)In which layer is the ozone layer located? Why is it important to Earth?What is the difference between heat and temperature?
59 Layers of the Atmosphere- Day 8/9 OBJ: 5- Summarize the process of radiation, conduction, & convectionWarm-up: Using the terms conduction, convection, and radiation, how is energy transferred throughout the atmosphere? Have out SR from page 13. Be ready to check it! TURN in FINAL SF question in SCIENCE BIN! Homework: Begin/ continue Ch.1, Sect. 2 Directed Reading Worksheet. Science in the News #3 due 9/19.Day 8/9
60 Agenda Continue yesterday’s group work. Presentations Notes Read through Water Coloration labBegin homework
61 Radiation, Conduction, Convection You will be put into groups.Each group will be assigned 1 of the ways energy is transferred in the atmosphere.Turn to page 10 & find your assigned term.With your group, determine how you will demonstrate that term using pictures or materials found at home or in the classroom.Each group will present their demonstration to the class.
62 Radiation Transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves The Earth receives 2 billionths of sun’s energy!!Energy is absorbed by a surface--> surface heats up
63 ConductionTransfer of thermal energy from one material to another by direct contact
64 ConvectionTransfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas. Cool air sinks and warm air rises, thus circulating in a continual process.DENSITY!!Hot air is less dense than cold airCold air is more dense than hot air
65 Conclusion Revisit the following article. How is energy transferred throughout the atmosphere?
66 Layers of the Atmosphere- Day 9 OBJ: 5- Summarize the process of radiation, conduction, & convection Warm-up: none. Have out SR from page 13. Be ready to check it! Homework: Continue Ch.1, Sect. 2 Directed Reading Packet (Start reading text pages so you can complete Sections 3 and 4 of your packet). Science in the News #3 due 9/19.Day 8/9
67 Layers of the Atmosphere- Day 10 OBJ: 5- Summarize the process of radiation, conduction, & convectionWarm-up: Time to meet in your groups. (20 minutes!) TURN in SitN #3 in SCIENCE BIN! Homework: Read and take notes on textbook pages Begin working on Section 3 of your Directed Reading packet (WHOLE packet due Wednesday). Science in the News #4 due 9/26.Day 10
68 AgendaTime to work in your groups- Presentations POSTPONED UNTIL MONDAY!! Be ready to present first thing Monday afternoon!!Begin reading/taking notes on text pages You may begin working on Section 3 in your Directed Reading packet.
69 Conclusion What is a convection current? How does a greenhouse stay warm? Explain.
70 Heating of the Atmosphere- Day 11 OBJ 5: Same as yesterday Heating of the Atmosphere- Day 11 OBJ 5: Same as yesterday. OBJ: 6- Explain how the greenhouse effect could contribute to global warming.Warm-up: Presentations! Homework: Continue working on Ch. 1, Sect. 3 Directed Reading packet- entire packet due Wednesday. Science in the News #4 due 9/26. *QUIZ on Friday.Day 11
71 Agenda Finish demos/ presentations Begin notes on radiation, conduction, & convection (see previous slides: #61-64)Notes on the greenhouse effect and global warming
72 Greenhouse Effect The atmosphere’s trapping of Earth’s thermal energy 50% of radiation that enters the atmosphere is absorbedCarbon dioxide & water vapor stop some of the energy from escaping back into space by absorbing and reradiating itEarth's most abundant greenhouse gases (in order) are:water vaporcarbon dioxideatmospheric methanenitrous oxideozonechlorofluorocarbonsDay 7 and 8
75 Greenhouse Effect Conclusion content/investigations/esu501/esu501page01.cfmConclusionWhat is the greenhouse effect? What specific gases that increase it?
76 Heating of the Atmosphere- Day 12 OBJ 5 and 6 Continued. Warm-up: A metal spoon left in a bowl of hot soup feels hot. Which process-radiation, conduction, or convection- is mainly responsible for heating the spoon?Homework: 1- Greenhouse Effect webquest is due TBA (possibly Monday) 2- Science in the News #4 due 9/26. *QUIZ on Friday. 3- Bibliography of your text book (go toDay 12
77 Agenda Conclusion Why is global warming good for us? Continue greenhouse effect and global warming.Read designated parts of NASA Facts article “Global Warming”Greenhouse effect webquestConclusionWhy is global warming good for us?Why is global warming bad for us?
78 Heating of the Atmosphere- Day 12A OBJ 5 and 6 Continued. Warm-up: none.Agenda: Greenhouse Effect Webquest (answer questions 1-9)Homework: 1- Greenhouse Effect Webquest is due on Friday! 2-Science in the News #4 due 9/26. *QUIZ on Friday.Day 12A
79 TURN in Science in the News #4 Heating of the Atmosphere- Day 13 OBJ 7: Explain the relationship between air pressure and wind direction. OBJ 8: Describe the global pattern of wind. OBJ 9: Explain the causes of local wind patterns.Warm-up: What causes wind?TURN in Science in the News #4Homework: 1- Greenhouse Effect webquest is due on Tuesday. Reread text pages Science in the News #5 due 10/10. *SF DRAFT Bibliography due 10/1.Day 13
80 Agenda QUIZ#1 on OBJECTIVES 1-6. Demo: hot plate and container with iceQuickLab: page 16 “Full of ‘Hot Air’”Notes:What is wind?Pressure BeltsCoriolis Effect
81 What do we know about wind movement? “The wind does blow from high to low”What does this mean?Which area represents low pressure? High pressure?Hypothesize: What do you think will happen and why?Demo
82 QuickLab page 16 Try it at home! What process does this activity model?What do you think will happen if you fill the small bottle with cold water instead?
83 Notes: Wind What is wind? Moving air How is wind created? Created by differences in air pressure.Wind
84 Pressure Belts Warm Air rises over the equator _____ Pressure over the equatorWarm air begins to cool and sinks at around 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south_______ Pressure over 30N and 30SCool air begins to warm and rise at 60 N and 60 S_________ Pressure over 60 N and 60 SConvection Cells
85 What is the Coriolis effect ? The curving of moving objects due to Earth’s rotationWinds curve to the right from the equator in the Northern HemisphereWinds curve to the left from the equator in the Southern Hemisphere
86 Coriolis Effect Conclusion What causes the Coriolis effect? View the animation ES1905How does the Coriolis effect alter wind direction?ConclusionWhat causes wind?How does the Coriolis Effect affect wind movement?Land & Water Lab intro86
87 Heating of Earth's Atmosphere- 14 OBJ 1-9. See previous. Warm-up: Describe the movement of air pressure belts. Homework: Reread pages *SF DRAFT Bibliography due 10/1. Science in the News #5 due 10/10.Day 14
88 Agenda Continue notes- see previous day (Slides #82-85) Demo?! Air pressure websiteDemo?!Conclusion- see previous day
89 Heating of Earth's Atmosphere- 15 OBJ 1-9. See previous. Warm-up: Name the 6 types of wind. Pick one and describe it. Homework: Reread pages 18-19; Study! *SF DRAFT Bibliography due 10/1. Science in the News #5 due 10/10.Day 15
90 Agenda 1. OPTION: Pop quiz- open note book? 2. “Why air moves” 3. Looking at a map4. Types of wind- Global (Notes)
93 Global Winds Trade winds: blow from 30 degrees latitude to the equator Westerlies: wind belts found in both N & S Hemispheres between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitudePolar Easterlies: extend from poles to 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheresJet Streams: narrow belts of high-speed winds in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
94 Heating of Earth's Atmosphere- 16 OBJ 1-9. See previous. Warm-up: Can someone demonstrate the Coriolis Effect? Homework: Study! Begin reading/ taking notes on pages Science in the News #5 due 10/10. *SF Draft Hypothesis/ Prediction due 10/8.Day 16
95 Agenda 1. Types of wind- Local Winds: Sea and land breezesMountain and valley breezesSee video:2. Read through Land & Water Land3. Begin lab set up
96 Local Winds Influenced by geography Produces temperature differences Ex. shorelineMountainProduces temperature differencesLand breezeSea breeze(See pages 18-19)
97 ConclusionQuestions on lab??What is a sea breeze? Land breeze?
98 Heating of Earth's Atmosphere- 17 OBJ 1-9. See previous. Warm-up: Begin lab- WAIT FOR INSTRUCTIONS! Homework: Lab due by the end of class tomorrow! Finish reading/ taking notes on pages SF Draft of Hypothesis and Prediction due 10/8. Science in the News #5 due 10/10.***TEST on Ch. 1 on 10/14.Day 17
99 Agenda Conclusion LAB Be sure NOT to violate contract! As warm air rises, it creates an area of ______ pressure over the land. The cool air moves toward the land, producing a ____ __________. Air over the water is cooler and creates an area of ______ pressure.Here, air over land is cooler and creates an area of _____ pressure. The cool air moves toward the water, producing a ____ _________. Air over the water is warmer and creates an area of _____ pressure.Conclusion
100 BE SURE TO TURN IN LAB BEFORE YOU LEAVE CLASS TODAY! The Air We Breather- 18 OBJ 10: Describe the major types of air pollution. OBJ 11: Name the major causes of air pollution OBJ 12: Explain how air pollution can affect human health. OBJ 13: Explain how air pollution can be reduced.Warm-up: See yesterday’s conclusion (complete).BE SURE TO TURN IN LAB BEFORE YOU LEAVE CLASS TODAY!Homework: Answer Section Review on page 19 and 25; Study! SF Draft of Hypothesis and Prediction due 10/8. Science in the News #5 due 10/10. **TEST on 10/14.Day 18
101 Agenda Finish lab NOTES: Air quality: definition Types of air pollutionSources of pollutionEffects on our EarthReducing pollution
102 Air Quality Refers to pollutants in the air Solids, liquids or gasesFrom natural and man made sources:Dust, sea salt, volcanic gases and ash, smoke, pollen, swamp gas*Natural sources produce grater amount of pollutants- BUT we are used to them
103 Types of PollutionPrimary pollutants: go directly into air (from natural & human activity)Secondary pollutants: from chemical reactions between primary pollutantsExample: ozone and smog
104 Sources Human Natural Transportation Industry Indoor Nitrogen cycle CO2 and O2 cycle
105 Effects Reducing Pollution Acid precipitation Ozone hole Effects on human healthClean Air Act- gives EPA authority to regulate air pollutantsReduce, Reuse, RecycleReducing Pollution
106 ConclusionWhat can you do to reduce pollutants?
107 The Air We Breathe- 19 OBJ 1-13. See previous. Warm-up: Continue yesterday’s notes.– WAIT for instructions. Homework: Answer Chapter Review on pages #1- 20; Study! SF Draft of materials, procedures, variables (with plan for analysis) and trials due 10/15. Science in the News #5 due tomorrow. **TEST postponed until 10/15.Day 19
108 Agenda Conclusion OPTIONAL Check SR on 19 and 25 Handout study guide Panel of scientists: research energy source to reduce pollution (Create your own commercial!)In pairs complete Chapter Review on textbook page 30 #1-20Name two primary pollutants.How do secondary pollutants form?OPTIONALConclusion
109 Earth's Atmosphere- 20 OBJ 1-13. See previous. Warm-up: none. TURN in Science in the News #5 Homework: SF Draft of materials, procedures, variables (with plan for analysis) and trials due 10/15. Science in the News #6 due 10/17. Study! **TEST changed to 10/15.Day 20
110 TEST talk Conclusion Let’s prepare together! Complete #21-24 and in small groupsAny questions!!??!!Conclusion
111 Test talk. Agenda:. answer any last questions. before test Test talk! Agenda: * answer any last questions before test * turn in MPTV *Lab (?) *begin our next chapter
112 TEST is Today!- 21Homework: Read and take notes on pages (take GOOD notes). Science in the News #6 due 10/17. SF Draft Background Research due 11/5.Day 21