2 Classifying Planets Terrestrial vs. Jovian: Terrestrial-like Earth: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.Jovian-huge gas planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.Inner vs. Outer:Inner-found before the asteroid belt: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.Outer-found after the asteroid belt: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.Inferior vs. Superior:Inferior-between the Sun and Earth: Mercury and Venus.Superior-after Earth: Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
3 Mercury Named after the Roman Fleet Footed God The smallest planet Closest to the SunHeavily crateredLarge iron core (70% of Mercury’s volume)No atmosphere427 (800F) to -127 ºC (-197F)The year is only 88 daysSpins the slowest on its axis, but it revolves the fastest around the sunMercury
4 2nd from SunThick atmosphere of Carbon Dioxide- runaway greenhouse effectShines the brightest in our night skyMost volcanoes in solar system of the planetsSpins backwardsUp to 900 ºFNamed after the Roman goddess of beauty and love- often called Earth’s twinClouds of sulfuric acidMagellan, Cassini Huygens and MESSENGER have all flown byVenus
5 Earth Earth: 3rd from Sun Temperatures perfect for water in solid, liquid, and gas states.Has ozone to protect from the Sun’s harmful radiation.70% water, 30% land
6 Mars 4th from Sun ½ the size of Earth Red planet- from rusted iron in crust.Has frozen water under ice capsLargest volcano- Olympus MonsLargest Canyon- Valles Marineris2 moons: Phobos (fear) and Deimos (flight)Cold: -100 ºC night, just abovefreezing during day (-148 F)Named after Roman God of War24.5 hour dayHas seasons like EarthMars
7 NASA on Mars The Mariner 9 Viking 1 and Viking 2 Global Surveyor Mars OdysseySpirit and Opportunity Land RoversMars Pathfinder
9 Jupiter 5th from the Sun Largest planet (1,323 Earths) Named after Roman God of all GodsMostly hydrogen and heliumThe Great Red Spot- a approx. 400 year old hurricane big enough to hold 2-3 Earths.Spins fastest on its axisHas lightning in cloudsHas 50 named moons and 14 other moons not namedHas 3 rings of dustStudied by Galileo space probeJupiter
10 Jupiter’s 4 Big Moons 4 huge “Galilean Moons”: Io: most volcanically active body in solar system.Europa: mostly rock with a thick, cracked but smooth crust of ice; deep, warm ocean that holds twice as much water as Earth’s oceans.Ganymede: Larger than Mercury, most likely had a volcanic past. Likely to have an ocean.Callisto: Cratered and most likely covered in a salty ocean.
11 Saturn 6th from Sun Second largest planet (752 Earths) Named after Roman Lord of the RingsMostly hydrogen and heliumIt’s low density would allow it to float in waterKnown as the ringed planet- has largest and most complex ring systemMade of ice and rock7 Rings A-G: Cassini division is the gap between ringsSaturn
12 Saturn’s Moons Saturn has over 30 moons. The largest moon is Titan: Larger than MercuryHas areas of water iceHas areas composed of hydrocarbons- organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon.All living things are made of carbon.Scientists are interested in the possibility of life here.
13 Uranus 7th from the Sun 3rd largest (Fits only 64 Earths) 27 moons Mostly hydrogen, helium & 2% methaneLooks bluish-green in colorTilted 98º- rotates on its side11 rings- dark and narrowFather of Neptune and JupiterMay have slushy water5 large moons- MirandaThis planet was discovered using math- nobody was even looking for it.Uranus
14 Neptune 8th from Sun 4th largest (58 Earths) Has rings Has at least 13 moons: Triton, the largest, has geysers that erupt methane and nitrogenHas a Great Dark Spot “Wizard’s Eye”Named after Roman God of the SeaSimilar atmosphere to Uranus, but more methane, so it looks even bluer.
15 Pluto Farthest from the sun It takes 248 years to orbit the sun Now considered a dwarf planetNamed after the Roman God of the UnderworldHas 5 moons: the biggest one is named Charon which is about ½ the size of PlutoSolid ice-rock surface
16 Comets , Asteroids, and Meteoroids A comet, is composed of ice, dust and rock particles mixed with methane and ammonia.Halley’s comet appears every 76 years.It will appear again in 2061.An asteroid is a rocky object formed from material similar to the planets- found in asteroid beltsA meteoroid is a rocky object formed from asteroids or comets.If it burns up in our atmosphere it is a shooting starWhen it hits Earth it is called a meteorite
17 Sedna has been labeled a distant planetoid It is smaller than Pluto, but bigger than a comet.It is three times farther away from Earth than Pluto