Presentation on theme: "The 19th Century: Birth of the “isms”"— Presentation transcript:
1 The 19th Century: Birth of the “isms” Neoclassic ArtRomantic ArtRealist Art
2 PrefaceInstead of one style dominating for centuries, as in the Renaissance and Baroque, movements were quick to appear. What had been eras became “isms”, each representing a trend in art.For most of the 19th Century, three major styles competed with one another:Neoclassicism:Romanticism:Realism:
3 Neoclassic Art Neoclassic means “new Classic” Influenced by the discovery of ruins in the Pompeii, an ancient Italian town preserved under volcanic ash for centuries.The revival of painting, sculpture, architecture and furniture from ancient Greece and Rome was a clear reaction against the ornate Rococo style.
4 How to recognize Neoclassical art Brushwork: Smooth so that the surface seemed polishedCompositions: Simple in order to avoid Rococo melodrama. Backgrounds often included Roman touches like arches or columnsSubjects: Greek and Roman history, mythologyRole of art: Morally uplifting, inspirational
5 Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 3 sons swear to their father that they will defend Rome or die in attempt.A typical Neoclassic painting – it has a serious theme and its figures are posed stiffly in a formal composition and Classical setting
6 Columns recall the simplicity of Greek Doric columns Thomas Jefferson, Monticello,Exterior decoration recalls the frieze (a decorative horizontal band usually placed along the upper end of a wall) of the ParthenonColumns recall the simplicity of Greek Doric columnsArches and Dome reflect Roman designs
7 Romantic ArtRomantic art doesn't mean art that deals with love. Rather it means art that is imaginative, exciting, colourful, and filled with movement: storm-tossed ships, exotic scenes and rearing horses.Romantic art dominated Europe and North America for much of the 19th C. It stood in contrast to the Neoclassic style which had little movement or colour.“The artist should paint not only what he sees before him, but also what he sees in him.”
8 How to recognize Romantic art Inspiration: Medieval and Baroque eras, Middle and Far EastColour: Unrestrained - deep, rich shadesSubjects: Legends, exotica, nature, violenceTechnique: Quick brushstrokes, strong light and shade contrast
9 Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1818–1819 Romaticism was launched with this paintingBased on current events of that time period. The subject was a government ship, Medusa, carrying French colonists to Senegal that sank off the west coast of Africa due to the incompetence of the captain. The captain and crew were the first to evacuate. They towed a raft of 149 passengers and then cut them loose (12 days without food or water). Only 15 lived.Dedication of the artist - interviewed survivors, built a lifesized model in his studio, visited the morgue, and even lashed himself to the mast of a small boat in a storm.Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1818–1819
10 Intense colours, vivid light/dark contrasts, brilliant red background Eugene Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827, 12 ft 1 in x 16 ft 3 in.based on a play by English romantic poet Lord Byron. It depicts the moment Sardanapalus ordered his possessions destroyed and concubines murdered before he sets himself on fire, once he learns that he is faced with military defeat.Intense colours, vivid light/dark contrasts, brilliant red background
11 ReviewThe Neoclassical style derived from the art and culture of ancient Greece and Rome and imitated this period’s architecture and fascination for order and simplicity.Romanticism emphasized the personal, emotional and dramatic aspects of exotic, literary and historical subject matter.Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa, –1819Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784
12 Realism ArtOccurred during the second half of the 19th century (the Machine Age)Neoclassic and Romantic painting continued through the period, but some European artists felt that neither showed life as it was really lived.Realist painters were interested not necessarily in painting realistically (which they did) but in realistic subject matter: real life. Before this, artists had always idealized their subjects.They made workers and the poor important enough for fine art.
13 How to recognize Realist art Subject: peasants and the urban working classComposition: precise imitation without alterationColour: muted
14 Jean-Francois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857 Millet presented farm workers as dignified people.The composition is devoted to the rigors of the working class. It depicts women stooping in the fields to glean the leftovers from the harvest. He does not glorify or unnecessarily embellish the women.In the background we see the main harvesting activity.
15 Honore Daumier, The Third Class Carriage, 1862 Daumier was known as Paris’ greatest social caricaturist (in newspaper). In his drawings he took pot shots at the Royalists, politicians, judges and lawyers and he was briefly imprisoned for his biting satire.In this painting he deals with the public where he finds them – in their urban environment. His subjects did not pose for him in his studio.This painting depicsts working-class passengers as dignified, despite being crammed together.Because he used thin washes of muted colour, the grid lines are often visible (he used grid lines to enlarge his smaller sketches onto canvas).
16 Gustave Courbet, Burial at Ornans, 1849 Courbet was the most effective spokesperson for Realism. He is quoted as saying, “The art of painting should consist only in the representation of objects which the artist can see and touch.” This was the credo of Realism.Depicts a provincial funeral. The scene shows ordinary people doing ordinary things at a sad time.Never before had a scene of plain folk been painted in the epic size (painting was 22 feet long) reserved for grandiose history paintings. Critics complained it was vulgar.The mood is sombre and the colours and bleak.At the 1855 Universal Exposition in Paris this work was rejected so Courbet built a special shed he called the Pavilion of Realism to show only his work. This became the first modern-day, one-artist exhibition.