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Indian Wars How did Texans try and solve their Indian Problem?

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Presentation on theme: "Indian Wars How did Texans try and solve their Indian Problem?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Indian Wars How did Texans try and solve their Indian Problem?

2 The Texas Frontier FRONTIER conflicts had existed in Texas for many years. Texas continued to push toward the WEST, building towns and communities to complete their WESTWARD EXPANSION..

3 Factors leading to the expansion of the Texas frontier
Large amount of land Large supply of wild longhorn on the Texas frontier Demand for beef in the northern and eastern United States

4 Settlers Expand West By the time of the Civil War, only the Plains Indians like the Comanche were still in Texas. White settlers feared the Indians. They believed they were savages and should be exterminated. Settlers believed the land was legally obtained by the United States. Savage: Someone who is uncivilized.

5 Forts were established on the western frontier to protect the settlements

6 Effects of westward expansion on American Indians
Battles between Comanche, Apaches, Kiowas, and the U.S. Army Forced on reservations in Oklahoma

7 The further west the settlers went the more they would come into conflict with Indians.

8 After the Civil War, the United States Army wanted to end the hostilities with the Natives.

9 Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek

10 Promised that no Americans would be allowed on their land.
In 1867 Indians from the southern plains met in Kansas with the U.S. government. The Treaty created a 3 million acre reservation for Indians in Oklahoma. The U.S. promised to supply Indians with food and clothing and to teach them to farm. Promised that no Americans would be allowed on their land. Indian Reservation: Is land set aside for an Indian tribe, were the tribe is allowed to govern itself.

11 What were the terms of the Treaty of Medicine Lodge?
Indians would stop raiding & move to the reservation in exchange for food, clothing, & financial status Some of the chiefs signed the treaty, but Quanah PARKER rejected it. Santanta, the Kiowa chief, spoke out against it.

12 Failure of the Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek
Plains Indians did not want to be farmers or move to Oklahoma U. S. government failed to keep its promises of supplies and food. Often Indian Agents in charge of the reservations were corrupt and sold supplies for their own profits. Traders called Comancheros in New Mexico encouraged Indian raids because they bought stolen goods. The Treaty of Medicine Creek did not bring PEACE to the Texas frontier. The U.S. government failed to keep its promise about sending enough FOOD and supplies. Some Indians had to leave the reservation to hunt or raid white settlements. Corruption is using the power of the Government for one’s personal gain

13 Buffalo Soldiers Freedman soldiers who fought natives in the west were known as Buffalo Soldiers Native Americans called them this because of their bravery in battle. They guarded the frontier.

14 Buffalo Soldiers African American soldiers who were in the 9th and 10th Cavalry, as well as in the 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments stationed in Texas. They were former slaves who fought during the Indian Wars. Helped keep peace among American Indians in the West after the Civil War Native Americans gave them this nickname for their bravery.

15 Quanah Parker Comanche leader
Father was a Comanche chief and mother was Cynthia Ann Parker a white woman who had been captured when she was a child in 1836 Cynthia Ann Parker

16 In 1836 members of the Parker family were killed in a raid by Comanche known as the Ft. Parker Massacre. In this raid, an 8- year old girl, Cynthia Ann Parker, was captured. Cynthia was found by Texas Rangers 24 years later in 1860 and returned to her white family.

17 Quanah Parker His parents were Cynthia Ann Parker and Chief Peta Nacona. His mother was a captured by the Comanche as a small child and raised by them. Last Chief of the Commanches His tribe roamed West Texas Assimilated to American culture and influenced other Native Americans to do the same.

18 = Survival What the Buffalo Meant to the Native Americans
Paunch (stomach) made into water bags Sinews (tendons) and hair were made into bowstrings, rope, and thread Buffalo hide became clothing, saddles, robes, and covers for teepees Hoofs, horns and bones became ornaments, cups, and utensils Buffalo Poo (dung) was used as fuel for fires A Kiowa chief describes it this way: “The buffalo is our money … the robes we can prepare and trade. We love them just as the white man does his money. Just as it makes a white man feel to have his money carried away, so it makes us feel to see others killing and stealing our buffaloes, which are our cattle given to us by the Great Father above.” = Survival

19 The End of the Buffalo Plains Indians faced a huge problem with the end of the wild Buffalo. The U.S. allowed the Army and Buffalo hunters to kill off the Buffalo in North America. There may have been 30 million buffalo in the 1850’s, by 1910, a little over 1000 buffalo could be found in America Plains Indians lost their way of life which included their homes, food, clothes, tools and weapons with the buffalo gone. Using Buffalo to Destroy the Native Americans By promoting in Congressional testimony the hunting and slaughter of the vast herds of American Bison on the Great Plains and by other means, Sheridan helped deprive the Indians of their primary source of food. Professional hunters, trespassing on Indian land, killed over 4 million bison by When the Texas legislature considered outlawing bison poaching on tribal lands, Sheridan personally testified against it in Austin, Texas. He suggested that the legislature should give each of the hunters a medal, engraved with a dead buffalo on one side and a discouraged-looking Indian on the other. General Philip Sheridan Instrumental in instituting the policy of killing the buffalo to kill the Indians

20 The most valuable part of the Buffalo was its hide.
Between , the American bison, or buffalo, was reduced in numbers from 60 million to a mere handful. By 1900 there were only two small wild herds in all of North America, numbering only 550 animals. This change was accelerated in the last 40 years of the 19th century by the coming of the buffalo hunter and thousands of land-hungry settlers.

21 Bison hides were used for industrial machine belts, clothing such as robes, and rugs. There was a huge export trade to Europe of bison hides.

22 Buffalo hides were sold for big money back in the east
With the end of the buffalo the remaining holdout plain Indians were forced onto reservations.

23 The End of the Plains Indians
The railroad, the development of the hide industry during the 1800s, and the wholesale destruction of the buffalo guaranteed that the Native Americans would no longer have the means to survive

24 Pile of Buffalo Skulls in 1870
Buffalo skulls, mid-1870s, waiting to be ground into fertilizer

25 After 1870, the U.S. gave up on peace policies and started the policy of removal.

26 U.S. Army The U.S. Army sent thousands of soldiers west to deal with the Indians. William Tecumseh Sherman would be in charge of the western army. U.S. General during the Civil War who marched to the sea and burned Atlanta, Georgia to the ground. In 1871 he came to Texas to inspect Frontier Forts.

27 1873 Winchester Model “The Gun that won the West”
In the early 1870’s a new invention the “repeating rifle” was invented. This weapon, along with the repeating revolver pistol, finally gave Texas Rangers and the U.S. Army an advantage over the Comanche and other natives. Texas Rangers with Winchesters

28 Sherman ordered General Ranald Mackenzie to lead raids against Indians reducing their numbers on the plains of Texas. Texas Rangers also constantly patrolled west and south Texas searching for Indians. They considered any Indian an enemy and would attack if they found them. Red River Wars General Ranald Mackenzie

29 The 2nd battle of Adobe walls
In 1874 Quanah Parker led 700 warriors and attacked a buffalo hunters camp at Adobe Walls. This is known as Second Battle of Adobe Walls The hunters held off the Indians with their long range rifles. 1st Battle of Adobe Walls In Union troops commanded by Kit Carson attacked the Kiowa and Comanche at Adobe Walls. (In the Panhandle of Texas) Outnumbered by about 1000, the Union troops used their cannons to win and were able to burn hundreds of Indian lodges and destroy the Indians winter food supply. 2nd Battle One of the battles of the Red River War. Quanah Parker led 100s of warriors from 5 Native American Nations against 29 Anglo buffalo hunters in a failed effort to take over the camp. The battle was a crushing spiritual defeat for the Native Americans. However, the Natives increased their attacks on West Texas settlements and kept fighting in order to protect their land and stop the killing of the buffalo. Over the next two months they killed over 190 settlers across 5 states.

30 The Red River War was launched by the U. S
The Red River War was launched by the U.S. Army in 1874 to remove the Comanche, Kiowa, and other Indian tribes from the Southern Plains and relocate them to reservations The U.S. Army sent soldiers in five directions and finally trapped the Indians in Palo Duro Canyon.

31 Palo Duro Canyon, the last stand
Battle of Palo Duro Canyon – September 1874 The major battle of the Red River War. It was a small battle, but it represented the last effort of the Natives in Texas to stand up against the American military and the advancement of the whites. The battle ended in the confinement of the Plains Indians to reservations in Indian Territory.

32 Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
The U.S. Army trapped the Comanche in the Palo Duro Canyon, their winter home. Flat land of High Plains allowed for them to be untouched for so long This defeat forced the Comanche to reservations in Oklahoma.

33 The Army burned several villages, killed over a thousand horses and destroyed the winter food supply. The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon September 28, 1874 Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie and 500 troops attack a Comanche village Indians fled, abandoning their supplies and horses Indians horses were shot and villages burned Forced the Indians to move to the reservations

34 Quanah Parker, the Comanche and the rest of the Native Texans Tribes (including the Kiowa) were finally forced to surrender at Palo Duro Canyon in

35 Quanah Parker then went on to tirelessly work to help his people adapt to the “white world”.
Appointed by his old enemy Colonel Mackenzie as sole Chief of the Comanche, he worked hard to bring education and the ability to survive in the white man's world to his people. Quanah Parker during his reservation days

36 End of the Indian Wars Indian Raids End Along the Rio Grande
Victorio and other American Indians begin raids into Texas from Mexico U.S. Army troops, many of whom are buffalo soldiers, are stationed near the border to stop the raids Raids stop when Mexican army joins the chase Victorio died in 1880 while being pursued Victorio – Apache Indian chief buffalo soldiers – name that American Indians gave to African American troops.

37 The Results of the Indian Wars in Texas
Native Americans in Texas moved onto the reservations in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) or continued their fight in other states With the Native Americans out of Texas and the threat of raids gone, settlers could move into West Texas and the Panhandle and establish their farms and ranches Many new towns were established at this time in the Western half of the state The cattle industry exploded… with the buffalo gone from the “Sea of Grass” cattlemen now had huge areas in which to raise cattle on their new ranches The forts were no longer needed, so many were closed. The American Indian population had decreased greatly by the 1880s. Consequences of the Indian Wars Led to the end of the Plains Indian way of life and confinement to reservations Opened the Panhandle and western Texas to railroads, farmers, and ranchers


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