Presentation on theme: "Do Now 10/21 The great Chinese philosopher Confucius once said: “When it is obvious that the goals cannot be reached, don't adjust the goals, adjust the."— Presentation transcript:
1 Do Now 10/21The great Chinese philosopher Confucius once said: “When it is obvious that the goals cannot be reached, don't adjust the goals, adjust the action steps.” Use complete sentences to explain what you believe this quote means. Describe a time you tried to reach a difficult goal?
2 Standards7.20-Describe the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the cultural diffusion of Buddhism.7.21 Analyze the role of kinship and Confucianism in maintaining order and hierarchy.7.25-Engage effectively in a collaborative discussion describing the development of the imperial state and the scholar-official class (Neo- Confucianism).
3 Clear Targets The students will be able to: Describe the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty.Explain the cultural diffusion (spread) of Buddhism.Analyze the role of Confucianism.Describe the development of the imperial state.Describe the development of the scholar-official or Neo-Confucianism.
4 Chapter 8 Lesson 1 China reunites Mrs. Stoll 7th Grade Social Studies
5 China Rebuilds Its Empire The Han Dynasty of China ended in A.D. 220For the next 300 years, China had no central government.China collapsed into separate kingdoms and the people suffered hardships.Warlords-military leaders who rule local territories- fought each other.Groups of nomads attacked and captured parts of Northern China.
6 China Rebuilds Its Empire China lost control of lands it had conquered.Such as, Korea,located on theKorean Peninsulato the northeastof China.People of Korea freed themselves from Chinese rule and built their own civilization.
7 The Sui (SWAY)In A.D. 581, a Chinese general named Wendi declared himself emperor.He won many battles and created the Sui dynasty and unified China under the rule of emperors again.After Wendi’s death, his son Yangdi became emperor.He tried to expand China’s territory by reclaiming the lost lands of Korea.Yangdi’s army was badly defeated by the Koreans.
8 The Sui (SWAY)Yangdi had more success expanding the dynasty within China.He wanted to return to the glory of the Han dynasty by rebuilding the Great Wall which had become ruins.
9 The Sui (SWAY)He also rebuilt the Han capital city of Changan (CHANG-AHN).He built the Grand Canal- a system of waterways connected China’s two great rivers, the Huang He (HWAHNG-HUH) “Yellow River” and the Chang Jiang (CHAHNG JYAHNG) “Yangtze River”.The rivers ran east to west, but the canal ran north to south.
11 The Sui (SWAY) Yangdi rebuilt China with the help of Chinese people. Farmers were forced to work on the Great Wall and the Grand Canal.Chinese people had to pay higher taxes to fund these projects and the emperor’s luxurious lifestyle.The farmers revolted and Yangdi was killed, marking the end of the Sui dynasty.
13 Tang DynastyIn A.D. 618, one of Yangdi’s generals took over China and founded the Tang dynasty.Lasted nearly 300 years A.DTang rulers restored a strong central government.Made many reforms, or changes, to improve the government.Taizong (TY-DZUNG) most powerful Tang emperor brought back civil service examinations.Government officials were selected based exam scores, not family connections.He also gave land to farmers and brought peace and order to the countryside.
14 Tang Dynasty During the late A.D. 600s, Empress Wu ruled China. Only woman in Chinese history to rule the country on her own.Powerful leader; strengthened militaryAdded more officials to the government
16 Growth & TradeTang rulers expanded their rule westward to Tibet, an area north of the Himalaya.Chinese took control of the Silk Road and northern Vietnam.Increased trade with other parts of Asia.
17 Growth & Trade Trade increase brought wealth to Chinese cities. Changan (CHANG-AHN), the Tang capital, grew to be the world’s largest city.Merchants in Changan sold goods from places as far away as India and Southwest Asia.By the mid-A.D. 700s Turkish nomads drove Tang armies out of central Asia and won control of the Silk Road.Chinese trade and economics suffered.
18 Growth & TradeChinese farmers revolted further weakening the Tang dynasty.In response Tang rulers hired Uighurs (WEE-GURZ), a Turkish speaking people in the northwest, to fight for them.Continued unrest led to the fall of the Tang rule in A.D. 907
19 The Song (SUNG) Dynasty After the fall of the Tang dynasty, military leaders ruled China.In A.D. 960, one of the generals became emperor and founded the Song (SUNG) dynasty.Song dynasty governed from A.DChinese enjoyed economic prosperity and many cultural achievements.Song rulers moved the government to the city of Hangzhou (HAHNG-JOH).
21 Buddhism in ChinaBrought to China by traders and missionaries from India during the A.D. 100s.During this time the Han dynasty was in declineCivil war broke out in ChinaPeople died from the fighting, hunger, and lack of shelterBuddhism taught that people could escape suffering by following its teachings.Many Chinese seeking peace and comfort became Buddhists.
23 Tang Rulers and Buddhism Early Tang rulers did not practice, but were tolerant of Buddhism.Chinese Buddhists joined monasteries-religious communities where they lived, worked, and worshiped.The monks (men) and nuns (women) of the monasteries helped local people by running schools and providing food and shelter for travelers.Monks were also bankers and provided medical care.Numerous Chinese became Buddhists, but a large part of the population opposed the religion.
25 Tang Rulers and Buddhism Those opposed believed the Buddhists’ temples and monasteries were too wealthy from donations.Others believed monks and nuns weakened respect for family life because they were not allowed to marry.Tang officials feared Buddhism’s growing influence.Buddhism was seen as an enemy of China’s Confucian traditions-customs related to the teachings of Confucius.In A.D. 845, the Tang government destroyed many Buddhists monasteries and temples.
26 Buddhism in KoreaKorea broke free of Chinese rule when the Han dynasty fell in A.D. 220.Korea was divided into three kingdoms.In A.D. 300s Chinese Buddhists brought the religion to Korea.By A.D. 660, the three Korean kingdoms united to form one country.The government favored Buddhism and attracted a large number of followers throughout Korea.
27 Buddhism in KoreaBuddhism later spread from Korea to the islands of Japan.In A.D. 552, a Korean king sent missionaries to the emperor of Japan.The missionaries brought Buddhist writings and a statue of the Buddha and a letter from the Korean king explaining how the religion is “the most excellent of all teachings.”
28 Confucian Ideas Confucius believed a good government depended on wise leaders.Civil service examinations begun by the Han rulers, were based on Confucian principles and provided China’s government with educated officials.After the fall of Han dynasty many turned to Buddhism; the Tang and Song dynasties worked to restore Confucianism to Chinese society.
29 Neo-Confucianism Tang and Song supported a new understanding of Confucianism known asNeo-Confucianism.Taught that people should be concernedabout this world and the afterlife.Followers were expected to be active in society and help others.Confucian thinker, Han Yü (HAHN YOO) encouraged Chinese to remain faithful to the Confucian teachings of their ancestors.
30 The Civil ServiceTang and Song rulers saw neo-Confucianism and civil service examinations as a way to strengthen the government.The examination tested candidates on Confucian writings.Only men could take the test; especially the rich since poor families could not afford tutors.
31 The Civil ServiceAt the age of four, boys begin learning the characters of the Chinese language.Later, had to memorize all of the writings of Confucius and recite them aloud.Only 1 in 5 boys passed the examinations.The examination system created a new class of leaders in China known as scholar-officials.Strict rulers separated scholar-officials from the rest of society; such as no physical work could be required from a job.
32 Reflection-Review Answer questions #1-3 on page 185 How was neo-Confucianism different from Confucianism?What actions did the emperors of the Sui and Tang dynasty take to unify China?How did Chinese farmers react to the changes made during the Sui and Tang dynasties?
33 Reflection-Review Answer questions #1-3 on page 185 How was neo-Confucianism different from Confucianism?
34 Reflection-Review Answer questions #1-3 on page 185 How was neo-Confucianism different from Confucianism?Neo-Confucianism added ideas from Buddhism and Daoism to the ideas of Confucius. Confucianism included only the ideas of Confucius.
35 Reflection-ReviewAnswer questions #1-3 on page What actions did the emperors of the Sui and Tang dynasty take to unify China?
36 Reflection-ReviewAnswer questions #1-3 on page What actions did the emperors of the Su and Tang dynasty take to unify China? The Sui emperors rebuilt the Great Wall and had the Grand Canal built to increase trade. The Tang emperors restored a strong central government and brought back civil service examinations. They also strengthened military forces.
37 Reflection-ReviewAnswer questions #1-3 on page How did Chinese farmers react to the changes made during the Sui and Tang dynasties?
38 Reflection-ReviewAnswer questions #1-3 on page How did Chinese farmers react to the changes made during the Sui and Tang dynasties? Farmers were often angry about how they and their land were treated. Under the Sui, farmers grew angry about heavy taxes and having to build the Grand Canal. Under the Tang dynasty farmers’ revolts helped to cripple the power of the Tang dynasty.