Presentation on theme: "Born-Haber cycles, and lattice energy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Born-Haber cycles, and lattice energy Mr Michael (Hamzah) Allan ( )KYUEM
2 5. Chemical energetics (p23) b) explain and use the term: iii) lattice energy(ΔH negative, i.e. gaseous ions to solid lattice)
3 Lattice energy (enthalpy) is the Definition:Lattice energy (enthalpy) is theenthalpy change when one mole of an ionic crystal (lattice) is formed from its constituent gaseous ions under standard conditions ...
5 (Ionic) Bond formingDHLE = -’veDHLE = -x kJmol-1
6 (Ionic) Bond --breaking-- DH = +’veDH = +x kJmol-1i.e. DH = - LE
7 Examples (1/4)…. Na+(g) + Cl-(g) NaCl(s) DHLE = -781 kJmol-1 sign gaseous ionsRemember to state the unitsStandard state for the product
8 Examples (2/4)…. K+(g) + O2-(g) KO2(s) DHLE = -1540 kJmol-1 Potassium superoxideK+(g) + O2-(g) KO2(s) DHLE = kJmol-1signgaseous ionsRemember to state the unitsStandard state for the product
9 Examples (3/4) – D.I.Y.Write a thermochemcial equation for the lattice energy of barium chloride given that the 0.1 moles of the salt formed (in the appropriate manner) liberates kJ of energyAnswer =Ba2+(g) + 2 Cl-(g) BaCl2(s) DHLE = kJmol-1
10 Examples (4/4) 2K+(g) + O22-(g) K2O2(s) DHLE = -1980 kJmol-1 Potassium peroxide2K+(g) + O22-(g) K2O2(s) DHLE = kJmol-1signgaseous ionsRemember to state the unitsStandard state for the product
12 Points of significance about Lattice energy It assumes a purely IONIC MODELCan be expressed as an equation (based on Coulombs law):𝐿.𝐸.=𝑘 𝑄1 𝑄2 𝑑2k is a constant ×109 N·m2/C2 Q1 and Q2 are the charges on the ions in coulombs (each charge = × C, (can include -ve for anions, + for cations) d = distance between charges in metres.
13 5. (e) (iv) Born-Haber cycles (P23) (including ionization energy and electron affinity)
14 Uses of Lattice energy.Born-Haber cycles, which shows the step-wise process of lattice formation from elements.Born-Haber cycles have numerous uses, e.g. predicting the stability of an ionic compound.
17 Other definitions to learn (1/3)… Enthalpy of formation (DHf): 1 mole of a compound is formed from its elements in their standard states under standard conditions.Enthalpy of atomization (DHat): 1 mole of gaseous atoms is formed from its element under standard conditions.
18 Other definitions to learn (2/3)… Ionization energy (DHIE): 1 mole of electrons is removed from 1 mole of gaseous atoms under standard conditions.NOTE: Removing e- from atoms is always an endothermic process. Energy must be supplied to overcome the attraction of the e- to the nucleus. The more e- that are removed, the more endothermic the process will be.
19 Other definitions to learn (3/3)… Electron affinity enthalpy (DHea): One mole of electrons is added to one mole of gaseous atoms under standard conditions.Note: The first ea’s are almost always negative. (noble gasses excepted). 2nd and later ea’s are ALWAYS positive (adding an electron to an already negative ion = repulsion to overcome)
20 Standard conditions (1/2). To keep all data comparable (therefore easy to use and easily transferable), measurements are usually taken under standard conditions.1 atmosphere (101 kPa, 760mmHg, 1 barr)298K (25oC – but must use K temperatures in equations)1 Molar solution (see electrochemistry etc)
21 Standard conditions (2/2). The symbol DH is accompanied with a“ ” symbol to donate standard conditions,i.e. DHIf no symbol is present, assume standard conditions are used, unless stated otherwise (and mention them in definitions, e.g. “Standard enthalpy of atomization”)
22 NaCl(s) product Na(s) + ½ Cl2(g) Na+(g) + Cl (g) Na(g) + ½ Cl2(g) Born-Haber cycle for NaCl (step by step)Na+(g) + Cl (g)½ Cl2(g) Cl(g) DHat = kJ mol-1Cl (g) Cl -(g) DHea = kJ mol-1Na(g) + ½ Cl2(g)Na+(g) + Cl - (g)Na(g) Na+(g) DHIE = +496 kJ mol-1Lattice energyNa(g) + ½ Cl2(g)Na+(g) + Cl -(g) NaCl(s) DHLE = kJ mol-1Na(s) Na(g) DHat = +107 kJ mol-1Na(s) + ½ Cl2(g)Datum line (zero energy line)<<< ElementsNa(s) + ½ Cl2(g) NaCl(s) DHf = kJ mol-1NaCl(s) product<< Lattice
24 AgCl(s) product Ag(s) + ½ Cl2(g) Ag+(g) + Cl (g) Ag(g) + ½ Cl2(g) Born-Haber cycle for AgCl (step by step)Ag+(g) + Cl (g)½ Cl2(g) Cl(g) DHat = kJ mol-1Cl (g) Cl -(g) DHea = kJ mol-1Ag(g) + ½ Cl2(g)Ag+(g) + Cl - (g)Ag(g) Ag+(g) DHIE = +731 kJ mol-1Lattice energyAg(g) + ½ Cl2(g)Ag+(g) + Cl -(g) AgCl(s) DHLE = kJ mol-1Ag(s) Ag(g) DHat = +285 kJ mol-1Ag(s) + ½ Cl2(g)Datum line (zero energy line)<<< ElementsAg(s) + ½ Cl2(g) AgCl(s) DHf = kJ mol-1AgCl(s) product<< Lattice
25 References:Formation of crystal lattice from ions:NaHalide LE’s figure:The LiF Born Haber cycle :Scaled Born-Haber diagram for NaCl and practice question: CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL AS AND A LEVEL CHEMISTRY REVISION GUIDE - David Bevan. Pub: Hodder. ISBN