 # Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design Lecture 3: CMOS Transistor Theory David Harris Harvey Mudd College Spring 2004.

## Presentation on theme: "Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design Lecture 3: CMOS Transistor Theory David Harris Harvey Mudd College Spring 2004."— Presentation transcript:

Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design Lecture 3: CMOS Transistor Theory David Harris Harvey Mudd College Spring 2004

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 2 Outline  Introduction  MOS Capacitor  nMOS I-V Characteristics  pMOS I-V Characteristics  Gate and Diffusion Capacitance  Pass Transistors  RC Delay Models

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 3 Introduction  So far, we have treated transistors as ideal switches  An ON transistor passes a finite amount of current –Depends on terminal voltages –Derive current-voltage (I-V) relationships  Transistor gate, source, drain all have capacitance –I = C (  V/  t) ->  t = (C/I)  V –Capacitance and current determine speed  Also explore what a “degraded level” really means

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 4 MOS Capacitor  Gate and body form MOS capacitor  Operating modes –Accumulation –Depletion –Inversion

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 5 Terminal Voltages  Mode of operation depends on V g, V d, V s –V gs = V g – V s –V gd = V g – V d –V ds = V d – V s = V gs - V gd  Source and drain are symmetric diffusion terminals –By convention, source is terminal at lower voltage –Hence V ds  0  nMOS body is grounded. First assume source is 0 too.  Three regions of operation –Cutoff –Linear –Saturation

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 6 nMOS Cutoff  No channel  I ds = 0

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 7 nMOS Linear  Channel forms  Current flows from d to s –e - from s to d  I ds increases with V ds  Similar to linear resistor

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 8 nMOS Saturation  Channel pinches off  I ds independent of V ds  We say current saturates  Similar to current source

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 9

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 10 I-V Characteristics  In Linear region, I ds depends on –How much charge is in the channel? –How fast is the charge moving?

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 11 Channel Charge  MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor while operating in inversion –Gate – oxide – channel  Q channel =

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 12 Channel Charge  MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor while operating in inversion –Gate – oxide – channel  Q channel = CV  C =

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 13 Channel Charge  MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor while operating in inversion –Gate – oxide – channel  Q channel = CV  C = C g =  ox WL/t ox = C ox WL  V = C ox =  ox / t ox

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 14 Channel Charge  MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor while operating in inversion –Gate – oxide – channel  Q channel = CV  C = C g =  ox WL/t ox = C ox WL  V = V gc – V t = (V gs – V ds /2) – V t C ox =  ox / t ox

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 15 Carrier velocity  Charge is carried by e-  Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field between source and drain  v =

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 16 Carrier velocity  Charge is carried by e-  Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field between source and drain  v =  E  called mobility  E =

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 17 Carrier velocity  Charge is carried by e-  Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field between source and drain  v =  E  called mobility  E = V ds /L  Time for carrier to cross channel: –t =

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 18 Carrier velocity  Charge is carried by e-  Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field between source and drain  v =  E  called mobility  E = V ds /L  Time for carrier to cross channel: –t = L / v

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 19 nMOS Linear I-V  Now we know –How much charge Q channel is in the channel –How much time t each carrier takes to cross

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 20 nMOS Linear I-V  Now we know –How much charge Q channel is in the channel –How much time t each carrier takes to cross

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 21 nMOS Linear I-V  Now we know –How much charge Q channel is in the channel –How much time t each carrier takes to cross

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 22 nMOS Saturation I-V  If V gd < V t, channel pinches off near drain –When V ds > V dsat = V gs – V t  Now drain voltage no longer increases current

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 23 nMOS Saturation I-V  If V gd < V t, channel pinches off near drain –When V ds > V dsat = V gs – V t  Now drain voltage no longer increases current

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 24 nMOS Saturation I-V  If V gd < V t, channel pinches off near drain –When V ds > V dsat = V gs – V t  Now drain voltage no longer increases current

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 25 nMOS I-V Summary  Shockley 1 st order transistor models

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 26 Example  We will be using a 0.6  m process for your project –From AMI Semiconductor –t ox = 100 Å –  = 350 cm 2 /V*s –V t = 0.7 V  Plot I ds vs. V ds –V gs = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 –Use W/L = 4/2

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 27 pMOS I-V  All dopings and voltages are inverted for pMOS  Mobility  p is determined by holes –Typically 2-3x lower than that of electrons  n –120 cm 2 /V*s in AMI 0.6  m process  Thus pMOS must be wider to provide same current –In this class, assume  n /  p = 2 –*** plot I-V here

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 28 Capacitance  Any two conductors separated by an insulator have capacitance  Gate to channel capacitor is very important –Creates channel charge necessary for operation  Source and drain have capacitance to body –Across reverse-biased diodes –Called diffusion capacitance because it is associated with source/drain diffusion

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 29 Gate Capacitance  Approximate channel as connected to source  C gs =  ox WL/t ox = C ox WL = C permicron W  C permicron is typically about 2 fF/  m

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 30 Diffusion Capacitance  C sb, C db  Undesirable, called parasitic capacitance  Capacitance depends on area and perimeter –Use small diffusion nodes –Comparable to C g for contacted diff –½ C g for uncontacted –Varies with process

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 31 Pass Transistors  We have assumed source is grounded  What if source > 0? –e.g. pass transistor passing V DD

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 32 Pass Transistors  We have assumed source is grounded  What if source > 0? –e.g. pass transistor passing V DD  V g = V DD –If V s > V DD -V t, V gs < V t –Hence transistor would turn itself off  nMOS pass transistors pull no higher than V DD -V tn –Called a degraded “1” –Approach degraded value slowly (low I ds )  pMOS pass transistors pull no lower than V tp

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 33 Pass Transistor Ckts

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 34 Pass Transistor Ckts

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 35 Effective Resistance  Shockley models have limited value –Not accurate enough for modern transistors –Too complicated for much hand analysis  Simplification: treat transistor as resistor –Replace I ds (V ds, V gs ) with effective resistance R I ds = V ds /R –R averaged across switching of digital gate  Too inaccurate to predict current at any given time –But good enough to predict RC delay

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 36

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 37

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 38 RC Delay Model  Use equivalent circuits for MOS transistors –Ideal switch + capacitance and ON resistance –Unit nMOS has resistance R, capacitance C –Unit pMOS has resistance 2R, capacitance C  Capacitance proportional to width  Resistance inversely proportional to width

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 39 RC Values  Capacitance –C = C g = C s = C d = 2 fF/  m of gate width –Values similar across many processes  Resistance –R  6 K  *  m in 0.6um process –Improves with shorter channel lengths  Unit transistors –May refer to minimum contacted device (4/2 ) –Or maybe 1  m wide device –Doesn’t matter as long as you are consistent

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 40 Inverter Delay Estimate  Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 41 Inverter Delay Estimate  Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 42 Inverter Delay Estimate  Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 43

CMOS VLSI Design3: CMOS Transistor TheorySlide 44 Inverter Delay Estimate  Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter d = 6RC

Download ppt "Introduction to CMOS VLSI Design Lecture 3: CMOS Transistor Theory David Harris Harvey Mudd College Spring 2004."

Similar presentations