Presentation on theme: "How are “empires” different from “river valley civilizations”?"— Presentation transcript:
1How are “empires” different from “river valley civilizations”? Essential Question:I will compare the differences and similarities among the Persian, Indian, and Chinese empires.Warm-Up Questions:What is an “empire”?How are “empires” different from “river valley civilizations”?What are the advantages of having an empire?
2From Civilization to Empire After thousands of years of civilization in river valleys, the first empires appearedRiver valley civilizations were complex societies with advanced technologies, cities, workers, writing, & institutionsEmpires were advanced societies with well-organized, centralized gov’ts that conquered & ruled a variety of formerly independent peopleClassical Civilization Age 1000BCE-600CEThe last period, the Classical Period, groups many dynasties and civilizations together, including the Mauryan Empire, the Gupta Dynasty, the Qin Dynasty, Greece, and Rome. The Mauryan Empire, Gupta Empire, and Qin Dynasty were the classical civilizations of India and China. These civilizations enhanced long distance trade and formed the idea of social positions based on employment. Greece and Rome were the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean. These classical civilizations are characterized as very well organized, centralized, and territorial. They characterized the period by expanding their empires and conquering surrounding territories and unifying them. After becoming so big, they could not control their borders, and suffered recurrent invasions from people to the North. Rome was invaded by the Goth and Huns, Gupta by the White Huns, and Han China by the nomadic Xiongnu. The classic civilizations all share similar characteristics of how their empires operated, as well as how they rose and fell.
3Mauryan & Gupta Empires in India Major EmpiresHan Dynasty in ChinaPersian EmpireMauryan & Gupta Empires in India
4Mesopotamia: River Valley to Empire The fertile soil & lack of natural boundaries in Mesopotamia led to frequent invasions & conquests
5The Persians grew into a powerful empire under Kings Cyrus & Darius One of the most important ancient empires were the Persians (in present-day Iran)The “10,000 Immortals”The Persians grew into a powerful empire under Kings Cyrus & DariusWith a powerful army, the Persians conquered Mesopotamia, Egypt, & India
6Persian CulturePersian religion was Zoroastrianism, which viewed life as a struggle between good & evilPersians believed in heaven & hell as consequences for how they lived their livesZoroastrianism influenced the views of the afterlife in Judaism, Christianity, & Islam
7The Persian Empire at its Height Quick Brainstorming Activity: How did the Persians control such a massive empire?
8The Persian EmpirePersians controlled their empire in a variety of ways:Persian kings were tolerant & allowed conquered people to keep their languages & religionsRather than destroying or looting conquered cities, King Cyrus would show respect for local customs
9The Persian EmpireKing Darius divided the empire into 20 provinces each ruled by a satrap (local governor) Satraps were the “eyes & ears of the king,” collected taxes, & informed the king of uprisingsAt the centre of ancient Persian administration was the king, controlling a network of satraps (governors). As well as governing, satraps were responsible for securing tribute and delivering it to the royal palace. The Greek writer Herodotus reported that at one time Cilicia (in south-east Turkey) paid 500 talents of silver (about 14 metric tons) and provided 360 white horses, and Babylon and Assyria paid 1000 talents of silver (about 28 metric tons) and gave 500 boys to be eunuchs.
10The Persian EmpireThe Persians built a network of roads in order to collect taxes & improve communication & trade throughout the empire
11The Persian EmpireThe Persians used metal coins with standardized values to help promote tradeMetal coins with standardized values helped promote trade
13The Mauryan Empire of India Chandragupta Maurya became king of India in 321 BC, created a vast army, & conquered new landsAfter the river valley era, India transitioned into the Mauryan EmpireChandragupta’s empire controlled most of the Indian subcontinentIndus River Valley
14India: The Mauryan Empire Chandragupta used tactics to control his empire:Like the Persians, Chandragupta divided his empire into provinces each ruled by a local prince31b - analyze the development of Indian civilization including the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire, "Golden Age" under Gupta, and the emperor Ashoka
15The Mauryan Empire of India During his wars of expansion, Asoka converted to BuddhismIn 269 B.C., King Asoka took over & expanded the Mauryan Empire to its greatest extentAsoka developed new policies of tolerance & nonviolence for his empireBuddhism spread as a result of Asoka’s influenceIndus River Valley
16The Gupta EmpireAfter Asoka’s death, the Mauryan Empire declined & was replaced by the Gupta EmpireChandra Gupta formed the Gupta Empire in 320 A.D. & expanded the empire
17Classical IndiaIndia experienced a “golden age” during the Gupta Empire & became a “classical empire”Indian astronomers were the first to discover that the earth was roundMathematicians invented modern numerals, zero, pi, & the decimal systemAstronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine The expansion of trade spurred the advance of science. Because sailors on trading ships used the stars to help them figure their position at sea, knowledge of astronomy increased. From Greek invaders, Indians adapted Western methods of keeping time. They began to use a calendar based on the cycles of the sun rather than the moon. They also adopted a seven-day week and divided each day into hours. During the Gupta Empire (A.D. 320 to about 500), knowledge of astronomy increased further. Almost 1,000 years before Columbus, Indian astronomers proved that the earth was round by observing a lunar eclipse. During the eclipse, the earth’s shadow fell across the face of the moon. The astronomers noted that the earth’s shadow was curved, indicating that the earth itself was round. Indian mathematics was among the most advanced in the world. Modern numerals, the zero, and the decimal system were invented in India. Around A.D. 500, an Indian named Aryabhata (AHR•yuh•BUHT•uh) calculated the value of pi (π) to four decimal places. He also calculated the length of the solar year as days. This is very close to modern calculations made with an atomic clock. In medicine, two important medical guides were compiled. They described more than 1,000 diseases and more than 500 medicinal plants. Hindu physicians performed surgery—including plastic surgery—and possibly gave injections
18Merchants sold exotic spices & silks to people in the Mediterranean world
20China & the Dynastic Cycle Government in China was based upon the dynastic cycle:One ruling family (a “dynasty”) gains the “mandate of heaven” then rules until the dynasty grows weak & is over- thrown
21As a result, eras in Chinese history are named after the ruling dynasties During the Han Dynasty, China became a “classical civilization” marked by its advanced gov’t, trade, & technologyChinese emperors added thousands of gov’t workers (called bureaucrats) to collect taxes, enforce laws, & oversee building projectsHan kings built a powerful army & expanded into Asia to form China’s first empire
22Exams were based on Confucian teachings In order to gain one of the 130,000 gov’t jobs, citizens had to pass a civil service examExams were based on Confucian teachings
23Han ChinaChinese technologies became advanced, especially silk & paper making. Paper made books cheaper & increased literacy in ChinaStructures of Han Technology, Commerce, and CultureThe 400 years of Han rule saw not only improvements in education but also great advances in Chinese technology and culture. In addition, the centralized government began to exert more control over commerce and manufacturing. Technology Revolutionizes Chinese Life Advances in technology influenced all aspects of Chinese life. Paper was invented in A.D Before that, books were usually written on silk. But paper was cheaper, so books became more readily available. This helped spread education in China. The invention of paper also affected Chinese government. Formerly, all government documents had been recorded on strips of wood. Paper was much more convenient to use for record keeping, so Chinese bureaucracy expanded. Another technological advance was the collar harness for horses. This invention allowed horses to pull much heavier loads than did the harness being used in Europe at the time The Chinese perfected a plow that was more efficient because it had two blades. They also improved iron tools, invented the wheelbarrow, and began to use water mills to grind grain.
24Han ChinaThe desire for Chinese luxury goods led to the Silk Road which connected China with Indian, Persian, & Mediterranean societiesStructures of Han Government The Chinese emperor relied on a complex bureaucracy to help him rule. Running the bureaucracy and maintaining the imperial army were expensive. To raise money, the government levied taxes. Like the farmers in India, Chinese peasants owed part of their yearly crops to the government. Merchants also paid taxes. Besides taxes, the peasants owed the government a month’s worth of labor or military service every year. With this source of labor, the Han emperors built roads and dug canals and irrigation ditches. The emperors also filled the ranks of China’s vast armies and expanded the Great Wall, which stretched across the northern frontier.Confucianism, the Road to Success Wudi’s government employed more than 130,000 people. The bureaucracy included 18 different ranks of civil service jobs, which were government jobs that civilians obtained by taking examinations. At times, Chinese emperors rewarded loyal followers with government posts. However, another way to fill government posts evolved under the Han. Thismethod involved testing applicants’ knowledge of Confucianism—the teachings of Confucius, who had lived 400 years before. The early Han emperors had employed some Confucian scholars as court advisers, but it was Wudi who began actively to favor them. Confucius had taught that gentlemen should practice “reverence [respect], generosity, truthfulness, diligence [industriousness], and kindness.” Because these were exactly the qualities he wanted his government officials to have, Wudi set up a school where hopeful job applicants from all over China could come to study Confucius’s works. After their studies, job applicants took formal examinations in history, law, literature, and Confucianism. In theory, anyone could take the exams. In practice, few peasants could afford to educate their sons. So only sons of wealthy landowners had a chance at a government career. In spite of this flaw, the civil service system begun by Wudi worked so efficiently that it continued in China until 1912.Han Technology, Commerce, and CultureThe 400 years of Han rule saw not only improvements in education but also great advances in Chinese technology and culture. In addition, the centralized government began to exert more control over commerce and manufacturing. Technology Revolutionizes Chinese Life Advances in technology influenced all aspects of Chinese life. Paper was invented in A.D Before that, books were usually written on silk. But paper was cheaper, so books became more readily available. This helped spread education in China. The invention of paper also affected Chinese government. Formerly, all government documents had been recorded on strips of wood. Paper was much more convenient to use for record keeping, so Chinese bureaucracy expanded. Another technological advance was the collar harness for horses. This invention allowed horses to pull much heavier loads than did the harness being used in Europe at the time The Chinese perfected a plow that was more efficient because it had two blades. They also improved iron tools, invented the wheelbarrow, and began to use water mills to grind grain.
25Closure Activity: Identify similarities & differences among the Persian, Indian, & Chinese empires.