Presentation on theme: "Extratropical climate. Review of last lecture Mean state: The two basic regions of SST? Which region has stronger rainfall? What is the Walker circulation?"— Presentation transcript:
Review of last lecture Mean state: The two basic regions of SST? Which region has stronger rainfall? What is the Walker circulation? El Nino and La Nina: Which region has warm SST anomaly during El Nino? 4-year period. Global impacts of ENSO Effects of El Nino on U.S. winter temperature and precipitation: Warm temperature around Great Lakes, Heavy rainfall in California and Gulf coast Land-sea temperature contrasts: seasonal monsoon
The extratropical troposphere is dominated by westerly winds and the polar vortex (a persistent large- scale cyclone circling the planet’s geographical poles) Caused by the temperature contrast between the tropics and the polar regions. Stronger during winter when the temperature contrast is larger Mean state of extratropical climate: Westerly winds and the polar vortex
Caused by steep temperature gradients between cold and warm air masses Stronger in winter, affect daily weather patterns The boundary of polar vortex is the Polar Jet Stream
When temperature contrast becomes weaker, polar vortex slows down & becomes wavy Then cold polar air will enter mid-latitudes
Polar Vortex Behind U.S. Big Chill Explained https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KEkSf gHJNkhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KEkSf gHJNk
Strengthening/Weakening of Polar Vortex (1) Natural variability North Pole: Arctic Oscillation (AO) Previously called North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) South Pole: Antarctic Oscillation (AAO)
The Arctic Oscillation Positive phase: Stronger polar vortex, colder temperature over Greenland, warm winter in U.S. Negative phase: Weaker polar vortex, warmer temperature over Greenland, cold winter in U.S.
Strengthening/Weakening of Polar Vortex (2) Human-induced global warming Larger warming in Arctic than in tropics reduces temperature contrast between tropics and north pole weakens polar vortex
When temperature contrast becomes weaker, polar vortex slows down & becomes wavy Then cold polar air will enter mid-latitudes more often
Animation: Cold US weather and Polar vortex in the last 30 days http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/map/images/f nl/500z_01_30frames.fnl.anim.htmlhttp://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/map/images/f nl/500z_01_30frames.fnl.anim.html
Impacts of tropical climate on extratropical climate
The Pacific/North American Oscillation (PNA): The way El Nino/La Nina affect U.S.
PNA often generate the “Pineapple Express” connecting Hawaii and California
They are also called “Atmospheric Rivers” They provide important rainfall, but also create dangerous flooding for the west coast
Video: Atmospheric Rivers provide important rainfall, create dangerous flooding https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HCe7w VzOABwhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HCe7w VzOABw
Global climate variability Combining the Tropics and Extratropics
Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a 60yr oscillation in water temperatures and is a major factor in the increase in Atlantic hurricane activity.
Summary Mean state: westerly winds, polar vortex The natural oscillations associated with strengthening/weakening of polar vortex: AO, NAO, AAO The effect of human-induced global warming on polar vortex Impacts of tropical climate on extratropical climate: What is the primary way El Nino affect extratropics? (PNA) Global climate variability: the 60-year AMO and thermohaline circulation