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Chapter 25 Human Geography of South Asia A Region of Contrasts

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1 Chapter 25 Human Geography of South Asia A Region of Contrasts
Objective: Compare features of Human Geography in the Seven countries of South Asia

2 Chapter 25 Section 1 India Vocabulary: Mughal Empire, Raj, Nonviolent Resistance, Land Reform, Green Revolution, & Caste System Objective: Define the nature of India’s government & identify some of its challenges

3 Invasions, Empires, & Independence
Indian culture is a blend of many different customs & traditions Civilization began in the Indus Valley around B.C. Aryans migrated into the area & played a key role in the development of Indian civilization Persians & Greeks also occupied the Indus Valley The Mauryan Empire united most of India Muslims conquered the region establishing the Mughal Empire

4 Invasions, Empires, & Independence
The British East India Company came to India to obtain spices Britain established direct rule over India (called the raj) The British control lasted for 90 years Mohandas Gandhi began a nonviolent resistance to gain independence Pakistan & Bangladesh decided to break away from India due to religious differences

5 Governing the World’s Largest Democracy
India adopted a constitution & became a democratic republic in 1950 However, like Britain they have a parliamentary government with the Prime Minister becoming the head of the government Many different ethnic, cultural, & religious factors influence Indian politics India is mostly Hindu but they have a Muslim minority However, they do solve political conflicts peacefully

6 Economic Challenges 2/3’s of India’s people rely on farming for their livelihood Most farm families struggle to survive Land Reform (distribution of land) is a proposed solution to the problem India is now a major producer of iron & steel, chemicals, machinery, & food products Other cities like Bangalore are becoming high-tech cities

7 Life in Modern India & Indian Culture
Most Indians follow the custom of arranged marriages (divorce is rare) Indian families are large & very connected Most Indians ear vegetarian diets & limit meat consumption because of religious practices The government has placed a high priority on improving public education Hindi is the official language but English is still widely used 80% of the population practice Hinduism They believe in reincarnation, karma, & are polytheistic The caste system is used to place people in social classes

8 Chapter 25 Section 2 Pakistan & Bangladesh
Vocabulary: Indus Valley Civilization, Partition, Kashmir, Microcredit, Entrepreneur, & Ramadan Objective: Analyze the economies of the two countries

9 New Countries, Ancient Lands
The Indus Valley Civilization (modern-day Pakistan) began around 2500 B.C. It had well-planned cities containing brick buildings & sophisticated sanitation The region later was controlled by several different ethnic groups until the arrival of the British Partition (division) of India came after the end of British rule in with Muslims creating West & East Pakistan Ethnic differences caused East Pakistan to fight for independence creating Bangladesh

10 Struggling Economies Most farmers in Pakistan & Bangladesh work small plots of land & struggle to survive Pakistan is mostly arid which affect agriculture Bangladesh is affected by seasonal monsoons & cyclones Neither country is highly industrialized but are trying to improve their industries They have developed microcredit to provide small loans to entrepreneurs to start their own businesses in hopes to improve their economy

11 One Religion, Many People
Islam has long played an important role in Pakistan & Bangladesh They observe Islamic customs including daily prayer & Ramadan (month-long period of fasting from sunrise to sunset) Pakistan is stricter in imposing Islamic law while Bangladesh is less strict Pakistanis practice purdah (women can’t have contact with men who are not relatives) Pakistan is also more ethnically diverse than Bangladesh

12 Modern Life & Culture Like in India, Pakistan & Bangladesh have arrange marriages & large families Most people live in simple homes but they do have major cities that are crowded Poetry is a special interest in both Pakistan & Bangladesh Poets are popular figures & mushairas (poetry readings) draw thousands of people Music & dance are also important forms of expression in Bangladesh & Pakistan

13 Chapter 25 Section 3 Nepal & Bhutan
Vocabulary: Constitutional Monarchy, Sherpa, Siddhartha Gautama, & Mandala Objective: Compare the aspects of the economies of Nepal & Bhutan

14 Mountain Kingdoms The main geographic feature of Nepal & Bhutan is their mountainous landscape The rugged mountainous landscape of Nepal & Bhutan has isolated the two countries throughout their histories Nepal & Bhutan remained independent & isolated Both Nepal & Bhutan are constitutional monarchies (rulers power limited by a constitution)

15 Developing Economies Nepal & Bhutan are poor countries with economies based mainly on agriculture Most of the land is not suitable for cultivation Farmers practice terraced farming to increase the amount of farmland & limit soil loss The timber industry is very important to both countries Most trade for both countries is with India One of the fastest growing industries in Nepal is tourism However, in Bhutan regulates the tourist industries

16 Rich Cultural Traditions
Various ethnic groups inhabit the Himalayan region The Sherpas in Nepal are the high Himalayas are the traditional mountain guides of the Everest region The main ethnic group in Bhutan is the Bhote, who trace their origins to Tibet Buddhism has deep roots in Nepal since its founder Siddhartha Gautama was born there Buddhism is the official religion in Bhutan Folk art & festivals are an important feature of Himalayan culture

17 Chapter 25 Section 4 Sri Lanka & the Maldives
Vocabulary: Sinhalese, Tamils, & Sultan Objective: Summarize religious, ethnic, & cultural life there

18 History of the Islands The Sinhalese migrated from India to Sri Lanka, adopting Buddhism & building a irrigation system The Tamils then migrated to Sri Lanka, bringing a different culture Britain took control of the Island until they gained independence Tensions continue between the Sinhalese & Tamils in Sri Lanka The Maldives were settled by Buddhist & Hindus until being converted to Islam by Arab traders In 1968, the Maldives declared itself a republic

19 Life in the Islands Sri Lanka is a diverse mix of ethnic & religious groups with Sinhalese Buddhists making up 75% of the population 18% are Tamil Hindus & 7% are Muslims Most people in Sri Lanka continue to live in smaller towns & villages The population of the Maldives are Sinhalese who mixed with Arabs Art & literature are strongly influenced by their religious traditions

20 Economic Activity in the Islands
Sri Lanka has an economy based on agriculture by producing rice, rubber, & coconuts They are also a leading tea producing country Maldives economy is based on fishing & tourism Warfare in Sri Lanka made their tourist industry collapse

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