Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23. 23.1 Intro The civilization lasted from 2000 BC to 1500 AD. How far did the civilization stretch? Stretched from Mexico through Central America."— Presentation transcript:
23.1 Intro The civilization lasted from 2000 BC to 1500 AD. How far did the civilization stretch? Stretched from Mexico through Central America.
23.2 How Did the Mayan Civilization Develop? When was the height of the civilization? Mayan civilization peaked from 300 to 900 AD and stretched from S. Mexico to El Salvador. The Maya reached height of development in thick jungle of Guatamala.
What Were the Origins of the Maya? From whom did the Maya build their civilization on? Built their civilization on the Olmecs who reached their peak from 1200 to 500 BC. Which development allows a civilization to develop permanent settlements? By 200 BC Olmecs had switched to agriculture (*corn) and formed permanent settlements. What are some of the requirements to be considered a civilization? Developed trade routes, palaces, temples, religious monuments, and a solar calendar.
Pre-classic period from 2000 BC to 300 AD. B/g living in simple huts and farming and gradually grew larger. What was a development during this period built on the Olmecs? Developed a hieroglyphic writing system taken from the Olmecs. Classic-period from 300 to 900 AD. Improved on Olmec ideas. What were some of the developments that took place during this period? Improved building techniques, built large stone cities, pyramids, palaces, observatories, and used math and astronomy to develop accurate calendars. Consisted of many independent states.
What Were the 3 Periods of the Maya? Post-classic period from 900 AD to 1200 AD. Mayan civilization collapsed and cities fell to ruin and no one knows why. Where had the civilization not collapsed? Mayan culture still flourished on the Yucatan Peninsula but with fewer achievements
23.3 What Was Their Class Structure? Each independent state had its own social pyramid. Who Was the Ruler? What kind of decision would the ruler make? Ruled w/ the help of advisors and decided when to go to war. What was the ruler viewed as? He was a god-king, and when he died a close male relative would succeed him.
Who Were the Nobles and Priests? Under the ruler and were the only Mayans that knew how to read and write. What were some of the jobs of the priests? Oversaw the admin of the states and gathered taxes, supplies, and supplies, and would lead armies in battle. Priests led rituals, sacrifices, and foretold the future. Which other functions were served by priests? Priests were also mathematicians, astronomers, and healers.
Who Were the Merchants and Artists? Traded by sea, river, and roads. Which items were traded? Traded for obsidian, jade, tree sap, and quetzals. What did the artists create? Artists painted books and murals depicting Mayan life, were weavers and potters, and sculpted for temples and palaces.
Who Were the Peasants? What do you think was the main job of the peasants? The peasants performed all of the agricultural labor (men) while the women prepped food, weaved, and sewed. They also provided the labor for building projects and served as soldiers in war.
Who Were the Slaves? Performed all of the manual labor. How did one become a slave? Some were born into slavery, some sold into it, some made slaves b/c of crimes, and some were captured in battle. How were they treated? They were not treated badly, but they were not free and were sacrificed after their master died.
23.4 What Was Family Life Like? What Were the Duties of Family Members? What did the women do? Women got up early to make tortillas, care for the animals, clean, gather, and weave. What did the men do? Men and boys got up early and went to work in the fields, and when not farming would hunt or trap animals.
What Were the Special Occasions? Births were special occasions, as well as the 3 month celebration for baby girls where she was given the tools she would use in her life. Which types of tools would she be given? Boys had the 4 month celebration where the tools he would use in his life were pout into his hands. Which types of tools would he be given? Girls celebrated the coming-of-age ceremony at age 12 and boys at 14. What’s the ceremony like?
What Were the Marriage Customs? Men usually married at 20 and girls at 14. Who arranged the marriage? Marriages were arranged by a matchmaker and then parents would have to negotiate the details. What were some of the details? A hut would be built for the couple and a celebration followed.
23.5 What Were the Religious Beliefs and Practices? What were the cities always built around? Cities were built around religious centers.
What Were the Beliefs and Rituals? Were the Mayans monotheistic or polytheistic? Maya were polytheistic and gods usually represented some form of daily life. B/l that gods had created the world and could destroy it. How were the gods determined? How did the priest communicate with and interpret the gods? Priests conducted sacrifices, read books, interpreted omens, signs, and the future. Always sought advice from the gods. Why did they b/l that gods needed blood? B/l that blood gave gods strength so they sacrificed animals and humans. What happened to the losers of pok-a-tok? Mayans played game called pok-a-tok in which members of the losing team were sacrificed.
What Was the Sacred Calendar? What were the two calendars and what were they used for? Mayans used 2 calendars; 1. For daily life, based on the sun, 18 months, 365 days. 2. The Sacred Round, 13 months, 260 days, only priests could interpret meaning of days. Sacred round revealed the best days to plant, hunt, cure, do battle, religious ceremonies.
23.6 What Were the Agricultural Techniques? What Were the Challenges? One challenge was trying to grow enough food to feed a growing population. Why was the land difficult to farm? Which agricultural techniques were employed? In the mountains the terrace farmed. In swamps they built raised platforms surrounded by canals. In the forest they used slash-and-burn agriculture. What is slash-and-burn agriculture?
What Was the End of the Classic Period? By 900, w/I a space of 50-100 years, the Maya civilization collapsed. What are some of the theories to account for their collapse? Some b/l population outgrew agricultural techniques. Possibly drought, or dry weather. Could possibly have been the result of warfare among the states, or invaders from Central Mexico.