3 READ ALOUDIn 1921 archaeologists gathered around a huge dirt mound on the southern plains of the Indus Valley. They knew remains of the past lay hidden beneath the mound. Earlier visitors had found artifacts there. But how old were the remains? What would they reveal about how Indian people lived long ago?As the archaeologists dug down, the ruins of a great city began to appear. A new understanding about India’s ancient past had begun.
4 The Big Picture Location Knowledge 1000 miles from Iraq (Mesopotamia) Civilizations still traded 4000 years agoKnowledgeLeast is known about Indus River ValleyArcheologists can’t read the writingFew artifacts and remains have been found
5 A Civilization in the Indus Valley HarappaIn the northern part of Indus ValleyRuins named after an Indian godWhat people called themselves when they lived is unknownIt lasted from 2500 B.C. to 1600 B.C.Mohenjo-Daro – “Mound of the Dead” (Sanskrit)Found a year laterExactly like Harappa400 mile south
6 A City Along the Indus Mohenjo-Daro (p. 135) Population – 40,000Dozens of crisscrossing streetsLarge – paved with tan bricksSmaller – narrower; unpavedBrick housesSmallOne-room buildingsMulti-sotriesAiry courtyards/balconiesWest end – citadelSurrounded by thick walls protecting from flood and attacksHuge grain warehouse for barely and wheat
7 Life in Mohenjo-Daro (p. 136) Challenge for archaeologists because they can’t read language but can look at structure of cityCity PlanningExact measuring of buildingsSame sized bricksDug wells located throughout citySewers with manholes
8 Drawing conclusions Historians think Mohenjo-Daro had a “strong central government” since Harappa had same layoutCitadel exhibited a building with large pillarsthat perhaps served as city hall that “overlooked the city”(p. 137).- bath may have been used for religious practices
9 Working in Mohenjo-Daro MetalworkersCopper fish hooksRazorsBronze statueWeavers- First time in history- wove cotton clothFarmersProduced surplusStored in warehouseGrain collected for taxesPossibly payment to government workersWorkers were highly skilledBuildersEngineerCraftworkersStone carversFigures in small squares of stoneMay be used to mark belongingsPottersWater jarsCooking bowlscontainers
10 Harappan Trade Traded near and far Sold stone seals to “Iran” Bought blue stones from “Afghanistan”Beads/necklaces made on stones from IndiaAbove were traded in MesopotamiaTrip made in sail boatsUsed field birds to locate land
11 Newcomers Mohenjo-Daro deserted around 1600 B.C. Earthquake changed course of riverNo water; no civilizationEarthquake could have caused destructive flood1500 B.C.invaded by AryansOriginally from central AsiaHerded cattle and sheep on horsebackCame from Hindu Kush MountainsMeans “noble ones” in SanskritBrought their languageBrought new ideasBrought new religion
12 Why It Matters Harappan civilization lasted 1000 years Farmers produced a surplus foodPopulation fedCivilization grewWorkers produced cotton cloth, stone seals and drainage systems for all of civilizationDestroyed by waters that also produced it.Aryans came blending cultures
13 Main IdeasLittle is known about the Harappan civilization because its writing system has not yet been figured out.The city of Mohenjo-Daro included many brick buildings and a huge citadel. The city also had a sewer system more advanced than any other of its time.The orderly layout of the city and its large grain warehouse suggest that Mohenjo-Daro wa ruled by a strong local government.Harappan merchants traded goods in many places, some of which were as far away as Mesopotamia.In about 1500 B.C. people called Aryans migrated to the Indian sub-continent. They brought new ideas to the region.
14 Think About ItWhy is the ancient Indus Valley civilization called Harappan civilization?What have historians learned about Harappan civilization from written sources? What have they learned from building remains in cities like Mohenjo-Daro?
15 FocusWhat do we know about the early culture of Mohenjo-Daro?
16 Thinking SkillBased on the information in thi leson, what conclusions can you make about the people who lived in Mohenjo-Daro? What evidence supports your opinions?
17 GeographyDraw the map showing the migration of the Aryans and trade routes