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Confined Space Entry This lesson will cover both non-permit required and permit required confined space. Major references are: 29 CFR 1910.146 and ANSI.

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Presentation on theme: "Confined Space Entry This lesson will cover both non-permit required and permit required confined space. Major references are: 29 CFR 1910.146 and ANSI."— Presentation transcript:

1 Confined Space Entry This lesson will cover both non-permit required and permit required confined space. Major references are: 29 CFR and ANSI Z Confined space entry is a high hazard activity, and a rigid confined space entry program should be developed and practiced. This lesson is designed to take approximately one hour to complete.

2 Disclaimer This training material presents very important information.
Your organization must do an evaluation of all exposures, applicable codes and regulations, and establish proper controls, training, and protective measures to effectively control exposures and assure compliance. This program is neither a determination that the conditions and practices of your organization are safe nor a warranty that reliance upon this program will prevent accidents and losses or satisfy local, state or federal regulations. All procedures and training, whether required by law or not, should be implemented and reviewed by safety and risk management professionals, and legal counsel to ensure that all local, state and federal requirements are satisfied.

3 Course Outline – Confined Space Entry
Key Definitions Examples of Confined Spaces Confined Space Entry Standard Program Elements Responsibilities Permit System Atmospheric Monitoring Flammable Atmosphere Monitoring Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Toxic Hazards Entry Preparation Rescue services Program Audit

4 Definitions and key points of confined spaces:
Key Definitions Definitions and key points of confined spaces: Large enough for entry & work Limited means of entry & exit Not designed for continuous occupancy The definition of confined space: A space that is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work. It has limited or restricted means for entry and exit and is not designed for permanent occupancy. Limited egress does not necessarily mean just one way in and out. Breaking the plane of the space opening with any part of your body is considered entry. If work is not routine in a space, it is tough to classify it as designed for continuous occupancy. A space designed for continuous occupancy should have its own environmental controls, such as a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. All three of the above must be met to deem a space “confined.” Definition of Non- Permit Required Confined Space (NPRCS): A confined space that does not contain or have the potential to contain an atmosphere hazard capable of causing death or physical harm. The atmosphere should be proven by air monitoring to be free of hazard. Further, the work being performed inside the non-permit space may not produce a safety or health hazard (e.g., grinding, welding, painting, etc.)

5 Examples of Confined Spaces
A Permit Required Confined Space (PRCS) is a confined space with one or more of the following: Hazardous atmosphere potential Engulfment hazard Hazardous internal configuration Other serious safety hazard “Entry” is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant’s body breaks the plane of an opening into the space. As discussed in the beginning, the definition of PRCS is: a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics: --Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere --Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant --Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section, AND --Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard. --Other serious safety or health hazards might include mechanical (moving parts), exposed electrical, slip/fall hazards and many others

6 Examples of Confined Spaces
Typical examples of confined spaces: Non-permit required: Utility closets Below grade trenches Storage vaults Scroll cases Railcar Permit required: Chemical storage tanks Plumbing or electrical vaults Drainage sumps Hoppers Here are some examples of confined spaces. This list is not all inclusive. Any of these spaces have the potential of being or becoming permit required confined spaces. An assessment must be performed prior to each entry to make a determination.

7 Confined Space Entry Standard
Confined Space Entry Standard as defined by OSHA: Establish definitions of spaces, roles and responsibilities and requirements for entry Requires a written program Requires employers to establish a permit system for entry Defines hazards within confined spaces Requires all confined spaces to be identified and hazards to be communicated to employees Identifies and evaluates permit space hazards before allowing employee entry Tests conditions in the permit space before entry operations and monitors the space during entry The next 3 slides list the Confined Space Entry standard as determined by OSHA.

8 Confined Space Entry Standard
Confined Space Entry Standard as defined by OSHA (continued): Perform in the following sequence, appropriate testing for atmospheric hazards: oxygen, combustible gases or vapors, and toxic gases or vapors Implement necessary measures to prevent unauthorized entry Control hazards necessary for safe permit-space entry operations Establish and implement the means, procedures and practices --such as specifying acceptable entry conditions, isolating the permit space, providing barriers, verifying acceptable entry conditions, purging, making inert, flushing, or ventilation of the permit space--to eliminate Provide, maintain, and require, at no cost to the employee, the use of personal protective equipment and any other equipment necessary for safe entry, e.g., testing, monitoring, ventilating, communications, and lighting equipment; barriers, shields, and ladders Ensure that at least one attendant is stationed outside the permit space for the duration of entry operations

9 Confined Space Entry Standard
Confined Space Entry Standard as defined by OSHA (continued): Coordinate entry operations when employees of more than one employer are to be working in the permit space Implement appropriate procedures for summoning rescue and emergency services Establish, in writing, and implement a system for the preparation, issuance, use, and cancellation of entry permits Identify employee job duties Review established entry operations and annually revise the permit-space entry program When an attendant is required to monitor multiple spaces, implement the procedures to be followed during an emergency in one or more of the permit spaces being monitored Maintain canceled entry permits for at least one year

10 Program Elements Program Elements:
Identification and Labeling: Determine what the confined spaces are and ensure proper labeling Hazard Identification: Identify hazards and air monitoring and ventilation conducted Atmospheric hazards (oxygen, flammability, toxicity) Inherent or introduced from work to be done Physical hazards Entry conditions Equipment Responsibilities Emergency rescue Training Audit Here are 8 program elements that should be included in the Confined Space Program. We will discuss these elements as we move through this training. The lesson is loosely broken down into these areas. OSHA 29 CFR APP A provides a flowchart of employers to use to assist in determining confined spaces.

11 Responsibilities of personnel:
Attendant Entrant Confined space entry supervisor Rescue personnel Everyone involved in the work has specific responsibilities that must be met to ensure the health and safety of all workers. Employee participation in this area is the key to safe and productive work. In the next few slides we will discuss the responsibilities of the following: Attendant Entrant Confined space supervisor Rescue personnel

12 Attendant responsibilities:
Attend pre-entry briefing Evaluate and know the hazards of the space Monitor and maintain communication with entrant Control access to the space Remain outside until relieved. Do not enter space even for rescue Only enter if allowed by permit, if trained and if equipped Summon rescue Take action with unauthorized entrants No other duties to be performed while on watch Maintain accountability of entrants The responsibilities of the attendant: The attendant may have no other responsibilities other than monitoring the entrant during a permit entry. Evaluate and know the hazards of the space Control access and keep track of the entrants. You may have to summon rescue or perform a non-entry rescue but you are not allowed to enter the space and perform a rescue. (Unless relieved of duties by another qualified attendant) Trigger an evacuation if conditions present a hazard.

13 Entrant responsibilities:
Attend pre-entry briefing Know hazards Follow permit requirements Properly use equipment Communicate with attendant Alert attendant to danger Exit space when danger is recognized or when ordered to by attendant Here are the responsibilities of the entrant. Know space hazards, including information on the mode of exposure (e.g., inhalation or dermal absorption), signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure. Use appropriate personal protective equipment properly (e.g., face and eye protection, and other forms of barrier protection such as gloves, aprons, and coveralls). As necessary, maintain communication (i.e., telephone, radio, visual observation) with attendants to enable the attendant to monitor the entrant's status as well as to alert the entrant to evacuate. Exit from permit space as soon as possible; when ordered by an authorized person, when the entrant recognizes that warning signs or symptoms of exposure exist, when a prohibited condition exists, or when an automatic alarm is activated. Alert the attendant when a prohibited condition exists or when warning signs or symptoms of exposure exist.

14 Entrant responsibilities (continued):
Retrieval line and equipment procedures: Must ensure that the other end of the retrieval line is attached to a mechanical device or to a fixed point outside the permit space. A mechanical device must be available to retrieve personnel from vertical type permit spaces more than 5 feet deep. Employees required to wear retrieval devices must wear a chest or full body harness with a retrieval line attached to the center of their back near their shoulder level, or above their heads if the confined space is more than five feet deep. Retrieval lines and non-entry rescue devices are required during vertical entries that are more than 5 feet in depth. The attendant must be trained in the use of non-entry retrieval equipment.

15 Entrant responsibilities (continued):
Retrieval line and equipment procedures: Wristlets may be used if the employer can demonstrate that the use of a chest or full body harness is infeasible or creates a greater hazard. If an injured entrant is exposed to a substance for which a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) or other similar written information is required to be kept at the worksite, that SDS or other written information must be made available to the medical facility treating the exposed entrant.

16 Entry Supervisor responsibilities:
Fully understand hazards Verify completion of permit conditions Understand required tests and monitoring Ensure required procedures and equipment in place Ensure availability of rescue Assure unauthorized persons do not enter Supervisor’s responsibility for a confined space entry.

17 Rescue and emergency personnel responsibilities:
Understand hazards of the space Be able to respond quickly for rescue Train for rescue from similar or representative spaces Perform non-entry and entry rescue Be trained in First Aid/CPR Can be contracted or in-house Key Points: The employer needs to ensure that rescue service personnel are provided with and trained in the proper use of personal protective and rescue equipment, including respirators. They are trained to perform assigned rescue duties. They have had authorized entrant's training. All rescuers must be trained in first aid and CPR and, at a minimum, one rescue team member be currently certified in first aid and in CPR. Practice rescue exercises must be performed yearly, and rescue services must be provided access to permit spaces so that they can practice rescue operations. Rescuers also must be informed of the hazards of the permit space.

18 Employer responsibilities:
Before initial work assignment begins, the employer must provide proper training for all workers who are required to work in permit spaces Employers must ensure that employees have acquired the understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary for the safe performance of their duties Additional training is required when: The job duties change There is a change in the permit-space program or the permit space operation presents a new hazard When an employee's job performance shows deficiencies It is imperative that employers ensure all employees are fully and adequately trained. Here are some basics of a training program.

19 Education and training:
Responsibilities Education and training: Training also is required for rescue team members, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first-aid training (see emergencies). Employers must certify that training has been accomplished. Employees must receive a certificate of training that includes the employee's name, signature or initials of trainer(s), and dates of training. The certification must be made available for inspection by employees and their authorized representatives. Employees are to be trained in their assigned duties.

20 Key elements of permit system:
A permit, signed by the entry supervisor and verifying that pre-entry preparations have been completed and that the space is safe to enter, must be posted at entrances or otherwise made available to entrants before they enter a permit space. The duration of entry permits must not exceed the time required to complete an assignment. The entry supervisor must terminate entry and cancel permits when an assignment has been completed or when new conditions exist. New conditions must be noted on the canceled permit and used in revising the permit space program. The standard also requires the employer to keep all canceled entry permits for at least 1 year. The Permit system is the backbone of a safe and effective confined space program. It ensures that ONLY authorized, trained, and equipped personnel are entering the space, and that they are fully aware of the hazards. The permit system developed must be comprehensive and enforceable. Each employer will develop their own permit system that works within their normal business operating procedures. Here are some key elements:

21 Key elements of permit system (continued):
Space to be entered Purpose Date, authorized duration of entry Name of attendant, entrants, supervisor Signature/initial of supervisor Hazards of space A confined space cannot be entered until the permit is completed and signed off by an entry supervisor. It is essential that all information is filled in on the confined space permit to help employees ensure that the space has been properly prepared and the workers are ready to enter and perform work.

22 Key elements of permit system (continued):
Methods to isolate space and eliminate/control hazards ex. lockout, ventilation, blind lines. Acceptable entry conditions Test results, time, name/initials of tester Rescue services Communication procedures Confined space permits need to incorporate essential elements like confined space testing and atmospheric testing.

23 Key elements of permit system (continued):
Equipment to be provided PPE, test, communication, and rescue equipment Additional permits, e.g. hot work Means to summon rescue services Other pertinent information needed to ensure employee safety Another pre-entry necessity is to ensure that all other safety equipment, PPE, tools, and supplies are available before work commences.

24 When entry is prohibited the employer must:
Permit System When entry is prohibited the employer must: Take effective measures to prevent unauthorized entry. Non-permit confined spaces must be re-evaluated when there are changes in their use or configuration and, where appropriate, must be reclassified. If testing and inspection data prove that a permit-required confined space no longer poses hazards, that space may be reclassified as a non-permit confined space. During a confined space entry hazards may develop or change following initial entry. Even non-permit spaces must be re-evaluated when there are changes in the use, configuration, or conditions. When appropriate the space needs to be reclassified.

25 When entry is prohibited the employer must (continued):
Permit System When entry is prohibited the employer must (continued): Contractors also must be informed of permit spaces and permit space entry requirements, any identified hazards, the employer's experience with the space (i.e., the knowledge of hazardous conditions), and precautions or procedures to be followed when in or near permit spaces. When employees of more than one employer are conducting entry operations, the affected employers must coordinate entry operations to ensure that affected employees are appropriately protected from permit space hazards. Contractors must also be given other pertinent information regarding hazards and operations in permit spaces and be debriefed at the conclusion of entry operations. When contractors and other vendors need to enter a confined space it is essential that the workers be briefed on the hazards associated with the space. Coordination between entrants is also essential if multiple employers are working in a space during the same entry.

26 Permit System Permit Space Labeling Must be posted at the space entry
One of the most essential methods to prevent unauthorized entry into a confined space is to properly label the space and train employees. Companies must inventory and place labels/signs at the confined space entrance to prevent unauthorized entry

27 Atmospheric Monitoring
Confined space hazards can be grouped into six categories: Atmospheric hazards Physical hazards Engulfment hazards Corrosive hazards Biological hazards Other hazards This section of the course is for Confined Space Entry Supervisors and any other personnel required to assess and monitor confined space atmospheres. To properly assess the hazards in a confined space, environmental hazards as well as physical hazards need to be assessed.

28 Atmospheric Monitoring
Confined Space Atmosphere = “The gases, vapors, mists, fumes, and dusts present in the confined space.” Normal composition of air: 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% All other gases CO2 Argon Neon Water vapor Methane, etc. Discussion points: If the atmosphere is < 20.9% oxygen, it has something else there, OR your monitor or its calibration need attention If the atmosphere is at 10 % LEL - It is toxic 1% of an atmosphere equates to 10,000 ppm of something else…do you know what it is?

29 Atmospheric Monitoring
Oxygen deficient atmospheres: #1 Cause of confined space accidents Flammable atmospheres Toxic atmospheres Hazardous atmospheres can be inherent to space, caused by outside influence or a result of work conducted within the space. The three main atmospheric hazards in a confined space are oxygen deficiency, flammable atmospheres, and toxic atmospheres. Suffocation causes 65% of fatalities occurring in confined spaces which are a result of hazardous atmospheres. REMEMBER: ATMOSPHERE MAY BE HAZARDOUS BECAUSE OF A PRE-EXISTING CONDITION IN THE SPACE OR IT MAY BECOME HAZARDOUS BECAUSE OF HAZARDS CREATED BY THE WORK.

30 Atmospheric Monitoring
Oxygen: Acceptable oxygen levels are 19.5% to 23.5% Displacement by other gases, such as ? <19.5%… air is considered oxygen deficient <20.9%… what is there?! Consumption by chemical reaction, e.g., rusting, combustion Consumption by bacterial action Both Oxygen Enriched and Oxygen Deficient atmospheres present hazards to entrants.

31 Atmospheric Monitoring
Health effects of oxygen deficiency: 20.9% Oxygen content in normal air 19.5% Minimum amount of oxygen required for work 19.5% - 12% Increases pulse and respiration, impaired judgment, coordination loss. 12.0% -10% Disturbed respiration, fatigue, faulty judgment, poor circulation, symptoms within seconds to minutes. 10.0% - 6% Nausea, vomiting, inability to move, loss of consciousness and death. 6% - 0% Convulsions, gasping respiration, cessation of breathing, cardiac arrest, and death within minutes. One of the things that makes oxygen deficiency such a significant hazard is that one of the first things to be affected is your judgment, making it difficult to recognize that something is wrong.

32 Atmospheric Monitoring
Flammable gases and vapors: Naturally occurring Methane, natural gas, hydrogen sulfide Chemical reaction Hydrogen Process related Fuels, paints, welding, solvents, etc. Combustible dust Sugar, grain, sawdust, etc. Allowable entry conditions: < 10% LEL Flammable gases/vapors can be inherent to a space based on the contents or introduced by processes including cleaning, hot work, or application of coatings. LEL – Lower Explosive Limit, also referred to as LFL – Lower Flammability Limit.

33 Atmospheric Monitoring
Confined Spaces cannot be entered if the atmosphere is at or above 10% of lower explosive limit.

34 Atmospheric Monitoring
Toxic atmospheres: Naturally occurring Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) Chemical reaction Carbon monoxide Process related Paints, welding, solvents, chemicals Allowable entry conditions: < PEL or TLV Toxic atmospheres can be related to products that are normally present in a space or introduced by piping or other systems. Work being performed in a space and other operations being conducted during entry can also generate toxics.

35 Atmospheric Monitoring
Methane: Colorless Odorless Non-toxic Asphyxiate (displaces O2) Lighter than air Explosive range (5% to 15%) Methane can result from the decay of organic material such as leaves.

36 Atmospheric Monitoring
Carbon monoxide: Colorless Odorless Toxic Asphyxiant (displaces O2) Vapor density = to air Explosive range (12.5% to 74.2%) Carbon monoxide is a result of incomplete combustion and can be present from activities being conducted in a confined space or activities outside the confined space such as vehicle exhaust.

37 Atmospheric Monitoring
Health effects of carbon dioxide: Colorless Odorless Non-combustible gas Toxic Exposure symptoms Headache Dizziness Restlessness Vapor density is 1.53 Carbon dioxide can result from exhalation and other common sources such as vehicle and industrial exhaust.

38 Atmospheric Monitoring
Hydrogen sulfide (sewer gas): Colorless Smell like rotten eggs Toxic Vapor density is 1.89 Explosive range (4% to 44%) Common in sewage facilities Diminishes your sensitivity to smell Hydrogen Sulfide is a toxic gas that is also flammable. It can be found as a result of microbial activity in manholes and other industrial sites.

39 Atmospheric Monitoring
All confined spaces require atmospheric monitoring prior to entry: Monitoring needs to be conducted prior to confined space entry and as often as necessary by trained and qualified personnel. Monitoring equipment must be calibrated and maintained according to manufacturer’s instructions. Appropriate control measures are based on atmospheric monitoring. Make sure that you understand how the monitoring equipment works before you enter a space. -Does it have a sample pump? -How long does it take to respond to changes in concentration? -Can you test all elevations (is stratification an issue?)

40 Atmospheric Monitoring
Confined space testing needs to be done in the following order: Oxygen Flammable gases or vapors Toxic gases or vapors Code requires that oxygen is tested first then flammable gasses and vapors followed by toxic gases and vapors. Newer multi-gas meters are often capable of testing for all three parameters simultaneously depending the type of toxic that may be present.

41 Atmospheric Monitoring
Monitoring needs to consider: Vapor density… where a material would be located (will it rise or collect at the bottom of a space based on its weight vs. air) Work to be done What was in the space Vapor pressure of materials ability to evaporate Liquids with high vapor evaporate quickly When vapor density is less than 1.0, the vapors can float in air and readily dissipate. When vapor density is greater than 1.0, the vapors are heavier than air and will collect at the lowest point.

42 Atmospheric Monitoring
Vapor density: Lighter than air Hydrogen Methane Carbon monoxide Ammonia Propane Acetylene Hydrogen sulfide Argon Some gases have a vapor density of less than air while other ones have a vapor density heavier than air. The vapor density of air is considered = 1. Heavier than air

43 Atmospheric Monitoring
Oxygen deficient causes: Displacement of air in space Hot work using the available oxygen Process equipment Inerting and others If atmospheric monitoring indicates that oxygen concentration is something other than 20.9 % we need to consider if other things may have displaced the oxygen that should be there.

44 Atmospheric Monitoring
Oxygen deficient causes (continued): Oxygen deficient from inerting: Rendering the atmosphere of a confined space non-combustible or chemically non-reactive. Spaces which have been inerted to prevent a combustible atmosphere are typically oxygen deficient. Inerting a tank takes advantage of removing oxygen to prevent combustion or reaction.

45 Atmospheric Monitoring
Oxygen enrichment: Dramatically promotes and accelerates combustion. Never use O2 to ventilate a confined space. > 23% is enriched. Oxygen enrichment can cause an increase in combustion…it can make things burn easier, quicker, and more intensely.

46 Flammable Atmosphere Monitoring
Flammability range: The range between the Lower Explosive Level (LEL) is the minimum concentration of a combustible gas or vapor in air which will ignite if a source of ignition is present Upper Explosive Level (UEL) is the maximum concentration of a combustible gas or vapor in air which will ignite if a source of ignition is present Atmospheres in this range will burn or explode if an ignition source is present Flammability takes place when the fuel to air mixture is between the lower explosive limit and the upper explosive limit.

47 Flammable Atmosphere Monitoring
Flammability range (continued): LEL UEL Combustible gas meters give a reading in % of the Lower Explosive Limit. 10 100 Combustible gas concentrations must be below 10% of the LEL for confined space entry Percent LEL Combustible Gas/Vapor Reading Instruments read in “Percent LEL”

48 Flammable Atmosphere Monitoring
Atmospheric hazards: Gas concentration AIR COMBUSTIBLES Explain LEL - Flammable Range - UEL. LEL = Lower Explosive Limit, also called LFL, Lower Flammable Limit LEL/LFL is that concentration of flammable gas or vapor in air that will burn if an ignition source is present. Concentrations below the LEL/LFL are too lean to burn. Concentrations above the UEL/UFL are too rich to burn. Examples of LEL - UEL Gasoline LEL = 1.4% UEL = 7.6% Acetylene LEL = 2.5% UEL = 85 to 100% Methane LEL = 5% UEL = 15% Explain that <10% LEL/LFL is used for safe entry to provide a margin of safety. Too lean to burn Flammability Range Too rich to burn LEL UEL

49 Flammable Atmosphere Monitoring
Different gasses have different flammability ranges: LEL UEL Acetone 2.6% % Ammonia 16% % Ethylene oxide 3% 100% Methane 5% 15% Propane 2.2% 9.5% Examples of combustible ranges for common chemicals.

50 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
Toxic atmospheres are considered unacceptable for entry when concentrations of gases, dusts, mists, or vapors are present in concentrations above the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). Exposures above the PEL require control measures to reduce exposures or the use of appropriate Personal Protection Equipment. PEL concentrations are a simple arithmetic average of worker exposure over time TWA’s are usually calculated on an 8 hour exposure basis. Toxic atmospheres are given in relationship to their permissible exposure limit or threshold limit value.

51 Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
Worker’s exposure profile (8 hour TWA) PEAK TWA Most exposure limits are based on a workers exposure to a chemical over an 8 hour shift. However, there are other limits that are based on short term or peak exposure limits. PPM

52 Often invisible to human senses:
Toxic Hazards Often invisible to human senses: CO2 Methane CO H2S Odor thresholds do not provide adequate protection for workers. Air monitoring must be performed to determine the level of toxics that are present. Some monitoring is direct reading while other monitoring requires laboratory analysis to get results. Direct reading instrumentation is preferred as it gives real time information while a confined space entry is in progress.

53 Air monitoring permissible levels:
Toxic Hazards Air monitoring permissible levels: Air monitoring must be performed to determine the level of toxics that are present. Some monitoring is direct reading while other monitoring requires laboratory analysis to get results. Direct reading instrumentation is preferred as it gives real time information while a confined space entry is in progress.

54 Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH):
Toxic Hazards Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH): Any condition that poses a threat to life Cause irreversible adverse health effects Interfere with an individual’s ability to escape unaided from a permit space. Concentrations so high that they present an immediate risk of injury, sickness, or death to an exposed worker. Never enter or work in an IDLH atmosphere. Entry permitted only by emergency rescue, and only if properly equipped!

55 Evaluate condition of space:
Entry Preparation Evaluate condition of space: Safe for entry Not safe for entry Entry safe for hot work Not safe for hot work Prepare permit: Space to be entered Purpose for entry Hazards in space Hazard control measures Test results Special equipment Authorized entrants and attendant Monitoring is typically performed with a multi-gas meter that simultaneously measures oxygen, flammable atmospheres and many toxic chemicals simultaneously. Meters are typically set with built in alarms; however, safe or acceptable ranges for entry should be clearly understood before a confined space entry is allowed.

56 Entry Preparation Evaluate the space:
Determine previous products used in space Obtain physical and chemical properties Select appropriate instruments Calibrate instruments Test in the following order: Oxygen, flammability, toxicity Test before ventilation to get accurate assessment of what could be present Turn ventilation on after testing Conduct visual inspection Evaluate the space before entry and determine what the space had been used for. It may be necessary to drain and or clean it before entry. Review or evaluate any pertinent safety data sheets (SDSs). Ensure that you have the proper monitoring equipment and that it is calibrated and you understand how to use it. Test the space and then initiate ventilation. Ventilate the space and conduct an inspection prior to entry.

57 Evaluate outside the space:
Entry Preparation Evaluate outside the space: Prior to entry Test all depths Entrant observes monitoring Monitoring should be performed either continuously or periodically throughout the confined space entry Monitor during work: is the work creating a hazard? Testing needs to be performed from outside the space prior to entry. Monitoring needs to be repeated periodically or any time conditions in the space could change.

58 Ventilation requirements:
Entry Preparation Ventilation requirements: Ventilation is required to correct unsafe atmospheres and maintain safe atmospheres CS ventilation is usually supply type (blowing into the confined space) Many confined spaces do not have the potential for hazardous atmospheres after they are open. Thus, ventilation may not be required for limited entry when performing non-hazardous atmosphere producing work (e.g. pump inspection, sample collection…etc.) Ventilation needs to be used if hazardous atmospheres are detected during initial pre-entry testing or if hazardous atmospheres could result from work activities (e.g. welding, painting, solvent use, sludge removal, etc…) When in doubt a space should be ventilated, especially if a sludge or residue will be disturbed that could produce a hazardous atmosphere. Supply ventilation is typically adequate for most confined space work; however, hot work like welding may also require local exhaust ventilation.

59 Entry Preparation Physical hazards: Moving parts Electrical
Process hazards Inwardly converging walls Falls Chemical hazards Temperature extremes Hazardous energy that can activate machinery in the space Engulfment hazards: liquids or flow able solids Radiation Other If possible all physical hazards should be eliminated before entrance into the confined space.

60 Entry Preparation Engulfment hazards:
Preparing space by draining, cleaning Isolating space to prevent material inflow Blind lines Disconnect and misalign lines “Double block and bleed” of valves If occupants could become engulfed or entrapped in a space additional steps need to be taken to prepare the space (drain/clean) and potentially isolate the space from system piping by double blocking and bleeding valves.

61 Identify and eliminate hazards if possible:
Entry Preparation Identify and eliminate hazards if possible: Identify spaces and hazards Communicate hazards to employees Provide necessary equipment Ensure employees are trained Ensure a permit system and written program are in place Allow entrants to observe monitoring Identify the hazards associated with the confined space and eliminate them to the extent possible prior to entry.

62 Entry Preparation Hazard assessments:

63 Entry Preparation Lockout and tagout:
Isolate any potential energy source to the space: Electricity Hydraulic Steam Drive mechanisms Pneumatic Gravity flow of product Must be performed by an authorized employee.* Printed tags and locks are used to warn other employees of isolated energy source. All sources of hazardous energy need to be locked out before employees are allowed to enter the space. Employees designated as “authorized employees” need to follow your company’s lock out tag out program prior to entry.

64 Review all preparations for entry:
Entry Preparation Review all preparations for entry: Perform hazard assessment to understand exposures and needed controls Complete and issue permit Have a preparation safety meeting to review hazards, controls, communications and rescue Perform testing & monitoring Prepare space (draining/cleaning) Prepare isolation (prevent material inflow) and lockout as needed Check ventilation Consider how and where to ventilate to Assess access and egress safety Confirm Personal Protective Equipment available Permit closure Review the confined space permit and hold a meeting prior to entry with all entrants, attendants, and supervisors before entry.

65 If hazardous conditions are detected during entry:
Entry Preparation If hazardous conditions are detected during entry: Employees must immediately leave the space Employer must evaluate the space to determine the cause of the hazardous atmosphere A confined space entry can be canceled at any time if a new hazard is identified or if conditions change once work activities in the space are initiated. If this happens the confined space permit must be canceled and the space needs to be reevaluated for current or potential hazards prior to re-entry.

66 If an emergency occurs:
Entry Preparation If an emergency occurs: Ensure employees know how to use all entry and rescue equipment Coordinate with rescue services Ensure that rescue personnel can respond quickly and are properly trained and equipped In the event that a confined space emergency occurs entrants should first attempt to self rescue. If this is not possible a non-entry rescue is preferred over an entry rescue. If neither is possible properly trained rescuers should be initiated.

67 In-house rescue services:
Must have proper PPE Must be trained and proficient Must be trained as entrants and in rescue procedures and gear Must have basic first aid/CPR training Must practice rescues from spaces Ensure that all in-house rescue services are properly equipped and trained.

68 Contracted rescue services:
Must respond in a timely manner based on hazards Must be proficient in rescue tasks Must be evaluated by employer Must be properly equipped Must be informed of hazards/situations Must have access to review spaces Must be notified when entry occurs Contracted rescue services must be able to respond in a timely manner based on the hazards. Contractors used to perform confined space rescues should be coordinated and assess the spaces to make sure they are properly equipped.

69 Additional rescue requirements:
Rescue Services Additional rescue requirements: Non-entry rescue/retrieval equipment is required unless the equipment would hinder rescue. Full body harness with lifeline connection in back. Wristlets can be used if harness is not feasible. Retrieval line must be attached to a mechanical retrieval device or a fixed point outside the space. Mechanical retrieval is required for spaces more than 5 feet deep. If the confined space to be entered is 5’ or more below vertical grade then a retrieval device is to be worn by entrants unless it would hinder rescue and/or create a hazard.

70 Program Audit Evaluate: Perform:
Confined space entry postings and permits Training & documentation Pre-job tool box vs. minimally required training Calibrations Gear used Document your audit Perform: In field reviews Interviews of entrants, standby, supervisors, contractors, area employees Confined space programs should be audited to verify that permits are being completed correctly, all participants are properly trained, air monitoring equipment is being used and maintained correctly and that documentation is being maintained as required by OSHA standards.

71 Program Audit Contractor reviews:
Written program and training documentation review before onsite Injury data and references, OSHA citation history Certificates of Insurance Training Onsite reviews & safety observations to assure crew is following requirements Before contractors are allowed to enter a confined space they must be trained in the confined space entry procedures used by the company and/or produce documentation of their training and must be informed of the hazards associated with the space.

72 Program Audit Self audit check list:
Are confined spaces thoroughly emptied of any corrosive or hazardous substances, such as acids or caustics, before entry? Are all lines to a confined space, containing inert, toxic, flammable, or corrosive materials valved off and blanked or disconnected and separated before entry? Are all impellers, agitators, or other moving parts and equipment inside confined spaces locked-out if they present a hazard? Is either natural or mechanical ventilation provided prior to confined space entry? Are appropriate atmospheric tests performed to check for oxygen deficiency, toxic substances and explosive concentrations in the confined space before entry? Confined space audits are to include verification of the space conditions and hazard controls implemented before the confined space entry.

73 Self audit check list (continued):
Program Audit Self audit check list (continued): Is adequate illumination provided for the work to be performed in the confined space? Is the atmosphere inside the confined space frequently tested or continuously monitored during conduct of work? Is there an assigned safety standby employee outside of the confined space when required, whose sole responsibility is to watch the work in progress, sound an alarm if necessary, and render assistance? Is the standby employee appropriately trained and equipped to handle an emergency? Is the standby employee or are other employees prohibited from entering the confined space without lifelines and respiratory equipment if there is any question as to the cause of an emergency? The audit also needs to include the need for adequate lighting, explosion proof tools (when flammable atmosphere is a concern) and atmospheric monitoring. Are unauthorized entrants prevented from entering the area or the space?

74 Self audit check list (continued):
Program Audit Self audit check list (continued): Is approved respiratory equipment required if the atmosphere inside the confined space cannot be made acceptable? Is all portable electrical equipment used inside confined spaces either grounded and insulated, or equipped with ground fault protection? Before gas welding or burning is started in a confined space, are hoses checked for leaks, compressed gas bottles forbidden inside of the confined space, torches lighted only outside of the confined area and the confined area tested for an explosive atmosphere each time before a lighted torch is to be taken into the confined space? If employees will be using oxygen-consuming equipment, such as salamanders, torches, and furnaces, in a confined space, is sufficient air provided to assure combustion without reducing the oxygen concentration of the atmosphere below 19.5 percent by volume; address CO, etc.? Respirator protection and other PPE needs to be maintained in good condition and entrants need to be appropriately trained. Electrical hazards need to be properly protected insulated, grounded GFCI, explosion resistant for ventilation and lighting may also be necessary depending on the hazards that could be associated with the space. Is a hot work permit completed and is continuous monitoring performed while it is in progress. Leads and hoses should be checked to make sure leaks and shock hazards are eliminated.

75 Self audit check list (continued):
Program Audit Self audit check list (continued): Whenever combustion-type equipment is used in a confined space, are provisions made to ensure the exhaust gases are vented outside of the enclosure? Is each confined space checked for decaying vegetation or animal matter which may produce methane? Is the confined space checked for possible industrial waste which could contain toxic properties? If the confined space is below the ground and near areas where motor vehicles will be operating, is it possible for vehicle exhaust or carbon monoxide to enter the space? Verify ventilation, fresh air being blown into the space and welding fume or other toxics exhausted from the space. Evaluate the space for organics or standing water that could house micro-organisms that could produce hydrogen sulfide or methane gas or other potential toxic or hazardous material. Ensure that the space is protected from vehicle exhaust and other hazards that could be pulled into the space.

76 Rescue team evaluation criteria:
Program Audit Rescue team evaluation criteria: Adequately trained to perform permit space rescues of the kind needed at the facility. Adequately equipped (all the time). Whether such rescuers can respond in a timely manner; based on events that could occur. Performance evaluations: Measure the performance of the team during practice rescue. Evaluate communication issues, staff, training, staffing levels, gear and its use, response time, retraction time. Teams practice in representative spaces, or in spaces that are "worst-case" or most restrictive with respect to internal configuration, elevation, and portal size. Does the rescue team perform drills and are they familiar with the spaces that are anticipated at this facility?

77 Summary – Confined Space
Key points identified in this program: Definition of confined space Determination of when a confined space permit is required Defined responsibilities of all personnel involved in a confined space entry Key points needed to obtain a confined space permit The importance of atmospheric monitoring Potential toxic hazards The importance of entry preparation Keeping rescue services alert and trained. Auditing your program

78 Confined Space Entry Documentation Summary
This form documents that the training specified above was presented to the listed participants. By signing below, each participant acknowledges receiving this training. Organization: Trainer: Trainer’s Signature: Class Participants: Name: Signature: Date: Documentation Summary The Risk Management Center is to be used to document all information including the following: Documents Risk Management Center Location Written Confined Space Entry Training My ContentTM Training Documentation including: - Classroom training and training course completed - Sign-in sheets - Quizzes - Skills evaluations - Operator Certificates Training TrackTM application Pre-shift Inspection Checklists Safety Observations Job Hazard Analysis/ Safety Observation ToolTM Near misses Incident TrackTM Accidents and claims Supplier and manufacturer Certificates of Insurance COI TrackTM Safety Data Sheets SDS TrackTM

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