 # Refraction, Dispersion and Image formation via lenses & Worksheet

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Refraction, Dispersion and Image formation via lenses & Worksheet
M.C. KEJRIWAL VIDYAPEETH DEPT. OF PHYSICS LIGHT Refraction, Dispersion and Image formation via lenses & Worksheet

Refraction and related laws, prisms

Refraction The phenomena due to which a ray of light deviates from its path, at the surface of separation of two media, when the ray of light is travelling from one optical medium to another, is called refraction of light.

Refraction

Laws of Refraction (Snell’s Law)
The incident ray, refracted ray and normal at the point of incidence lie on the same plane The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is constant for a pair of given media. This constant is called the Refractive Index of the second medium, with respect to the first. It’s represented by 1µ2 or 1n2

Refraction through Prism
∠i = Angle of incidence ∠i1 = Angle of Emergence ∠δ = Angle of Deviation

Phenomenon and diagram
DISPERSION

Dispersion The phenomenon due to which white light splits into seven colours after passing through an equilateral prism, is called dispersion. Note: If an equilateral prism is placed in an inverted manner adjacent to the above prism, it can recombine the colours to form white light.

Types, terms, ray diagrams
LENS

Lenses Lenses Plano Convex Bi Convex Convex Concavo Convex
Concave Plano Concave Bi concave Convexo Concave

Major Terms related to a lens
Centre of Curvature Principal Axis Optical Centre Principal Focus Focal Length Aperture

Real v/s Virtual Image Real images are formed by actual intersection of light rays They are always inverted Virtual images are formed when rays of light appear to meet They are always erect

Step-wise guide for construction of ray diagrams for Convex lens
Construct a straight horizontal line as the principal axis of the lens At the midpoint of the line mark the optical centre of the lens as the point ‘O’ O

From optical centre with the focal length, mark the principal focus on the principal axis, on either side of ‘O’ F O F Mark the centre of curvature at a distance of 2xfocal length from the optical centre on either side and mark them as 2F 2F F O F F

From optical centre construct a perpendicular dotted line which will serve as the axis of the lens and draw the lens 2F F F F O

Construct the object and draw a ray from top of the object and make it pass through the point O and extend it further 2F F F F O

Construct another ray parallel to the principal axis, after reaching the lens, bend the ray and make it pass through the focus. The place where the two rays meet, construct the image 2F F F F O

Step-wise guide for construction of ray diagrams for Concave lens
Construct a straight horizontal line as the principal axis of the lens At the midpoint of the line mark the optical centre of the lens as the point ‘O’ O

From optical centre with the focal length, mark the principal focus on the principal axis, on either side of ‘O’ F O F Mark the centre of curvature at a distance of 2xfocal length from the optical centre on either side and mark them as 2F 2F F O F F

From optical centre, construct a perpendicular dotted line which will serve as the axis of the lens and draw the lens 2F F F F O

Construct the object and draw on ray from top of the object and make it pass through the point O and extend it further F 2F F F O

Construct a ray parallel to principal axis, and make it meet at the lens.
F 2F F F O

Draw dotted lines from the focus to the meeting point of the surface of the lens and extend it further in bold line At the point of intersection of the two rays, draw the image in dotted lines F 2F F F O

Quick Notes Ray of light passing through optical centre always go undeviated Ray of light parallel to principal axis, meets at the focus after passing through a convex lens Ray of light parallel to principal axis, diverges out of the focus after passing through a concave lens Concave lens always forms a virtual image Virtual rays and images are always to be constructed in dotted lines.

Lens, image & characteristics
Object Image Charecteristics Convex At Infinity At F Real. Diminished to a point, Inverted Beyond 2F Between F & 2F Real, Diminished, Inverted At 2F Real, Same size as object, Inverted Between F and 2F Real, Magnified, Inverted Between O and F On same side of object Virtual, Magnified, Erect Concave At infinity Focus on same side of object Virtual, diminished to a point, Erect Anywhere between O and infinity On same side of object between F and O Virtual, diminished, Erect

M.C. KEJRIWAL VIDYAPEETH DEPT. OF PHYSICS
CLASS VIII, SESSION WORKSHEET - 1

Instructions The worksheet consists of seven questions in the next two slides The worksheet is to be solved in the Physics exercise books Students may take print outs of the questions given in the following slides and paste in the copy Otherwise the student may copy the questions in the exercise book and then solve the worksheet The last date for submission of the worksheet is 4th May, 2015

Worksheet Under what conditions light ray will not change its direction when it passes from one optical medium to another optical medium? A ray of light passes from medium A to medium B. The angle of incidence is 35o and angle of refraction is 20o. Which medium is denser, A or B? Why refractive index of any medium is always greater than one? Draw ray diagram for the image formation by a convex lens when the object beyond 2F but not at infinity.

Draw ray diagram for the image formation by a convex lens when the object is at principal focus.
The focal length of the convex lens used as magnifying glass should have preferably longer or shorter focal length. Which two rays remain parallel when passed through a glass block?