Presentation on theme: "Radiology of Thyroid and parathyroid"— Presentation transcript:
1 Radiology of Thyroid and parathyroid By Dr Riaz MohammadRadiology of Thyroid and parathyroid
2 Thyroid and parathyroid Normal Anatomy.Radiological test.Disease
3 Thyroid and parathyroid Normal AnatomyEmbryology: Thyroid gland is derived from a tubular structure at the base of tongue called foramen cecum
4 Anatomy Thyroid gland has two elongated lateral lobes. United in the middle by a median isthmusIt is 4-6 cm in L, cm thick. Isthmus is 6mm thickSome time a pyramidal lobe is present which extend upward from the isthmus.Thyroid is supplied by superior and inferior thyroid arteries. It is extremely vascular
6 Thyroid AnatomyPosterior aspectAnterior and posterior aspect
7 Thyroid produce T3, T4, and calcitonin. Parathyroid are two pairs(4 in number) located on the back of thyroid. The superior pair is located near the middle of thyroid and the inferior pair at the lower pole on both side.Parathyroid are the size of a grain of rice(3-5mm). It produce parathyroid hormone.
16 High frequency sound wave are used Patient is supine with hyperextended neckBoth right ,left lobes and isthmus are examinedColor Doppler is used to see vascularityTransverse and longitudinal images are takenUltrasound shows anatomical detail of thyroid and adjacent blood vessels and structures.Normal parathyroid can not be seen with U/S, however parathyroid adenoma and cervical nodes involved in thyroid cancer can be sampled
18 Radioisotopes study A radionuclide is injected or given orally. Radioisotope taken up by thyroid/parathyroidPatient is put under the gamma camera to see the uptakeSeries of images are taken in different projectionsRadionuclide studies show function. Anatomical details are poor.
28 InflammationsHashimoto thyroiditis is an autoimmune inflammation. The gland may be hyper functioning or hypo functioningIn the these images the gland is diffusely enlarge and inhomogeneousIn the image below there is abscess formation in the gland
29 Tumors Adenoma is benign tumor. It is hypo echoic well-defined Carcinoma. Hypo echoic, irregular and infiltrate in to the surrounding tissues.On radionuclide imaging carcinoma is usually cold nodule(no uptake)
32 ParathyroidAdenoma: is a benign lesion . It is well defined and hypo echoic. It is usually associated with hyperparathyroidismParathyroid carcinoma. Aggressive lesion irregular hypo echoic. Diagnosis is confirm by biopsy