 Sickle Cell Anemia.

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Sickle Cell Anemia

Incomplete Dominance

Multiple Alleles All chicken have combs on their heads, but it does not always look the same. The comb is a fleshy growth on the top of the chicken's head. Both male and female chickens have combs, but the ones on the male are larger. Combs of different breeds may look different in shape and even in color. Chicken comb features: rrpp = single rrP_ = pea R_pp = rose R_P_ = walnut 1. What must be the genotypes of the two parents for the outcome to always be a walnut offspring?  (neither can be walnut to begin with) ____________ x _____________ = walnut (R_P_) 2. Show a Punnett square for the following cross and describe the phenotypic ratios. RrPp x RrPp 3. Show a punnett square for the following cross and describe the phenotypic ratios. rrpp x RrPp 4. Show a punnett square for the following cross and describe the phenotypic ratios. rrpp x rrPp 5. A rose crossed with a pea produces six walnut and five rose offspring. What must be the genotypes of the parents? Show the cross.

Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Natural selection acts on individuals, but only populations evolve Explain this statement

Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Describes a non-evolving population The gene pool does not change Gene pool - all alleles for all loci in the population Allele frequencies remain constant in non-evolving populations Why do this? Allelic variation within a population can be modeled by the Hardy- Weinberg equations.

A Population in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium http://zoology. okstate
The seven assumptions underlying Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium are as follows: organisms are diploid only sexual reproduction occurs generations are non overlapping mating is random population size is infinitely large allele frequencies are equal in the sexes there is no migration, mutation or selection Fig. 23-6

Interpretation: A population with 80% dominant and 20% recessive alleles that meets the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium will pass 80% dominant and 20% recessive alleles to the next generation Alleles in the population Frequencies of alleles Gametes produced p = frequency of Each egg: Each sperm: CR allele = 0.8 q = frequency of 80% chance 20% chance 80% chance 20% chance CW allele = 0.2

Hardy-Weinberg equations:
p + q = 1 p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 Describes alleles in a gene pool This is the equation for a trait with 2 alleles Can be used to predict genotypes p – represents dominant allele q – represents the recessive allele Worksheet 3, 4 and 5

80% CR ( p = 0.8) 20% CW (q = 0.2) Sperm CR (80%) Eggs CW (20%) CR CW
Worksheet: #6 Sperm CR (80%) CW (20%) CR (80%) Figure 23.7 The Hardy-Weinberg principle Eggs 64% ( p2) CRCR 16% ( pq) CRCW 4% (q2) CW CW 16% (qp) CRCW CW (20%)

Gametes of this generation:
64% CRCR, 32% CRCW, and 4% CWCW Gametes of this generation: 64% CR   +    16% CR    =   80% CR = 0.8 = p 4% CW     +    16% CW   =   20% CW = 0.2 = q Genotypes in the next generation: Figure 23.7 The Hardy-Weinberg principle 64% CRCR, 32% CRCW, and 4% CWCW plants

Reality Hardy-Weinberg - hypothetical population
In real populations, allele and genotype frequencies change over time

You have sampled a population in which you know that the percentage of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa) is 36%. Using that 36%, calculate the following:  A. What is the frequency of the "aa" genotype in the population?  B. What is the allele frequency of the "a" allele?  C. What is the frequency of the "A" allele in the population?  D. What is the frequencies of the genotype "Aa” in the population?  E. What is the frequencies of the two possible phenotypes if "A" is completely dominant over "a." The winged trait is dominant.