Presentation on theme: "The Importance of Veterinary Toxicology for Animal Agriculture and the Food Supply Thank you very much for inviting me to speak at the Annual NIAA meeting."— Presentation transcript:
1The Importance of Veterinary Toxicology for Animal Agriculture and the Food Supply Thank you very much for inviting me to speak at the Annual NIAA meeting. I am very pleased to be here and my goal is to shed light to an area of food safety that has been pushed to the wayside.The common thought is that large quantities of chemicals or toxicants are required to generate toxic effects and negatively affect the food supply.I would like to use the Belgium dioxin/PCB incident to illustrate that this is not necessarily the truth.Birgit PuschnerDVM, PhD, Dipl. ABVTCalifornia Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory SystemSchool of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of California, Davs
2Belgium PCB and Dioxin Incident In January, 1999, 500 tons of animal feed were contaminated with:~ 50 kg of PCBs and1 gram of dioxinDistributed to animal farms in BelgiumAnd to a lesser extent to the Netherlands, France and Germany
32140 pork, poultry and beef farms 1 storage tank of fat2140 pork, poultry and beef farmsAt a Flemish fat-melting company, 40 – 50 kg of mineral oil containing PCBs (most likely from oil from discarded transformers originating from a waste recycling center) was admixed to the fat delivered to 10 animal-feed producers.The resulting 500 tons of contaminated animal feed containing about 60 to 80 t of fat contaminated with 40 – 50 kg of PCBs and 1 g of dioxins!10 livestock feed manufacturers
4Timeline of events Feed contamination: January, 1999 Early Feb, 1999: Veterinarian diagnosed chicken edema disease prompted investigationMid March, 1999:Feed and animal tissues were sent for tox testingVeterinarian considered fat in animal feed the most likely sourceApril 26, 1999: Dioxin and PCB contamination confirmed by laboratoryEdema disease typically seen in chickens after dioxin or PCB exposure!
5Reputation of the food supply was tarnished Public confidence in government was damaged2 cabinet ministers resigned and it also lead to the ousting of the ruling party in a national electionMajor mistake made by the government: they did not promptly go public with the knowledge of the crisis, resulting in accusations of self-serving cover-upThe mixing of contaminated animal feed occurred in January The Belgian Public Health Minister announced the ban on May 27, The government knew of the problem as early as Mid March and the presence of high levels of dioxins was confirmed on April 26, 1999, one month before the contamination was made public.On Feb 4: changes were noted in chickens: decrease in egg production and hatching, and epidemic of chicken edema disease!
660 billion Belgian francs or ~ 1.5 billion U.S. dollars Cost to the food industry was $1.54 Billion US, half from the agricultural sector and the other half from other food industry sectorsOfficial source of the dioxin in the fat has not been conclusively determined
7Lesson learned… Animal agriculture is an easy target Toxicants can be widely distributedVeterinarians may be the first respondersVeterinary toxicology laboratories are crucial in investigations Toxicology Case StudiesAnimal agriculture is an easy target, whether in form of an intentional terrorist attack or whether in cases of accidental contaminatonCase studies are a great way to learn from and illustrate the importance of veterinary toxicologyA crisis can hit any organization unexpectedly and have devastating results. The case studies presented here show how labs and involved agencies can prepare themselves to best handle disastrous poisonings of animals and people, establish accurate diagnoses, work with regulatory agencies and deal with publicity.Poisonings serve as case studies to shed light to an area of feed and food safety that has been pushed to the wayside:Frequently, the idea that large quantities of chemicals or toxicants are required to generate toxic effects is mentioned as a factor contributing to limited attention to chemical agents in comparison to biological agentsA safe and secure food supply is an essential component of the nation’s infrastructure. To that end, vet tox labs have responsibility for the safety of the food supply and play an integral part to detect contaminants and to perform routine surveillance testing.
8Poisoning Case in Dairy Cows 22 – 24 lactating cattle died over a period of 9 days in a herd of ~ 300 cowsAffected cattle in one penClinical signs:Reduced or no rumen motilityLethargic and hunched upDecreased milk productionIncreased respiratory rate and effortPoisonings serve as case studies to shed light to an area of feed and food safety that has been pushed to the wayside:Frequently, the idea that large quantities of chemicals or toxicants are required to generate toxic effects is mentioned as a factor contributing to limited attention to chemical agents in comparison to biological agentsA safe and secure food supply is an essential component of the nation’s infrastructure. To that end, vet tox labs have responsibility for the safety of the food supply and play an integral part to detect contaminants and to perform routine surveillance testing.
9↓ Tongue tone ↓ Palpebral reflex Cows progressed to lateral and sternal recumbency
10Timeline Consultation with herd vet: Day 1 Necropsies: Day 2 Hold placed on milk and milk products: Day 2Awaiting toxicology resultsAwaiting possible danger to the food supplyToxicology testing: Day 3-5Tox samples arrived in Tox lab on Saturday morning at 8.30 AM. Testing began right then and went all the way through Monday evening.
11Toxicological Analyses OleanderOP and carbamate insecticidesIonophore antibiotics (monensin, etc.)Toxic plants: tree tobacco, jimsonweed, poison hemlock, yews, larkspurs, lupine, foxglove, rhododendronsHypocalcemiaHypomagnesemiaLeadArsenic, Mercury, CadmiumCopperSeleniumGC/MS screen: pesticides, drugs, natural productsFERN LC/MS screen: a large variety of chemicals that may result in high morbidity or mortalityRat poisonsAll tox testing was negative by Monday evening. Milk bulk tank and milk samples from affected cows were negative for all analyzed toxins: Regulatory officials were comfortable releasing milk and milk products based on all testing, including FERN screen.Decision with regards to safety of milk & dairy products
12Final Diagnosis – Day 7 Diagnosis of Botulism Type C – Source Challenges:Vagueness of clinical signsTests for botulinum toxin not sensitive enoughTox testing crucial!Source of toxinBy Wednesday, 09/14/06, a diagnosis of botulism Type C was established:Liver of 1 cow positive by mouse bioassayBy Monday, 09/19/06, results from the bot ELISA testing confirmed botulism:All 3 rumen contents submitted were positive for Botulinum toxin Type CBotulinum toxins are considered the most lethal toxic substances known to man. The toxins are produced under anaerobic conditions by certain strains of Clostridium botulinum, C. baratii and C butyricum. These clostridial organisms have the ability to produce eight antigenically distinct botulinum toxins. The eight botulinum toxins are botulinum toxin A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F, and G (1, 2, and 14). The ingestion of dead animals inadvertently picked up in hay and silage, or the ingestion of poultry litter, often containing dead bird parts, is a common source of botulinum toxin type C intoxication. In cattle, botulism occurs after the consumption of the preformed toxin that is absorbed by the intestinal tract and distributed to the nerves via the blood stream. Cattle have been determined to be times more sensitive to botulinum toxin C (on a kilogram basis) than the mouse with a median toxic dose for botulinum toxin C in lactating dairy cows of 0.38 ng/kg body weights (15).Type C bot is unable to exploit the transcytosis mechanism in the human gut probably the reason why type C has never been reported in humansIn humans: A, B, E, FIn cattle: B,C,D
14In 1998, 427 Holstein dairy cows (out of 431 total in affected pens) over a 1-week period in the Tulare area. Affected cows had signs of watery diarrhea, recumbency and weakness. Something ended up in the feed that resulted in this disaster. What was it?Dead cat carcass was found in feed and resulted in BotulismAt this dairy, contaminated carcasses were rendered at a heat sufficient to destroy both the toxin and the spores. In general,the spores are destroyed at temperatures of > 120 C for 5 minutes under moist conditions.The affected pens were fed a TMR that consisted of approximately 25% grain premix, silage, haylage, alfalfa hay, oat hay, mineral mix, and whey. Historic review suggested that a load of TMR, fed at noon the day before the first cases appeared (18 hours previously), may have included a rotten bale of oat hay that contained a dead cat.
15March 2006A family of 5 had dinner together. (Sunday 3/28). 3 developed profuse vomiting and diarrhea after dinner. Dinner included a dish made with mushrooms bought from a local Asian food market and a popular local farmers market. Armenian family – not much english.Sac and Placer County Public health inspected all establishments that could be involved and have found no unsafe practices and no dangerous mushrooms being sold. CONCLUSION: the poisoning is NOT related to mushrooms bought at retail.Update from the Vet School group (Bob Poppenga): Interestingly enough, there were some cooked mushrooms left. One of my mycologists at UC Davis campus was contacted about doing a DNA identification of the mushrooms. But because the mushrooms were already cooked, much of the protein, and therefore the DNA, was too denatured to work with. The Vet School Diagnostic Lab was contacted to see if they could run their amatoxin assay on the cooked mushrooms. They had a positive result for amatoxins within an hour and reported their results back. The Diagnostic Lab is actually going to run assays on the serum of several of the family members to see if they can detect amatoxins. They will report back on their results.
17Cooked mushroom samples positive for alpha- and beta- amanitin. Mushroom piecesOnionsThe two "cooked" mushroom samples (labeled "Abraham Nalbandyon ate these mushrooms" and "mushrooms consumed by Martin Kagramanya" were positive for alpha- and beta- amanitin. The presence of these toxins were confirmed using our new LC/MS/MS based method.
18Toxicology Involvement Soup available for testing – rapid diagnosisNew methodology (LC/MS)beta-Amanitinalpha-AmanitinChromatogram of Amanitins in Cooked MushroomsUpdate from the Vet School group (Bob Poppenga): Interestingly enough, there were some cooked mushrooms left. One of my mycologists at UC Davis campus was contacted about doing a DNA identification of the mushrooms. But because the mushrooms were already cooked, much of the protein, and therefore the DNA, was too denatured to work with. The Vet School Diagnostic Lab was contacted to see if they could run their amatoxin assay on the cooked mushrooms. They had a positive result for amatoxins within an hour and reported their results back. The Diagnostic Lab is actually going to run assays on the serum of several of the family members to see if they can detect amatoxins. They will report back on their results.The only samples from the people that we received were serum samples. We received samples from 5 individuals. Serum was taken at a variety of time points after exposure. For two of the individuals, there were serum samples taken within 24 hours of ingestion. For the other three people, the closest time points to ingestion were within 48 hours. The two samples taken within 24 hours were positive for alpha-amanitin. The three samples at 48 hours were negative (although I think one of them showed evidence of amanitin, it was not good enough to call positive).
19Poisoning Case in Dairy Cows 6 lactating cattle (total in pen = 16) died within 24 hours in a herd of ~ 600 cows“Just found dead”Other information:All animals are off feed a littleAll animals on dairy get the same ration: TMR (corn silage and premix, top-dressed with hay)Owner washed a spray tank the day beforeContaining round-up and GoalGoal: oxyfluorfeneProtox inhibitor herbicides appear to inhibit mammalian mitochondrial Protox. When ingested in animals, an increase in porphyrin levels occurs. However, due to effective metabolism and/or excretion, porphyrin levels return to normal within a few days. Variegate porphyria is caused by a deficiency of Protox, and variegate porphyria-like symptoms can be generated in mice with high doses. Little bioaccumulation risk occurs in animals, even following exaggerated dietary doses (>100 times recommended field rates). In healthy humans, these herbicides are not considered to pose any significant toxicological risk (Dayan et al, 2001).1) In mammalian hepatocyte cultures, exposure to these herbicides has been shown to result in an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. These herbicides induce porphyrin accumulation in hepatocytes in a concentration-dependent manner (Jinno et al, 1999). Birchfield & Casida (1996) demonstrated rapid, specific, saturable, and reversible binding of a Protox inhibitor radioligand to mouse liver mitochondria.
20Results within a few hours (LC/MS) Diagnostic Work-upNecropsies: cardiotoxic eventToxicology testing: oleandrinGI contents, liver, muscle & feedSerum, urine, milkResults within a few hours (LC/MS)Petechial hemorrhages were seen on the epicardium during gross evaluation.Figure 5. (A) LC-MS/MS chromatogram (sum of m/z 373, 355 and 337) and (B) positive ESI-MS/MS spectrum of oleandrin in liver sample from a cow accidentally exposed to oleander. The concentration of oleandrin in liver was μg/g (39 ppb). The retention time was 7.22 minutesDetection limits for serum: 0.5 ppb1 ppb is equal to 1 drop of water in an olympic size swimming pool!Detection limits for milk: 5 ppbA cow that was alive for 9 days was finally euthazined and necropsied:milk collected 4 days post exposure: negative at 5 ppb; milk collected on day 9: negative at 5 ppburine collected 3 days post exposure: trace at 5 ppb; urine collected on day 9: negative at 1 ppbmuscle: psoas major positive, supraspinatus positive, semimembranosous negative, diaphragm negative, papillary left muscle positive, left ventricle positive, right ventricle positive, right atrium positiveserum collected on day 9 post exposure: negative at 1 ppb
21Benefit of Toxicology Testing Rapid diagnosisTesting of milk and meatSpecial Investigator Chris Hansen went to the dairy onJohn DeGroot stated that the landscaper has taken care of their place for years and he always parks near the hospital pen and he had no oleander clippings.They found a portion of an oleander leaf in the mixer wagon. None of the hay that is being used has been observed to contain any oleander leaves.The hay growers field was observed and there are not any oleander plants anywhere around as far as you can see.However there is a road to a dump along one side of the field and there was trash and tree trimmings along this road.Our investigator suspects that some oleander trimmings at some point got into the field from material that was suppose to go to the landfill dump.The dairy is going to keep a close eye on the hay to check for oleander leaves. It seems to be an isolated incident at this time.
22PerchlorateWhat is known about perchlorate: has been the subject of discussion since Then, concerns began to increase in 1997 when it was found in Lake Mead. The entire lower CO river is contaminated, ostensibly from the manufactering of ammonium perchlorate. Water from the CO river irrigates more than 1.8 Million acres of land – producing some 15% of the nation’s crops and about 13% of its livestock.Bioconcentration can occur in foods: lettuce and other broadleaf vegetables are particularly susceptibleAlfalfa accumulates perchlorate!Affects the thyroid gland; Potential for developmental effects; Has been found in drinking water over the last 5-10 yearsMain sources:Ammonium perchlorate is used as an oxidant component in solid rocket fuel (it’s main use)Also used as an oxidant in matches, fireworks, airbag inflation systems, and a variety of other industrial applications incl. the production of dyes, paints and rubbersPerchlorate appears to be naturally present in the environment as wellCurrently no federal regulatory limit for drinking waterCal-EPA: Public Health Goal = 6 ppbMass. Department of Environmental Protection: PHG = 1 ppbPrevious studies by Kirk et. al. (Texas Tech University):Perchlorate analysis of seven milk samples (cartons purchased from various stores in Lubbock, TX. Environ. Sci. Technol ,All seven samples were positive for perchlorate at levels from 1.1 µg/L to 6.3 µg/L (ppb).
23Perchlorate Developed LC-MS/MS method in 2 weeks Method detection limit: ~ 0.8 ppb46 milk samples:All samples were positive1.54 ppb to 20 ppbHealth Concern:Disruption of thyroid hormone regulationCompetes with iodide at a transport molecule called the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). NIS is responsible for the active transport of iodide into the thyroid. Perchlorate inhibits/reduces uptake of iodide by the thyroidPotential for developmental effectsSensitive Populations:Pregnant women and their fetusesLactating womanInfantsIndividuals with thyroid problemsAmmonium perchlorate:Oxidizer in rocket propellants (white, crystalline solid)Sodium and potassium perchlorate:Slurry explosivesRoad flaresAirbag inflation systemsOther uses of perchlorate salts:Nuclear reactors and electronic tubesAdditives in lubricating oilsIn tanning and finishing leatherMordant for fabrics and dyesIn electroplating, aluminum refining, rubber manufactureIn the production of paints and enamelsHighly mobile in aqueous systemsCan persist for many decades under typical ground and surface water conditionsPast open burning and open detonation have resulted in the release of perchlorateSoil and groundwater near facilities are contaminatedIrrigation water may contribute to widespread contaminationChilean Caliche fertilizer is a natural perchlorate source (removed from chemical fertilizer in 1998)
24Perchlorate Interlab Comparison Study Sample No.FDA/CFSAN – IC-MS/MSCAHFS – HPLC-MS/MSMilk #15.21ppb5.83 ppbMilk #24.59 ppb5.28 ppbMilk #54.66 ppbMilk #74.70 ppb4.85 ppbMilk #85.82 ppbNow, researchers led by Purnendu Dasgupta, a chemist at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, US, have published the first known study of perchlorate in breast milk. They found the substance in each of 36 breast-milk samples taken from 18 states and in all but one of 47 dairy milk samples from 11 states.The average level in breast milk was 10.5 micrograms per litre, while the average in dairy milk was 2.0 micrograms per litre. That compares with the limit of 24.5 micrograms per litre standard for drinking water, according to new guidelines set on Friday by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The new guidelines were drawn up according to the amount deemed safe for an average adult by a recent US National Academy of Sciences study. But the NAS reports that a "safe" perchlorate-intake limit should be set at about 4 micrograms per litre for a baby.The NAS study concluded there is "insufficient data" to establish a definitive link between perchlorate exposure and neurodevelopmental problems, but animal studies suggest perchlorate can damage the thyroid, which regulates metabolism.
25Perchlorate Regulatory Issues NAS recommendation: 0.7 µg/kg/dayDrinking water equivalent level (DWEL)24.5 ppb for an adult4 ppb for infantsCA - Public health goal: 6 ppbNAS: maximum permissible doseCurrently no Federal Regulatory Standard (MCL)Different states have different limitsCal-EPA: Public Health Goal = 6 ppb in drinking waterMass. Department of Environmental Protection: PHG = 1 ppbAt least 6 other states have advisory levels ranging from 1 to 18 ppbNational Academy of Sciences:EPA, DOD and other agencies agreed to turn it over to NASEPA considered 1 ppb safe in drinking water for humansDOD said the number should be much higherNAS recommended level translated to a 24 ppb drinking water standardEPA announced they will accept NAS recommendation
26Perchlorate, Dairy Cattle and Human Health WHO – iodine deficiencyRapid transfer of dietary perchlorate to milkPerchlorate in dairy cows:Ruminants – biofilters?Perchlorate intake and milk iodideGoal: limit perchlorate contentof the dairy cow’s dietThe WHO identifies iodine deficiency as the dominant preventable cause of mental retardation worldwide!Survey of cow and human milk has shown that concentrations of perchlorate in human milk were five times greater than concentrations in bovine milk (10 ppb versus 18 ppb).Ruminants may serve as biofilters, because there is data that suggests that the microbes in the rumen are able to metabolize substantial proportions of the perchlorate consumedPerchlorate intake did not decrease iodide content of bovine milkBy limiting perchlorate content of the dairy cow’s diet, human exposure to perchlorate in milk can be kept to a minimumMath example: 10 kg child.RfD = 0.7 ug/kg/day 7 ug of perchlorate dailyIf milk contains 4.4 ppb 1600 ml would have to be consumed to exceed 7 ugIf milk contains 11 ppb 636 ml would have to be consumed to exceed 7 ug
27Insecticide Cases Humans Cattle: Thai food restaurant Phorate 107 affected peopleMethomyl exposureCattle:Phorate167 deathsDiagnosis established within hoursAnalysis of milk and fat within hoursPatrons of the restaurant. A case (n = 107) was defined as dizziness, nausea, or vomiting occurring in a person who ate at the restaurant between December 20, 1998, and January 2, 1999, with onset of symptoms within 2 hours of eating. A control (n = 169) was a person who ate at the restaurant during the same period but reported no symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) of illness associated with food exposures; ORs of shifts during which illness occurred associated with certain cooks; laboratory results. RESULTS: The median latency period was 40 minutes from beginning eating to first symptom and was 2 hours to onset of diarrhea. The median duration of symptoms was 6 hours. Twenty-six persons (24%) visited the emergency department or were treated by a physician; no person required hospitalization. Patients reported nausea (95%), dizziness (72%), abdominal cramps (58%), headache (52%), vomiting (51%), chills (48%), and diarrhea (46%). Fifty-one cases (48%) included dizziness, lightheadedness, or a feeling of disequilibrium as the initial symptom. Illness was statistically associated with several foods and ingredients, but no single dish or ingredient explained a substantial number of cases. The analysis of food exposures included salt added by cooks, as estimated by using the amount of salt in the recipe for each dish and the amount of each dish eaten by respondents. This association was stronger with increasing levels of salt: ORs for illness among persons who consumed more than 0.42 to 0.84, more than 0.84 to 1.25, and more than 1.25 tsp of salt added to foods in the kitchen were 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], ), 3.0 (95% CI, ), and 4.0 (95% CI, ) compared with persons who consumed less than 0.42 tsp (P value for trend =.004). Methomyl, a highly toxic carbamate pesticide, was identified in a sample of vomitus (20 ppm) and in salt taken from containers in the storeroom (mean, 5600 ppm) and the stovetop (mean, 1425 ppm). The oral toxic dose causing illness in 50% of those exposed to methomyl was estimated to be 0.15 mg/kg of body weight (estimated range, mg/kg of body weight). The presence of cook A was associated with shifts during which cases of illness occurred (OR, 10.4; 95% CI, ). CONCLUSION: This outbreak of gastrointestinal illness was associated with the consumption of food seasoned with methomyl-contaminated salt. To allow rapid assessment for further investigational and control measures by health officials, physicians should report suspected outbreaks of illness to public health departments, however trivial the symptoms or cause may seem.
28Got a flat tire half-way down the aisle way Kings County, CA, 600 cow Holstein Dairy, Fed TMR in the morningMixer truck:Got a flat tire half-way down the aisle wayHad fed 2 pens at that timeStepped off to fix tire and noticed that cows were already dyingOnly a total of 167 cows were fed at that time70 dead at Noon100 dead in the afternoon150 dead in the evening167 dead in the next morningHe didn’t feed the remaining animalsSudden deathNeurological signs:TremorsWeaknessParalysisRespiratory paralysisGastrointestinal signs:Severe diarrhea
29Phosphorodithioate (2 S, 2 O): Di-ethoxy compound! Soil and systemic insecticide:As a rootworm killer, designed to be taken up by the plantOn corn, beans, peanuts, potatoes, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets, sugarcane, wheatIn INDIA: extensively used on rice (to kill the brown plant hopper!)Rat: oral LD50 = 2 – 4 mg/kg bw; dermal LD50 = 2 – 6 mg/kg bwBird: oral LD50 = 0.62 mg/kg bwFish: LC50 (96 hours) = 6 – 13 ppbHOW DID IT HAPPEN: Thimet was in almond hulls in the commodity barn. Not exactly sure how it got there, but that’s were it was. It was unclear why the feeder was unable to observe the presence of thimet or to smell the pesticide.
31Fuel and tires as accelerants! Boiling point of phorate: 118 °C Metabolic oxidation and hydrolysis in soil90 day residence in soilObvious solution: burying of carcassesRisk of groundwater contaminationAuthorization (CDFA) to burn carcasses:Shallow trenchBurning of cows using a very hot processNeed for rapid communicationWater table was only about 8 or 9 M in this particular instance concern of groundwater contamination!!!Very hot process:Anthrax protocol!Fuel and tires as accelerants!Boiling point of phorate: 118 °C
32Methomyl Testing of food, and food ingredients (oil, salt, herbs) Methomyl is a restricted agricultural pesticideSalt contained 5600 ppm of methomyl.The 4 dishes that were most associated with illness were ground meat, chicken coconut soup, spicy duck and garlic chicken. These dishes received the largest amounts of salts. Salt was stored in bulk containers in the storage room. In 11.3 kg bags. Came to restaurant directly from the warehouse. The distributor sold about 500 bags weekly to customers in the area. The van for salt bag distribution was not used for transport of methomyl-containing products. No other complaints or similar outbreaks were reported from the distributor.Tensions with staff, slashing of vehicle tires, easy access to storeroom where salt was stored.From the investigation, it was not possible to identify how contamination could have occurred unintentionally. First large outbreak of chemical food poisoning with probable intentional background reported in the US
33Mycotoxins Aflatoxins Fumonisins Ochratoxin Tricothecene mycotoxins Penitrem AZearalenoneTop: aspergillus flavus – aflatoxin productionMiddle: fusarium rot – fumonisinsBottom: penitrem A – cream cheeseCorn is the largest grain commodity imported into CA from other states.Because of the frequency with which aflatoxins and fumonisins were found, whole corn entering CA should be routinely monitored by the state feed program and grain distributors to ensure a supply of safe feed.
36Importance Testing for toxicants in a large number of matrices Diagnosis of intoxicationsPrevention of intoxicationsEnsuring food safetyAssisting with risk assessmentsProviding information to regulatory agenciesTriple quadrupole LC-MS/MSIon-trap LC-MS/MSHPLC and GC/MSECD, FPD, FID, NPD, UV, and fluorescence detectorsICP-MSICP/AESAAElisa plate reader
38CAHFS Toxicology Laboratory Member of FERNReceived funding through the Homeland Security DepartmentLargest Vet Tox Lab in the Country Highly trained personnel Continuous method development and expansion of existing testing