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History of the Nike Swoosh: The Nike Swoosh is one of the most recognized symbols in the world. Simple, fluid, fast. Designed by Carolyn Davidson.

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Presentation on theme: "History of the Nike Swoosh: The Nike Swoosh is one of the most recognized symbols in the world. Simple, fluid, fast. Designed by Carolyn Davidson."— Presentation transcript:



3 History of the Nike Swoosh:
The Nike Swoosh is one of the most recognized symbols in the world. Simple, fluid, fast. Designed by Carolyn Davidson in 1971, the logo first carried the Nike name. Ultimately the logo became so recognizable that the name Nike was dropped from the design. In today’s marketing, many Nike ads never even mention the company name…the swoosh is enough.





8 This is known as advertising:
Advertising is attempting to influence the behavior or beliefs of your target market (i.e. customer or client) by providing a persuasive selling message about your products and/or services. The purpose is to persuade us to believe in something or to do something that we would not normally believe or do.

9 What is propaganda? Propaganda is the spreading of false information to purposely mislead people. Propaganda shares techniques with advertising. Advertising can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an organization, person or brand. Nazi propaganda was used to instill Nazi racist ideology and to change patterns of traditional behavior. Focusing on the major enemy (the Jew), the Nazis used false claims, deceptions and outright lies to justify and gain support for their murderous policies. Propaganda infiltrated all aspects of society including education, books, games, radio and movies. The average German was bombarded with Nazi ideology every minute of every day.

10 propaganda As generally understood, propaganda is opinion expressed for the purpose of influencing actions of individuals or groups. More formally, the Institute for Propaganda Analysis has defined propaganda as "expression of opinion or action by individuals or groups deliberately designed to influence opinions or actions of other individuals or groups with reference to predetermined ends."

11 Propaganda thus differs fundamentally from scientific analysis
Propaganda thus differs fundamentally from scientific analysis. The propagandist tries to "put something across," good or bad. The scientist does not try to put anything across; he/she devotes his/her life to the discovery of new facts and principles. The propagandist seldom wants careful scrutiny and criticism; his/her object is to bring about a specific action. The social scientist, on the other hand, is always prepared for and wants the most careful scrutiny and criticism of his/her facts and ideas. Science flourishes on criticism. Propaganda crumbles before it.

12 As Anthony Pratkanis and Elliot Aronson point out, "every day we are bombarded with one persuasive communication after another. These appeals persuade not through the give-and-take of argument and debate, but through the manipulation of symbols and of our most basic human emotions. For better or worse, ours is an age of propaganda." (Pratkanis and Aronson, 1991) In our age of advanced technology (with so much information), it is often difficult to distinguish truth from opinion.

13 German/Nazi Propaganda Posters
Posters were an important propaganda tool. The imagery helped “plant” suggestions in people’s minds. Effective propaganda almost always works below the level of consciousness, leaving its target feeling a powerful belief that he/she “knows” the position is true; a position that he/she is certain was arrived completely on his/her own. It also does not exist in a vacuum. Much of its effectiveness comes through constant repetition.

14 You are about to see TEN (10) classic posters from the Nazi era
You are about to see TEN (10) classic posters from the Nazi era. You are to work in small groups to see if you can spot the messages that they were trying to suggest. HINT: Nothing was ever put in the posters by accident. Everything carried a message. They were carefully crafted distortions and misrepresentations in an orchestrated campaign of misinformation.

15 Slide #1 [The Eternal Jew: grand political exhibition at the German Museum in Munich beginning November 8, 1937]

16 'Your Own KdF-Car' poster, 1939 ©
Slide #2 'Your Own KdF-Car' poster, 1939 ©

17 Slide #3 “The seed of peace, not dragon's teeth” cartoon of Hitler, from the magazine Kladderadatsch, 22 March 1936 ©

18 Slide #4 The German Student Fights for the Fuhrer (Hitler) and the Nation (and the people).

19 Support relief for mother and child
Slide #5 This poster probably dates to the mid-1930's. Support relief for mother and child

20 “The Nazi Party safeguards the People of the Nation”
Slide #6 “The Nazi Party safeguards the People of the Nation” "[If] You need advice or help, turn to your 'local group.”

21 Slide #7 “Country, Work, Service” Poster from mid to late 1930's
"We build body and soul"

22 Slide #8 Poster after 1936 "Long live Germany!"

23 Slide #9 Germ (April 15, 1943, issue of Der Sturmer)
…from Julius Streicher's Der Stürmer. Streicher, one of Hitler's earliest followers, published the paper from 1923 to During the Third Reich, Stürmer display cases were found all over Germany. The Jew carries the poison of the weak. A syndrome (sickness) emerges and is causing this downward spiral. However our blood is pure. We (true Germans) are healthy! (loose translation)

24 Slide #10 The caption: “The Jew: The inciter of war, the prolonger of war.” This poster was released in late 1943 or early 1944. Courtesy of Dr. Robert D. Brooks.

25 In groups, try to “find” what messages are being conveyed.
OK – go to work! In groups, try to “find” what messages are being conveyed.

26 Here is an example…

27 The connection of the Nazi soldier and the Crusader
Arm around Nazi soldier The Crusader w/ cross – based in the belief that Christ would return to earth for a 1000 year period. (the white saint?) Multi-headed red snakes – stars of David, Protocols of Zion, KDP=Christian Democratic Party, SDP=Social Democratic Party, RF=Republican Front? The Multi-headed dragon is a well-known image from Christianity – St. Michael and the Dragon (good v. evil/Satanic forces). Nazi propaganda often portrayed WWII as a war for Christianity. The white countryside with a cross on its side – Nazism found its roots in the peasantry/agriculture The soldier (uniform - authority, Swastika on belt) “draped” in the robe w/ the Swastika (powerful symbol) Crusader = St. Michael slaying the 3-headed dragon (direct/saintly connection to God ???)

28 Your turn… Look for all the blatant and subtle messages.

29 Eternal Jew The poster for the 'Eternal Jew' exhibition, 1937 © #1
The Jew is infecting the country w/ Communism There is a hammer and sickle on a map of the western part of the USSR – suggests a link between Jews and Communism * He is hunched over/physically different/misshapen – suggests Jews are not normal (demonic in appearance – “spawn of the devil; killers of Christ) He is holding a whip. He is a ‘slave-driver’ (cruelty, suspicion that the gold coins were ill-got). The hand is begging for money – Jews were accused of greed (money lenders w/ extortionist interest rates)(gold coins – selling out Germany?) The print type is somewhat hieroglyphic, occult, and satanic-looking (Hebraic form of German – implying Jewish control of Germany) * There is some debate what is in his hand...some have said land, others have said a heart (look at the shape) other words taking the heart out of good loyal Germans. Jews – inherently disloyal, perpetrators of foreign plots The poster for the 'Eternal Jew' exhibition, 1937 ©

30 Entrance to "The Eternal Jew" exhibition
This photograph shows the entrance to "The Eternal Jew" exhibition when it travelled for display in Vienna, in German-annexed Austria. The poster appears on the Vienna railway station building. Vienna, Austria, August 1938. USHMM, courtesy of Morris Rosen

31 'Your Own KdF-Car' poster, 1939 ©
#2 Your Own Car The VW beetle was designed by Otto Porsche & Hitler The woman is blond haired and dressed conservatively. This is a typical Nazi view of women (no make up/natural look – white teeth) The mountains suggest a link between Germans and the rural ideal (also symbolize the pure Nordic roots of Nazism) Nazi policies are associated with wealth and a good lifestyle They are obviously happy with this lifestyle 'Your Own KdF-Car' poster, 1939 ©

32 The seed of peace not dragon’s teeth
#3 The seed of peace not dragon’s teeth The imagery is quite deliberate. It is based on a parable in the Bible in which a man sows seeds. Suggests a link between Hitler and God There is an angel. This suggests that German greatness is a positive thing and not a threat Hitler is walking on a map of Europe, eastward Hitler = Jesus “The seed of peace, not dragon's teeth” cartoon of Hitler, from the magazine Kladderadatsch, 22 March 1936 © The archangel Gabriel – announcing a new order?

33 The Nazi flag is prominently displayed.
#4 The Nazi flag is prominently displayed. A sense of power is conveyed. Blonde hair, athletic, fit, strong, good looking This young man is blonde haired and well-dressed. This is a typical Nazi view of young men The word, “Kampft”- struggle or fight. The word “VOLK” (folk) (people) is used. All students were forced to join the Hitler Youth – Boy Scouts declared a Jewish plot. German Students Fight for Hitler and Nation

34 Symbol (NJ = National Socialist Jugend – youth movement)
#5 Nazi party Symbol (NJ = National Socialist Jugend – youth movement) Hitler pointed out that unemployment in 1933 was equivalent to the number of women who came into the workforce since Average family size was supposed to have 4 children. Peasants were the backbone of society. Role of the woman is to be a mother (blonde, strong, bear children) Farming in background – church in background Sun = halo It promotes the Nazi charitable organization (the NSV). The text: "Support the assistance program for mothers and children."

35 #6 The caption loosely translates as, "The National Socialist Party will save the people's community. The people's community will then turn to you and the party." Posters of this type illustrate the disconnect between the party rhetoric and the reality of party policy. The family is engulfed by the Nazi party (their guardian) – the eagle towers over them, and stares intently off in the distance. The “strong” eagle (power) – almost a “wing of an angel?” (protecting this wholesome/ideal German family) The Aryan Family (white, blonde, attractive, blue-eyed, happy) (farm family) – without the German inscriptions, this image might be mistaken from a Norman Rockwell painting. The idea of a "Volksgemeinschaft," a community of the people, had a very powerful, very idealistic appeal, comparable to the idealistic appeal that some communist groups were attempting to make at the same time. The analogy is suggested by the use of the word "Volksgenossen," literally "comrades," a term widely used by the Soviet Communist Party at the time. Only the little girl isn’t looking at the baby but rather looking at us – in a way INVITING us into the circle. The slogan on the poster reads "[If] You need advice or help, turn to your 'local group.” In other words, the suggestion is "We are here to help."

36 Depiction of the "pure Aryan" family, 1938
A depiction of the "pure Aryan" family on the cover of the 1938 calendar published by Neues Volk, the magazine of the Nazi Party's Race Political Office. Note the eagle hovering in the background.

37 Strong/fit youth (blonde, blue-eyed) – the future of Germany
#7 Strong/fit youth (blonde, blue-eyed) – the future of Germany “Country, Work, Service” Conveys the message of Germany being united The goal of the Reich Labor Force was to train and teach through regimented exercise, work and sports (train young men for the military). It promotes the Nazi labor service, for which men were expected to volunteer. The caption: "We build body and soul."

38 #8 This poster makes a direct Christological comparison. Just as a dove descended on Christ when he was baptized by John the Baptist, so what looks to be an eagle hovers against the light of heaven over an idealized Hitler. The text: "Long live Germany!." Sun = halo A strong, numerous, and united Germany – power granted from God. Oak leaf border = symbol of strength and longevity in Nazi iconography

39 Jew = a germ (or) a sickness!
#9 Jew = a germ (or) a sickness! Jews (Stars of David), Capitalists (dollar signs), and Communists (hammer & sickle) are ALL part of the disease under inspection! Jews = root of all evil Microscope = indication that Jews were “hiding something.” If you examine them closely, you will find that they are really poisoning the good German! Jews = bad blood Scapegoat for the decline of Germany? Remember that Germany was the leader in science and medicine – microscope legitimizes that Jews are contaminating Germany! Der Stürmer was probably the most infamous newspaper in history. For twenty-two years every issue denounced Jews in crude, vicious, and vivid ways. Although Streicher employed a large staff by the end of the 1930s, he always had the final say, "Streicher and the Stürmer, they are one and the same," he would say proudly.

40 The individual is portrayed as ugly, grotesque, and somewhat demonic.
#10 Large nose, protruding chin, sinister eyes…. The Jew is a traitor/serious threat to the homeland. The individual is portrayed as ugly, grotesque, and somewhat demonic. The fire in the background – they are destroying our way of life – or – this is what should happen to them?????? The Jew is behind the curtain (hiding) (scheming against the state). Clenched fists…power in numbers What is revealed behind the curtain?

41 "If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it people will
The End "If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it people will eventually come to believe it." -- Joseph Goebbels Nazi Propaganda Minister

42 “We have made the Reich by propaganda.”
~ Joseph Goebbels ( ) German politician, minister of propaganda, member of Hitler’s cabinet council

43 (Trying to persuade people to do or believe in something)
CINEMA The Nazis made hundreds of films that carried Nazi messages. Anti-Jewish films were also made. Because Cinema was very popular, Nazi messages were very effective. RADIO Goebbels (the man in charge of Propaganda) used Radio to broadcast Hitler’s speeches and Nazi messages. Foreign radio stations were banned. PROPAGANDA (Trying to persuade people to do or believe in something) NEWSPAPERS Goebbels made sure that newspapers printed favourable stories about the Nazis. Those that did not were closed down. POSTERS The Nazis produced thousands of posters that were designed to persuade people to think or believe in the Nazis RALLIES These were impressive gatherings of German people who went to listen to Hitler’s speeches

44 -Ted Gottfried, Deniers of the Holocaust
Nazi Propaganda How can such a monstrous crime as the Holocaust occur? It begins when people start thinking of themselves as “us” and of others as “them”. -Ted Gottfried, Deniers of the Holocaust The Hitler Youth Education in Nazi Germany Media 1936 Olympics in Berlin

45 The Hitler Youth GIRLS German Girl’s League, Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM) BOYS Hitler Youth, Hitlerjügend (HJ) "Youth Serves the Fuëhrer. All ten-year-olds join the Hitler Youth." “All girls join us.”

46 Nazi Propaganda The Hitler Youth Education in Nazi Germany Media
German educators were warping pliable young minds in order to mold obedient young monsters Erika Mann, School for Barbarians The Hitler Youth Education in Nazi Germany Media 1936 Olympics in Berlin

47 Education in Nazi Germany
The foundation of every state is the education of its youth. - Diogenes “The Jewish Question is the Key to World History.”

48 The German National Catechism for Young Germans in School and on the Job:
“Which race must the National Socialist race fight against? The Jewish race. Why? The goal of the Jew is to make himself the ruler of humanity. Wherever he comes, he destroys works of culture. He is not a creative spirit, rather a destructive spirit.” Werner May, Deutscher National-Katechismus 2nd edition (Breslau: Verlag von Heinrich Handel, 1934), pp

49 Typical School Day The teacher begins and ends the instruction by leading the assembled students in the greeting: The teacher raises the right arm and declares “Heil Hitler.” The students raise their right arms and respond Heil Hitler.” Raising the Swastika Flag at a school in Berlin.

50 Changes in the Curriculum
Math Problems Twisted to Promote Nazi Ideology According to careful estimates there are 300,000 mentally ill persons, epileptics, etcetera in long-term care facilities in Germany. What is the total yearly cost of their care assuming daily costs of 4 RM per person? How many marriage loans for 1,000 RM each could be made yearly with this money? The Jews are aliens in Germany. In 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants of the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the percentage of aliens?

51 Excerpt from this Nazi Biology Textbook for Middle School Students:
As we have already noted, people do not live as individuals like animals and plants, but as peoples, which largely have come together as ethnic states. We know something similar only with insects. Bees and ants are not only the sum of individuals; each individual shares a united drive in service of the entire group…. The ethnic state must demand of each individual citizen that he does everything for the good of the whole, each in his place and with his abilities. See Marie Harm and Hermann Wiehle, Lebenskunde für Mittelschulen. Fünfter Teil. (Halle: Hermann Schroedel Verlag, 1942), pp. pp

52 Math Book for First Grade, Hirt Publishing, 1937.

53 The Poisonous Mushroom
“The Experience of Hans and Else with a Strange Man” “How Jewish Traders Cheat”  “How To Tell A Jew “

54 Popular children’s board game, “Juden Raus!” (Jews Out).
By throwing dice, the winner manages to get six Jews out of their homes and businesses (the circles) and on the road to Palestine. It sold over a million copies in 1938, when Nazi policy was forced Jewish emigration.

55 Additions to the Curriculum: Teaching Nazi Racial Ideology
Classroom chart entitled "German Youth, Jewish Youth." Published in a textbook on heredity, genealogy, and racial studies. Two Jewish children humiliated in front of the classroom. The blackboard reads: "The Jews are our greatest enemy! Beware of Jews." Racial instruction is to begin with the youngest pupils (six years of age) in accordance with the Führer’s instruction that no boy or girl should leave school without complete knowledge of the necessity and meaning of blood purity. - Bernhard Rust, Reich Minister for Science & Education

56 Additions to the Curriculum: Teaching War Oriented Sports
Education in a general way is to be the preparation for later army service. The Army will then not need, as has hitherto been the case, to give the young man a grounding in the simplest exercises and rules…. it should rather change the young man, already physically perfect, into a soldier. - Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf Throwing grenades as a school sport. Battle Ball (Kampfball)

57 Nazi Propaganda The Hitler Youth Education in Nazi Germany Media
Any lie, frequently told, will gradually gain acceptance. – Adolf Hilter, Mein Kampf The Hitler Youth Education in Nazi Germany Media 1936 Olympics in Berlin

58 Media-Newspaper “Der Stürmer“, an antisemitic tabloid, was posted on billboards for all to read, under the heading: Die Juden sind unser Unglück (The Jews are our Misfortune). Völkischer Beobachter, (“People's Observer”), daily newspaper published by the Nazi Party in Germany from the 1920’s until 1945.

59 Media-Radio Free distribution of radios in honor of Joseph Goebbel’s birthday Berlin, October 29, 1938. "All Germany hears the Führer on the People's Receiver." The Nazis, eager to encourage radio listenership, developed an inexpensive radio receiver to make it possible for as many as possible to hear Nazi propaganda.

60 Media-Film The Eternal Jew, the most famous Nazi propaganda film.
Jew Pests, a film aimed at influencing audiences to hate Jews. A propaganda film designed by Nazis for Nazis.

61 "Healthy Parents have Healthy Children."
Media-Posters For young men, service to the totalitarian state meant fighting the Fuhrer's wars, but for women service meant producing racially pure children for the Reich. "Healthy Parents have Healthy Children." Nazi propaganda poster encouraging healthy Germans to have large families.

62 Nazi Propaganda The Hitler Youth Education in Nazi Germany Media
Propaganda has absolutely nothing to do with the truth. - Josef Goebbels The Hitler Youth Education in Nazi Germany Media 1936 Olympics in Berlin

63 The torch lighting ceremony.
1936 Olympics in Berlin German spectators spell out the phrase, directed at Adolf Hitler, "Wir gehoeren Dir" [We belong to you]. The torch lighting ceremony. Spectators salute Adolf Hitler during the games. Jesse Owens' medal ceremony for the long jump.


65 Two propaganda versions of Adolf Hitler show the German dictator from opposite viewpoints. A pro-Hitler poster, left, portrays him as a heroic warrior crowned with a halo of light. An anti-Hitler cartoon, right, pictures him as a ridiculous, loudmouthed tyrant. (U.S. Army Center of Military History; National Archives, Collection U.S. Office of War Information)

66 Propaganda today? Red Meat and Red Faces Newsweek, June 27, 1988
@ SCOTT. FORESMAN & COMPANY Courtesy Fleming Companies Fleming, which has distributed the posters to IGA, Thriftway, Piggly Wiggly, United Super and hundreds of other supermarkets across the country, said that the striking resemblance is only coincidence. “We’re not trying to send out any subliminal Nazi messages,” says spokesperson Cheryl Hudak.

67 BBC - The World at War (Document from WWII - 4 minute video)
Jews are not wanted here. / "Juden! Sind hier unerwuenscht."

68 Image: "The Jewish peril. Protocols of wise Zion
Image: "The Jewish peril. Protocols of wise Zion." The Protocols of the Elders of Zion was a forgery used to incite antisemitism about the protocols of the Elders of Zion (French edition). The Protocols discuss a Jewish plot to infiltrate sections of civilization. Date: 1903

69 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols
An Arabic edition of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion published in Egypt in 2003, on sale in London.

70 This Spanish-language edition declares that whether or not one believes the Protocols are authentic, history has demonstrated that Zionists intend to dominate the world. Such “logic” is a common response to the many exposures of the Protocols as fraudulent. Published in Mexico City, — Credit: USHMM Collection The hand of the Jew controls… money, the papacy, communism, the freemasons, and the Nazi German! Protocols of the Elders of Zion

71 Although fewer than 1,000 of Japan’s 128 million residents are Jewish, millions of books based on the Protocols have been sold there. In this edition, antisemitic ideologue Ota Ryu claims that Jews dominate the Western nations and that Japan must guard vigilantly against a Jewish takeover. Published in Tokyo, — Credit: USHMM Collection

72 This Syrian edition of the Protocols claims that the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were orchestrated by a Zionist conspiracy. The final chapter predicts the eventual destruction of the State of Israel. Published in Damascus, Syria, — Credit: USHMM Collection, gift of the Embassy of Israel

73 Comments/Questions??? Mark L. Lagergren Central High School
531 Morse Street Norwood Young America, MN (High School Office) (Voice Mail)

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