GeoThermal Finding Alternative Energy Sources Clean (Does not pollute) Renewable (Naturally Replenished) Wind Biodiesel Nuclear Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hydrogen Fuel Cell Ethanol Solar Fossil
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hydrogen flows in Air/Oxygen flows in other side Catalyst forces H 2 to split into electrons and positive ions Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) only allows positive ions to flow through Negative charges flow externally to form electric current
Problems with Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Bulky Large amount of hydrogen needed for long range Energy efficiency of producing hydrogen Not all sources of hydrogen is renewable May use more energy to generate hydrogen that overcome its benefit PEM depreciate fast Not work at temp 100 degree C Lack of infrastructure No existing infrastructure to deliver hydrogen economically
Hybrid Technology Conventional combustion + Electric Engine Gas: Power Electric: save gas Combustion engine turns off automatically when not needed Electric motor powered by on-board battery Battery charged during brake/deceleration
Solar Energy Convert radiation from the Sun into electricity by photovoltaics and other means. Pros: always available (during day time), renewable, free Cons: doesn’t work at night, cloudy day, large area Increase in efficiency recent years: 17% in 1980s, around 40% in 2007 Helios
Biofuel: Biodiesel and Ethanol Generate electricity through Biomass Sugar cane, core, animal manure, etc… Make biodiesel/ethanol to use in car Pros: Net carbon neutral (hopefully) Cons: Food for electricity? Pest?
Just Yesterday Honda unveils new version of Insight The first commercially available hybrid vehicle Original Honda Insight, 1999
Summary We NEED to find alternative Earth-friendly energy sources, NOW Global warming + high oil price has motivated many innovations in the past 2-3 years More innovations needed Huge engineering effort Do you best to save the world: Take care of Planet Earth. View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17