The National Innovation System in Kosovo
1st Innovation Dialogue Forum: Screening the National Innovation System 8-9 November 2010, Becic, Montenegro The National Innovation System in Kosovo Besnik Krasniqi, PhD Business Support Centre Kosovo (BSCK), Director
Main structure and characteristics of the national research and innovation system
There is no data on size of the research system in relation to the economy such as structure of GDP (GVA), structure of GERD, number of researcher by sectors, share of R&D personnel in the business enterprise sector as the % of the labour, etc For the first time, this year government devoted 1 million Euros for research only for public institutions. 0.1% of the Kosovo’s budget is devoted for research projects
2 public universities (one recently established this year) and around 30 private colleges/universities -Mainly involved in teaching, very limited in research Best practice: brain gain program, 1 million Euros for science and research from Kosovo consolidated budget; National Program for Science and research
Enterprise and industrial system
99.8 % of total firms are SMEs majority of them operating in trade and services. There is no data on new technology based firms and multinational companies There is no data on SME contribution to employment or GDP Policy developments include SME European Charter that is being implemented, but still lagging behind the countries of the region Best practice of SMEs include: Voucher Scheme which provides free consultancy to firms; industrial parks, Initiative to improve the functioning of existing business incubators
Intermediaries and science-industry cooperation
Center for Innovation and Technology Transfer (Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology) Industrial/Business Parks (ongoing projects) Business Start-up Centres (mainly donor driven and NGOs) Research institutes 3 incubators are established by MTI (not functioning well, the latest initiative of MTI is to outsource to private sector managing of these incubators)
Government policy making and coordination of innovation
There is a department within Ministry of Education, Science and Technology called Department of Science and Technology. There is also Center for Innovation and Technology Transfer – QITT The National Council of Science Within the Ministry of Trade and Industry there is a Office of Industrial Property (both of them in their early phase of development) No tax incentives in place (exceptions are some incentives for importing new technology for production aimed at exporting final goods)
Framework conditions Environment for Entrepreneurship not very supportive There is no bank that provides loans to new companies (an exception are micro financing institutions which provide loans with very high interest rates – around 24%) No venture capital available There are only NGO initiative e.g. Business Support Centre Kosovo provided support through training for business skills, 100 ours free consultancy, soft loans (less than 5% interest rate up to Euros for start- ups) and networking. ICT network STIIK (Kosovo Association of Information and Communication Technology) Good example from public initiative is Voucher Scheme of MTI "2010 Science Week" scientific forum organized by MEST.
Relevant Laws LAW NO. 02/L-54 ON TRADEMARKS
LAW NO. 2004/45 ON COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS LAW NO.2004/49 PATENT LAW LAW NO 02/L-45 ON INDUSTRIAL DESING The law No.2004/42 on Scientific Research Activity(27 september 2004 with promulgation on 23 February 2005) The Law No.2004/19 on Academy of Science and Arts of Kosovo(16 June 2004 with a promulgation on 28 July 2004) The Law No.2002/3 on the Higher education in Kosovo(26 september with a promulgation on 12 may 2003)
The country’s involvement in the regional research, innovation and business development initiatives and projects Kosovo participated in Tempus
Main structural deficiencies of research and innovation system
There is no well defined system of research and innovation The main deficiency is the low share of budget to GDP devoted to science and research Very limited number of firms ever take innovative practice; if they do, these are very minor From 11 dimensions of SME European Charter, Kosovo scored lowest on strengthening technological capacity (SME Policy Index, 2009, pp 222)
Main challenges for governance of innovation
Designing and installing properly the innovation system. Integrating fragmented pieces of work by different institutions within new innovation system Lack of specific policies and incentives for innovation and research Lack of data and statistics on all important indicators regarding innovation, technology and science
Minister’s speech 3rd of March 2010
"We have established the Center for International Cooperation, which aims to be available to all higher education institutions and scientific institutes. We have established the Center for Innovation and Technology, even though Kosovo was not comparable with industrialized countries, but our goal is to create the core of the apple that will enable innovation, knowledge transfer, and international cooperation in the field of science and research to be primary.”
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