3 Plan 2.Gather information 3. Select right medium 1. Analyze the situation2.Gather information3. Select right medium4.Organize the informationDefine your purpose & develop audience profileDetermine the audience needs & obtain the information necessary to satisfy those needsselect the appropriate method for messageDefine your main idea, select direct or indirect approach, outline your content
4 1. Analyze Your Situation Define your purpose & develop audience profileto inform, persuade, collaborate with audienceWhat is your specific intentionWill there be changes as a result of your message?Is your purpose realistic? If it is radical, you’ll need to propose a first stepIs the time right? What will the impact of your message be?Is your purpose acceptable by the company?
5 2. Define an Audience Profile Before your audiences will take the time to read or hear your messages, they will need to be interested.What is the primary audience?Determine size, geographic distribution?Audience compositionUnderstand their expectations & preferencesForecast their probable reaction
6 3. Gathering Information Consider other viewpointsRead reports or other related documentsTalk with coworkers, colleagues, supervisorsAsk for your audience inputWhat about ethical information?
8 Oral medium 1. restrict participation advantagesdisadvantages1. provide opportunity for immediate feedback2. Allow interaction3. Nonverbal cues in the tone4. Express emotions within the message1. restrict participation2. No verifiable evidence of communication, unless recorded3. Reduce the communicator’s control over the message4. Cannot edit spoken words
9 Written communication advantagesdisadvantagesAllow you to control the messageReach geographically dispersed audiencesOffer verifiable recordMinimize distortionCan be use to avoid interactionDe-emphasize emotionsNot conducive for immediate feedbackLack of nonverbal cuesOften take more time and more resources to create and distributeMay require special skills to print and distribute
10 Visual communication Can convey complex messages easily advantagesdisadvantagesCan convey complex messages easilyOften less intimidatingReduce the burden on audience to figure things outRequire artistic skillsRequire technical skillsRequire more time to create
11 electronic communication advantagesDisadvantagesDeliver messages quicklyReach geographically dispersed audiencesOffer the persuasive power of multimedia formatsCan increase accessibility and openness in an organizationAre easy to overusePrivacy risks – esp with confidential dataSecurity risks, like virusesFrequent interruptionsFigure 4.6
12 4. Organizing your ideasDirect ApproachIndirect ApproachUse when you know your audience will be receptive a. Positive messagesUse when you know your audience a. begin softly b. consider impact of your message c. Negative messages
13 Outlining your information Main ideaMajor points – detailsFactsExamplesDescriptionNarrationReferenceVisual aidsIllustrate with evidence
14 Write Routine messages Positive messages Negative message Persuasive messagesStraightforwardDaily operations messageConvey good newsConvey bad newsBe honest, yet kindAsking your audience to do somethinggrab their attentions
15 Being sensitiveUse the “you” attitudeMaintain standards of etiquetteEmphasizing the positiveUsing bias-free language
16 The “You” attitude To help us process We are pleased to announce Instead of thiswrite thisTo help us processWe are pleased to announceWe offer MP3 playersYou should never useYou must correctSo that your order can be filledNow you can take advantageSelect your MP3 playerThat type of paper doesn’tAll five copies must be corrected
17 Standards of Etiquette Instead of thisWrite thisOnce again, you’ve managedYou’ve been sitting on our orderLet’s review the last websiteOur production schedules depend on the timely delivery of parts, but we have yet to receive the order you promised to deliver…
18 Emphasizing the Positive Instead of thisWrite thisIt is impossible to repairWe apologize for inconveniencing youWe wasted $300,000Your computer can be readyThe rennovations that are under way will help us serve you betterOur $300,000 advertisement did not pay off;
19 Using bias-free language Instead of thisWrite thisThe problem with this department is a failure…You failed to provide the necessary informationWe will notify all three creditBureausCheap merchandiseFailingThe performance of this department can be improvedPlease review the items markedPaying you overdue bill within 10 days will prevent a negativeInexpensiveUnderperforming