1 CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 05 STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT Shigenori Matsui.
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1 CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 05 STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT Shigenori Matsui
2 INTRODUCTION Structure of Government established by the Constitution Act, 1867 The Crown The Prime Minister and Cabinet Parliament
3 Preamble to the Constitution Act of 1867 The provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick have expressed their desire to be federally united into one dominion under the crown of the united kingdom…with a Constitution similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom.
4 I CROWN The Crown remains as the head of the state. Canada is a constitutional monarch. S. 9 of the Constitution Act of 1867 states that executive power over Canada is hereby declared to continue and be vested in the Queen.
5 Yet, in reality, the queen’s role in Canada is largely ceremonial and symbolic. Most of the queen’s powers in Canada are delegated to the Governor General pursuant to letter patent issued by the Crown in 1947. The remaining power of the Queen is to appoint the Governor General.
7 The convention demands that all the powers of the Crown and Governor General must be exercised based upon the advise of the Prime Minister.
8 The Constitution Act of 1867 did not purport to provide an exhaustive enumeration of the power of the Queen/Governor General. The powers of the Queen/Governor General derive from three sources, constitution, statutes and common law.
11 Common law prerogatives Power relating to Parliament Power relating to foreign affairs Power relating to armed forces Emergency power
12 II PRIME MINISTER AND THE CABINET No provision on the Prime Minister and the Cabinet in the Constitution Act, 1867 Queen’s Privy Council (s. 11) There shall be a Council to aid and advise in the Government of Canada, to be styled the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada; and the Persons who are to be Members of that Council shall be from Time to Time chosen and summoned by the Governor general and sworn in as Privy Councillors, and members thereof may be from Time to Time removed by the Governor General.
13 S. 12 of the Constitution Act, 1867 The power of Governor in Council in former British colonies S. 13 of the Constitution Act, 1867 The power of Governor General in Council
17 Discretion of the Governor General? Appointment of Prime Minister Advice of Prime Minister
18 III LEGISLATIVE POWER Legislative power S. 17 of the Constitution Act, 1867 There shall be One Parliament for Canada, consisting of the Queen, an Upper House styled the Senate, and House of Commons
20 The bill must be approved by both House of Commons and Senate and must be signed by the Queen (Governor General). Power of the British Parliament over Canada S. 55 reservation of assent
21 IV SENATE The Senate Appointed by the Governor General (s. 24) Total Number is 105 (s. 21) Senator
22 Regional Divisions (S. 22) Ontario 24 Quebec 24 Atlantic Provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island) 24 Western Provinces (Manitoba, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Alberta) 24 Newfoundland and Labrador 6 Three territories each 1