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1NFHS Basketball 2010-11 Rules Changes Major Editorial Changes Points of Emphasis Please thoroughly review the notes section of the presentation. Many slides have additional information that will assist in presenting the material.
3Concussion Procedure Revised (2-8-5; 3-3-8) Concussion language revised in all NFHS rules books.Removed references to “unconscious or apparently unconscious.”New procedure requires an athlete exhibiting signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion be removed from the contest.Previous rules books for most sports included language directing officials to remove an athlete from play if “unconscious or apparently unconscious.” That language has been changed to the following: Any athlete who exhibits signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion (such as loss of consciousness, headache, dizziness, confusion or balance problems) shall be immediately removed from the contest and shall not return to play until cleared by an appropriate health-care professional. The common signs, symptoms and behaviors of concussed athletes may be found in Appendix D, page 75, of the NFHS Basketball Rules Book.
4Concussion Recognition and Management (2-8-5; 3-3-8) See Appendix Don Page 75of theNFHS BasketballRules Book
5Concussion Recognition and Management (2-8-5; 3-3-8) A concussion is a brain injury that results in a temporary disruption of normal brain function.A concussion occurs when the brain is violently rocked back and forth or twisted inside the skull as a result of a blow to the head or body.Concussion Recognition and Management :Adolescent athletes are particularly vulnerable to the effects of concussion. Once considered little more than a minor “ding” on the head, it is now understood that a concussion has the potential to result in death, or short- and long-term changes in brain function. A concussion is a brain injury that results in a temporary disruption of normal brain function. A concussion occurs when the brain is violently rocked back and forth or twisted inside the skull as a result of a blow to the head or body.The NFHS has been at the forefront of national sports organizations in emphasizing the importance of concussion education, recognition and proper management for the past several years. In 2008, the NFHS Sports Medicine Advisory Committee (SMAC) advocated that a concussed athlete be removed from play and not allowed to return to play on that same day. In 2009, this position was adopted by the leading group of sports medicine experts and the National Football League (NFL).To highlight the continuing importance of this issue, the NFHS SMAC and each sport’s rules committee has taken the unprecedented step of including Concussion Recognition and Management as a rules change and/or point of emphasis in each NFHS sport rules book for the year. The purpose of this is to explain the change in verbiage in the NFHS Basketball Rules Book regarding the official’s recognition of a player exhibiting the signs, symptoms or behaviors consistent with a concussion and to emphasize the importance of proper concussion management.Concussions at all levels of sports have received a great deal of attention in the past few years. Attention has increased even more so over the past year, culminating with the NFL, NCAA and NFHS testifying before the United States Congress about what each organization is doing to protect athletes from concussion.Given that most concussed athletes do not lose consciousness, yet they often show other common signs, symptoms and behaviors of concussion, the NFHS SMAC strongly believes that officials must be empowered to remove these athletes from play, thus protecting them from potential further injury. Continued participation in any sport following a concussion can lead to worsening concussion symptoms, as well as increased risk for further injury to the brain, and even death.
6Concussion Recognition and Management (2-8-5; 3-3-8) Neither officials, nor coaches, are expected to “diagnose” a concussion; that is the job of an appropriate health-care professional.Officials, coaches and administrators are being asked to make all efforts to ensure that concussed athletes do not continue to participate.Concussion Recognition and Management (continued):Neither officials, nor coaches, are expected to “diagnose” a concussion; that is the job of an appropriate health-care professional. The previous rule called upon officials to determine “apparently unconscious” which appeared to expect some level of medical judgment. Officials are now being asked to use their best judgment again in observing the signs, symptoms and behaviors, but are no longer being asked to make what could be perceived to be a medical opinion. The well-being of the athlete is of paramount concern during any athletic contest. Officials, coaches and administrators are being asked to make all efforts to ensure that concussed athletes do not continue to participate. Early recognition of concussion and removal of the injured athlete from activity (game or practice) is a shared responsibility. Thus, coaches, players and administrators should also be looking for signs of concussion in all athletes and should immediately remove any suspected concussed athlete from play.
7Concussion Recognition and Management (2-8-5; 3-3-8) The game official is not responsible for the evaluation or management of the athlete after he/she is removed from play.If an appropriate health-care professional determines that the athlete HAS NOT suffered a concussion, the athlete may return to play.Concussion Recognition and Management (continued):The game official is not responsible for the evaluation or management of the athlete after he/she is removed from play. The responsibility of further evaluating and managing the symptomatic athlete falls upon the head coach, appropriate health-care professional or other individual designated by school administrators. If an appropriate health-care professional determines that the athlete HAS NOT suffered a concussion, the athlete may return to play.An “appropriate health-care professional” must be determined by each member state association and/or school district with respect to state laws and local preferences. Such individuals should be knowledgeable in the evaluation and management of sports-related concussions and may, depending on controlling law, include MDs, DOs and certified athletic trainers.
8Concussion Recognition and Management (2-8-5; 3-3-8) If there is no appropriate health-care professional available to evaluate the athlete, the athlete SHOULD NOT be permitted by the coach to return to play.Athletes with continued concussion symptoms are at significant risk for recurrent, cumulative and even catastrophic consequences of a second concussive injury.Concussion Recognition and Management (continued):If there is no appropriate health-care professional available to evaluate the athlete, the athlete SHOULD NOT be permitted by the coach to return to play. Please see the “NFHS Suggested Guidelines for Management of Concussion in Sports” at for further information on sideline management.The official does not need written permission for an athlete to return nor does the official need to verify the credentials of the appropriate health-care professional. Ensuring compliance with the Suggested Management Guidelines is a health and safety issue and should be the responsibility of the head coach and school administration, NOT the game official.
9Suggested Concussion Management No athlete should return to play (RTP) or practice on the same day of a concussion.Any athlete suspected of having a concussion should be evaluated by an appropriate health-care professional that day.Any athlete with a concussion should be medically cleared by an appropriate healthcare professional prior to resuming participation in any practice or competition.Suggested Concussion Management:The suggested guidelines for concussion management fall outside the realm of game management, but are clearly a health and safety issue for coaches and administrators. These guidelines should also be applied to practices and scrimmages. The position of the NFHS SMAC is that no athlete should return to play or practice on that same day after suffering a concussion. Studies have shown medical professionals that the school-aged brain does not recover quickly enough for a high school athlete to return to activity in such a short time.Athletes with continued concussion symptoms are at significant risk for recurrent, cumulative and even catastrophic consequences of a second concussive injury. Such risks are minimized if the athlete is allowed time to recover from the concussion and return to play decisions are carefully made. No athlete should return-to-sport or other at-risk participation when symptoms of concussion are present and recovery is ongoing.
10Suggested Concussion Management After medical clearance, RTP should follow a step-wise protocol with provisions for delayed RTP based upon return of any signs or symptoms.For further details, please see the “NFHS Suggested Guidelines for Management of Concussion in Sports” at
112.8.5 SITUATION: A1 and B1 hit heads in diving for a loose ball and both appear injured. However, A1 is immediately removed from the game by the officials as he/she is exhibiting signs consistent with a concussion. Later in the game, A1 reports to the scorer’s table to reenter the contest. Ruling: The rules permit A1 to return to the game once he/she has been cleared by an appropriate health-care professional. The responsibility for obtaining that clearance rests with the coach/school, and need not be verified by the officials (unless state procedures require verification). If A1 appears at the scorer’s table to reenter the game, the officials shall assume the coach/school followed the appropriate return-to-play procedures and A1 is eligible to participate.
12List of Legal Head/Wristband Colors Expanded (3-5-3a) Change made in permitted headbands and wristbands to be a single solid color of white, black, beige or a color similar to the torso of the jersey.New rules change permits headbands and wristbands to be white, black, beige or a single solid school color.The rule was changed to give the student-athletes more color options for head/wristbands. The committee felt that provided it was a school color and all team members wore the same color, it didn’t have to be the same color as the torso. All head/wristbands must still be a single solid color.
13List of Legal Head/Wristband Colors Expanded (3-5-3a) All team members must continue to wear the same color for each item and for all participants.
143.5.3 SITUATION: Team A’s school colors are blue and gold and the predominate color of Team A’s jerseys are white. Prior to the game, an official notices that several Team A members are wearing (a) blue headbands and blue wristbands; and (b) beige pre-wrap around the entire head and blue wristbands. RULING: Legal in (a). Illegal equipment in (b); the headband color does not match the wristband color. The official shall inform the player and the head coach that these items are illegal and may not be worn during the game.
15Player/Team Member Location While Game in Progress (10-3-6i) A player leaving the court for an unauthorized reason to demonstrate resentment, disgust or intimidation added to the list of unsporting behaviors.Hope to further reduce the likelihood of individual players demonstrating unsporting behavior.In 2005, the rules were changed to penalize a player leaving the court for an unauthorized reason from a technical foul to a violation. The committee’s focus at that time was the live-action play where a player extended the playing court by going out of bounds (perhaps to go around a screen) and returned to the playing court in another location (perhaps a more advantageous position). That rules modification remains a positive change; however, it created a gap in the rule when the act was by a player, while during a dead-ball situation, left the court for an unauthorized reason to demonstrate inappropriate or unsporting behaviors. Therefore, a new rule was added, very similar to the rule prior to 2005, but specifically relating to the demonstration of resentment, disgust or intimidation.
16SITUATION: With 4 minutes remaining in the second quarter, B1 commits his/her third foul against airborne shooter A1; the try is unsuccessful. Team B’s coach immediately sends B6 to the scorer’s table to replace B1 after A1’s first free-throw. B1’s replacement may not enter the game until after A1’s first free throw. B1, disgusted with the official’s call and realizing he/she will soon leave the game, goes and sits on the end of Team B’s bench just after the official reports the foul. RULING: B1 is assessed an unsporting technical foul for leaving the court for an unauthorized reason to demonstrate disgust. A1 will attempt the two shooting-foul free throws followed by any Team A member attempting the two free throws for the technical foul. (10-3-6i; 3-3-2)SITUATION A: Airborne shooter A1 is fouled by B1 after the ball is released on the try. Playing time for the second quarter expires while the unsuccessful try is in flight. Since no players are required to line up for the free throws, Team B’s head coach takes the team to the locker room to begin the intermission. RULING: Team B’s head coach is assessed a direct technical foul for permitting team members to leave the bench/court for an unauthorized reason. Even though no time remains on the game clock, the quarter doesn’t end until A1’s free throws are completed; therefore, the technical foul is part of the second quarter. A1 will attempt the two shooting-foul free throws followed by any Team A member attempting the two free throws for the technical foul. The third quarter will begin with the alternating-possession procedure. (5-6-2 Exception 3)
17Player/Team Member Location While Game in Progress (10-5-5) A similar rule was added requiring team members to remain on the court/in the bench area while the game is in progress until each quarter or extra period has ended.This includes free-throw attempts by an opponent with no time remaining on the clock.While the committee was addressing the individual actions of a player, it also addressed similar actions by an entire team or bench personnel. The new rule gives specific rule backing for assessing a technical foul when a team or bench personnel is not at the team bench area while the game is in progress.
18Player/Team Member Location While Game in Progress (10-5-5) Since the Head Coach is ultimately responsible for the conduct of all team members, the penalty is a technical foul assessed directly to the Head Coach.SITUATION B: A spectator heckles Team A member, A9, while he/she is sitting on Team A’s bench. A9 leaves the bench area and goes into the stands to confront the fan. RULING: Team A’s head coach is assessed a direct technical foul for permitting A9 to leave the bench area for an unauthorized reason. Team B is awarded two free throws and the ball for a division line throw-in.
20Substitutions During Intermission /Time-Outs (3-3-1a Note; 4-34-2) Substitutes between quarters, at halftime or during a time-out must report prior to the warning signal.Note added to clarify that when a substitute is not properly reported, the players in the game at the conclusion of the quarter/when the time-out was granted will be in the game when play resumes.There is no “penalty” of a technical foul associated with this note or rule – only that the players that were in the game when the break occurred (intermission, time-out) will start play when the break has concluded – if a substitute has not properly reported.If a substitute has not properly reported and enters the game undetected (illegally), Rule applies and the substitute becomes a legal player when the ball becomes live.
21Substitutions During Intermission /Time-Outs (3-3-1a Note; 4-34-2) Rule was edited as follows:During intermission, all team members are bench personnel for the purpose of penalizing unsporting behaviors.Language reflects the spirit and intent of the rule.These editorial changes were made because there was some concern that and were in conflict with one another – i.e. you can’t have a “substitute” report when all team members are considered bench personnel (no “players” to be substituted for). The intent of having all team members considered bench personnel during intermission was to assess the proper penalty for unsporting behavior on the individual AND assess an indirect on the coach.
22The same players will start the third quarter that ended the second quarter, unless a proper substitution is made – prior to the warning horn to end intermission and made by the substitute or a team representative. In the illustration above, the gold team has the same players start the third quarter that ended the second quarter.If one of these same players was assessed an unsporting technical foul while walking to the locker room at halftime, the technical foul would be assessed to that individual, as well as an indirect charged to the head coach.3.3.1 SITUATION D: Intermission has concluded and play is about to resume in the third quarter when the scorer notifies the officials that no Team A substitutes reported prior to the warning horn. RULING: The third quarter begins with the same five Team A players that concluded the second quarter. (3-3-1a Note)
23Uniforms (3-4-2d)Change made to clarify that a school or conference logo/mascot may be located:At the apex/opening of the necklineIn the corresponding area on the back of the jerseyIn either side insertThis editorial change just reflects the same rule written in other places for clarification.
25Guards, Casts and Braces (3-5-2) The language regarding guards, casts and braces was edited to clarify:The prohibition regarding hard and unyielding items on the elbow, hand, finger/thumb, wrist or forearm.New rules language for 3-5-2:ART. 2…Guards, casts, braces and compression sleeves must meet the following guidelines:a. A guard, cast or brace made of a hard and unyielding substance, such as, but not limited to, leather, plaster, plastic or metal shall not be worn on the elbow, hand, finger/thumb, wrist or forearm; even though covered with soft padding.b. Hard and unyielding items (guards, casts, braces, etc.) on the upper arm or shoulder must be padded with a closed-cell, slow-recovery foam padding no less than ½” thick.c. Knee and ankle braces which are unaltered from the manufacturer’s original design/production are permitted and do not require any additional padding/covering.d. A protective face mask may be worn and made of hard material, but must be worn molded to the face with no protrusions.e. Must be worn for medical reasons.The changes made to 3-5-2:a. - the words “pliable (soft)” were removed – they were causing too many issues since they contradict “hard and unyielding.”
26Guards, Casts and Braces (3-5-2) Closed-cell, slow-recovery foam no less than 1/2” thick must be used to pad hard and unyielding items on the upper arm or shoulder.Knee and ankle braces unaltered from the manufacturer’s original design/production are permitted and need not be padded/covered.The changes made to (continued):b. - the rule now specifies a required thickness for padding over hard and unyielding items permitted on the upper arm and shoulder.c. - requires all knee and ankle braces to be used as specified by the manufacturer. The NFHS Sports Medicine Advisory Committee (SMAC) recommended that if these braces were unaltered and worn as intended by the manufacturer, the risk of injury to other players was negligible. The SMAC was also concerned that padding braces to comply with the previous rule carried a risk of interfering with the braces’ function.
27Guards, Casts and Braces (3-5-2) A protective face mask made of hard material may be worn, but must be molded to the face with no protrusions.The changes made to (continued):d. - the original intent of the rule was to permit a face mask molded to the face. Recently, manufacturer’s have been marketing products for use in basketball that are worn in other sports (softball, lacrosse, etc.) and that are not molded to the face and are “cage-like.” This editorial change just clarified the original intent of the rule.
28Image illustrates a legal face mask Image illustrates a legal face mask. It is molded to the face with no protrusions.
29Ball at Player’s Disposal (4-4-7d) Clarified that the ball is at the disposal of a player when:It is available to him/her after a goal.ANDThe official begins the throw-in count.This editorial change just clarifies when the ball is at the disposal of a player after a made basket to differentiate between live- and dead-ball situations for the purposes of administering penalties and granting time-outs.
30This does involve some judgment on the part of the administering official, as in the PlayPic being illustrated. If No. 54 has the ball available to him, but makes no move or attempt to pick it up (getting excessive instructions from the coach, attempting to have additional time tick off the clock, etc.), the administering official should start the throw-in count. When this happens, the ball is at the player’s disposal and is a live ball (6-1-2b).
31Throw-in Awarded to Wrong Team (7-6-6 New) Clarified that when the ball is awarded to the wrong team on a throw-in...the mistake must be rectified before the throw-in ends.This has been the interpretation and stated clearly in the NFHS Basketball Case Book for years – now just stated in the Rules Book.This has been a long-standing interpretation and has been stated in the NFHS Basketball Case Book for many years. To alleviate confusion, the committee felt it should be stated in the NFHS Basketball Rules Book as well.
324-42-5:ART The throw-in ends when:a. The passed ball touches or is legally touched by another player inbounds.b. The passed ball touches or is touched by another player out of bounds, except as inc. The throw-in team commits a throw-in violation.
34Rules EnforcementThere appears to be continued movement away from consistent enforcement of NFHS playing rules.Individual philosophies, personal interpretations and deviations from the rules as written, negatively impact the basic tenets and fundamentals of the game.The rules committee and many state association administrators continue to be concerned that officials persist in adopting personal officiating philosophies when it comes to what rules to enforce and what rules not to enforce. In training sessions, officials are taught to “manage the game” without much in-depth discussion regarding exactly what that means - game management then turns into game manipulation. Managing situations doesn’t mean setting aside the rules as written.
35Rules Enforcement The rules are written to: Minimize risk to participants.Provide a balance between offense and defense.Promote the sound tradition of the game.Promote fair play.
36Illegal tactics that are permitted – are promoted. Rules EnforcementIllegal tactics that are permitted – are promoted.When officials permit players to use illegal tactics without penalty, the behavior is condoned and consequently encouraged.
37Rules EnforcementWhen officials consistently enforce the playing rules as written and intended, players and coaches are able to make the proper adjustments – promoting skill development and a level playing field.
38Sporting BehaviorTeams entering the gymnasium prior to the contest should not run through the area occupied by the opposing team or under the basket where opponents are warming up.Where possible, teams should only enter, jog and warm up on their half of the court.State association administrators should review this POE carefully. Some states have experienced minimal problems in this area and may feel the suggestions are too restrictive. Other states have had major problems in this area and may want to turn the “suggestions” into “requirements.”If a team’s entrance is on the opponent’s end of the court, they should take the shortest path to their own end of the court.
39Sporting BehaviorGatherings intended to motivate a team after the warm-up period, during or following introductions and post-game celebrations should be performed in the area directly in front of the team bench.If during the pre-game or half-time warm-up period, one team leaves the floor, the other team may not use the entire court.Teams should only warm up on their half of the court.The center court area, particularly if a team mascot/emblem is painted on the floor, has become an area causing a great deal of problems with sportsmanship. Visiting teams believe if they meet on the home team’s mascot and perform their pre- or post-game rituals, it will provide motivation or vindication. Again, states may want to give explicit instructions regarding mascots and center-court gatherings if problems have been encountered.
40There have been some unfortunate situations that have occurred during pregame warm-ups; prior to the officials’ jurisdiction. Instances of taunting, baiting and even physical altercations have occurred during this timeframe and the committee wanted to offer a few suggestions to possibly help alleviate some of the problems.
41Sporting BehaviorOnly authorized personnel (cheerleaders, athletic trainers, managers, administrators, etc.) should be permitted on the floor.All spectators should be in designated areas.
42Perimeter PlayTwo illegal actions are taking place on the perimeter of the court that are particularly problematic.Defenders are illegally using hands to “check” the ball handler/dribbler.Offensive players are palming the ball to elude a defender.Both illegal tactics are going uncalled, which promotes further illegal actions (see Rule Enforcement POE).The rules committee was concerned about actions occurring on the perimeter, by both the offense and the defense. Again, if the rules are enforced as written (POE #1), this matchup becomes less problematic.
43Perimeter Play - Hand Checking Hand checking is any tactic using the hands or arms that allows a player, on offense or defense, to control (hold, impede, push, divert, slow or prevent) the movement of an opposing player.Hand checking is a foul and is not incidental contact.
45Perimeter Play - Hand Checking Defenders shall not have hand(s) on the offensive player.When a player has a hand on, two hands on or jabs a hand or forearm on an opponent, it is a foul.Players may not place their hands on an opponent with or without the ball.Only incidental contact is permitted.
46Perimeter Play - Hand Checking When a player contacts an opponent with his or her hands as an aid in starting, stopping, driving around, defending a screen, controlling or anticipating the opponent’s next move, it is a foul.Much of the roughness in high school basketball is a direct result of not assessing the proper penalty when illegal contact with the hand(s) occurs.
47Perimeter Play - Palming When the hand is in contact with the ball and the palm of the hand is beyond the perpendicular position (more than a handshake), tilted in a skyward position so the ball has come to rest on the hand, the dribble has ended.When the player then pushes the ball to the floor, he or she is starting another dribble (illegal dribble), which is a violation.
48This offensive movement is nearly impossible to defend.
49Closely GuardedClosely-guarded rule is in place to create better balance between the offense and defense.The offense gains a tremendous advantage if the rule is not enforced properly and consistently.This POE is repeated from The rules committee believes much progress has been made in this area, but wanted closely-guarded situations to be emphasized for one more year.
50The rule basics: Closely Guarded Player is in control in his/her team’s frontcourt.Guarded by an opponent who is within 6 feet.Defensive player must obtain a legal guarding position.
51The rule basics: Closely Guarded Player may legally… HOLD for 4 secondsDRIBBLE for 4 seconds
52Measuring 6 feet: Closely Guarded Officials must have clear image of the guarding distance necessary.Visual examples on the court:Free-throw line and top of semi-circle.Division line to jump circle.Two adjacent FT marked lane spaces.
54Closely GuardedA closely-guarded count continues if defenders are switched – provided the 6-foot distance and legal guarding position is maintained.Officials use a visible count when the 6-foot distance is established and switch counting arms when going from one counting situation to another.The NFHS mechanic for a visible count is the arm straight out from the chest and parallel to the floor.
55Principle of Verticality Concern that principle of verticality is not being applied consistently, especially in situations that involve blocked shots.Verticality applies to a legal position.The following are the basic components of the principle of verticality:This POE also goes back to enforcing the rules as written (POE #1). The verticality rule (4-45) is well written and must be applied accordingly.
56Principle of Verticality Legal guarding must be obtained initially and movement thereafter must be legal.From this position, the defender may rise or jump vertically and occupy the space within his/her vertical plane.The hands and arms of the defender may be raised within his/her vertical plane while on the floor or in the air.The defender should not be penalized for leaving the floor vertically or having his/her hands and arms extended within his/her vertical plane.SECTION 45 VERTICALITYVerticality applies to a legal position. Following are the basic components of the principle of verticality:ART Legal guarding position must be obtained initially and movement thereafter must be legal.ART From this position, the defender may rise or jump vertically and occupy the space within his/her vertical plane.ART The hands and arms of the defender may be raised within his/her vertical plane while on the floor or in the air.ART The defender should not be penalized for leaving the floor vertically or having his/her hands and arms extended within his/her vertical plane.
57Principle of Verticality The offensive player, whether on the floor or airborne, may not “clear out” or cause contact within the defender’s vertical plane; this is a foul.The defender may not “belly up” or use the lower part of the body or arms to cause contact outside his/her vertical plane; this is a foul.The player with the ball is to be given no more protection or consideration than the defender in judging which player has violated the rules.ART The offensive player whether on the floor or airborne, may not “clear out” or cause contact within the defender’s vertical plane which is a foul.ART The defender may not “belly up” or use the lower part of the body or arms to cause contact outside his/her vertical plane which is a foul.ART The player with the ball is to be given no more protection or consideration than the defender in judging which player has violated the rules.
58Principle of Verticality Misunderstanding of this rule generally results in the defensive player being charged with a foul when actually his or her vertical plane has likely been violated.
59Of particular concern are fouls being called on shot-blockers (primarily in girls’ games) who are in legal, vertical position and illegal displacement fouls going uncalled.