2 Before we start Website: Added news section Particularly relevant to policyPlease contribute your own insights and your own news piecesAlso, read: for excellent policy/management analysis
3 Integrated analysis of environmental trends and policies Need to answer 3 main questionsWhat is happening to the environment and why?. What are the consequences for the environment and humanity?What is being done and how effective is it?How to answer these questionsIEA analyses environment and human well-being trends and dynamics based on the drivers-pressures-state-impacts- responses (DPSIR) framework.Using this framework,the assessment identifies the drivers ofhuman development and associated pressures that, along with natural processes, affect the state and trends of the environment. Changes in the state ofthe environment have impacts on ecosystem services and aspects ofhuman well-being.In order to assess how society is responding to these problems and effectiveness ofthese responses,IEA analyses policies directed at the mitigation and conservation ofthe environment,as well as adaptation by people to the environmental impacts. Integrated assessment of the state of the environment identifies priority environmental and sustainability issues, specific indicators, and policy targets for a given issue. Such a process could also be used to identify linkages to human well-being.The current module reviews three types of analyses of impacts on human well-being: a qualitative analysis of impacts, an analysis based on the ecosystem and human well-being framework, and analysis of ecosystem—human well-being connections based on economic valuation.
4 Analysis involves…: A. Understanding the issue to determine what is happening to the environment, why and what the impacts are.B. Preparing a policy report card to understand the array of high-level strategies affecting the environmental issue.C. Conducting a policy instrument scan to identify the mix of policies influencing the environmental issue, and the effectiveness of such a mix.D. Performing a policy gap and coherence analysis to determine if relevant policies are in place and are focused on the most important drivers and pressures.The analysis of policy responses identifies existing policy measures, both in terms of their effects and their effectiveness. This involves considering both the policy landscape to identify potential gaps, and an in-depth analysis of particular policies or policy mixes to determine their effective- ness in light oftargets.Analysing existing policy measures is based on the following steps: A. Understanding the issueto determine what is happening to the environment, why and what the impacts are. B. Preparing a policy report cardto understand the array of high-level strategies affecting the environmental issue. C. Conducting a policy instrument scanto identify the mix of policies influencing the environmental issue,and the effectiveness ofsuch a mix. D. Performing a policy gap and coherence analysis to determine if relevant policies are in place and are focused on the most important drivers and pressures.
5 DPSIR modelA causal framework for describing interactions between society and the environment.Allows integrated approach to reporting.Used by amongst others UNEP, EEA, CEROI in SoE and IEA reporting.Earlier versions include:PSR (OECD 1994)DSR (UNCSD, 1996)Driving forces are underlying forces that influence development such as economic growth, population growthPressures are human activities that affect the environment. Typically emissions of polluting substances or resource use.State is the physical state of the environment at a given time.Impact is the consequences of changes in the environment. Can be for example health, economic or environmental in nature.Response is society’s reaction to environmental change. Can be political, economic, behavioural
6 The DPSIR conceptResponsesDriving forcesImpactPressuresState
8 Driving forces: A driving force is a need: Individual: Food, shelter etc (Maslows hierachy)Industry: Make profit, lower costs, expand marketsNation: Increase/maintain standard of living, reduce unemploymentDFs are the underlying factors that influence development such as population growth, economic growth, energy consumption and industrial production.A ‘driving force’ is a need. Examples of primary driving forces for an individual are the need for shelter, food and water, while examples of secondary driving forces are the need for mobility, entertainment and culture. For an industrial sector a driving force could be the need to be profitable and to produce at low costs, while for a nation a driving force could be the need to keep unemployment levels low. In a macroeconomic context, production or consumption processes are structured according to economic sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, transport, households). - Population (number, age structure, education levels, political stability) - Transport (persons, goods; road, water, air, off-road) - Energy use (energy factors per type of activity, fuel types, technology) - Power plants (types of plants, age structure, fuel types) - Industry (types of plants, age structure, resource types) - Refineries/Mining (types of plant/minings, age structure) - Agriculture (number of animals, types of crops, stables, fertilisers) - Landfills (type, age) - Sewage systems (types) - Non-industrial sectors - Land use
9 Pressures:Human activities to meet needs affect the environment through production or consumption processes:Emissions of polluting substancesExtraction of natural resourcesLand usePressures Driving forces lead to human activities such as transportation or food production, i.e. result in meeting a need. These human activities exert 'pressures' on the environment, as a result of production or consumption processes, which can be divided into three main types: (i) excessive use of environmental resources, (ii) changes in land use, and (iii) emissions (of chemicals, waste, radiation, noise) to air, water and soil. - Use of resources - Emissions (per driving force for numerous compounds) - direct emissions to air, water and soil - indirect emissions to air, water and soil - Production of waste - Production of noise - Radiation - Vibration - Hazards (risks)
10 State: Current condition of the environment: Air quality Water quality Soil qualityEcosystems statusAs a result of pressures, the ‘state’ of the environment is affected; that is, the quality of the various environmental compartments (air, water, soil, etc.) in relation to the functions that these compartments fulfil. The ‘state of the environment’ is thus the combination of the physical, chemical and biological conditions. - Air quality (national, regional, local, urban, etc.) - Water quality (rivers, lakes, seas, coastal zones, groundwater) - Soil quality (national, local, natural areas, agricultural areas) - Ecosystems (biodiversity, vegetation, soil organisms, water organisms) - Humans (health) - Soil use
11 Impact: Effect of changes on both environment and society. Impacts The changes in the physical, chemical or biological state of the environment determine the quality of ecosystems and the welfare of human beings. In other words changes in the state may have environmental or economic ‘impacts’ on the functioning of ecosystems, their life- supporting abilities, and ultimately on human health and on the economic and social performance of society.
12 Response:Society can make political, economic or behavioural changes as a reaction to changes in the environment.Responses can be aimed at any of the links in the causal chain (DPSI).A ‘response’ by society or policy makers is the result of an undesired impact and can affect any part of the chain between driving forces and impacts. An example of a response related to driving forces is a policy to change mode of transportation, e.g from private (cars) to public (trains), while an example of a response related to pressures is a regulation concerning permissible SO levels in flue gases.
13 Understanding the dynamics of issues: We want to report on the important aspects of an issue, not just be descriptive.Linking DPSIR elements The DPSIR framework is useful in describing the relationships between the origins and consequences of environmental problems, but in order to understand their dynamics it is also useful to focus on the links between DPSIR elements (see Figure 3). For instance, the relationship between the ‘D’ and the ‘P’ by economic activities is a function of the eco- efficiency of the technology and related systems in use, with less ‘P’ coming from more ‘D’ if eco-efficiency is improving. Similarly, the relationship between the Impacts on humans or eco-systems and the ‘S’ depends on the carrying capacities and thresholds for these systems. Whether society ‘Responds’ to impacts depends on how these impacts are perceived and evaluated; and the results of ‘R’ on the ‘D’ depends on the effectiveness of the Response.
14 Driving Force - Pressure Relationships The environmental pressures resulting from human activities (emissions, resource use and land use) are a function of two types of variable:(i) the level of these activities(ii) the technology applied in these activities.For example an emission of a given compound from an economic activity is the product of the level of activity and an emission factor, which reflects the technology of the process under scrutiny. Discharge of waste water from domestic sources, for instance, depends on the size of the population and their consumption (activity) and on the proportion of population connected to sewers and different kinds of waste water treatment (technology). The technology variables will be reflected by emissions factors, resource use factors or land use factors. The variables accounting for the level of activities are of an economic nature, because they reflect the level of production and consumption.
15 DPSIR framework in relation to water issues The aim of managing water resources is to safeguard human health while maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial ecosystems.It is, therefore, important to quantify and identify the current state of, and impacts on, water environment and how these are changing with time.In water assessment at global, regional, national and by river basins level the following generic questions could be asked: ?(Based on the European Environment Agency's work on water )
16 DPSIR framework in relation to water issues State of watersTime trendsWhat is causing the problems?Agricultural State of Action on policiesState of waters • How is it? (Nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals, ecological quality ) • How much is there? (Runoff, availability, demands, water stress ) Time trends • Getting better or worse? • Within or outside agreed limits? What is causing the problems? Pressures on the environment • Human - domestic • Industrial • Agricultural State of Action on policies • Are they working towards targets?
17 DPSIR – as analytical framework (print page 5) The DPSIR model can be used as an analytical framework for assessing water issues. This allows a comprehensive assessment of the issues through examination of the relevant Driving forces and Pressures on the environment, the consequent State of the environment and its Impacts, and the Responses undertaken, and of the interlinkages between each of these elements.Driving Forces?Pressures?Responses?State?Impacts?The DPSIR model can be used as an analytical framework for assessing water issues. This allows a comprehensive assessment of the issues through examination of the relevant Driving forces and Pressures on the environment, the consequent State of the environment and its Impacts, and the Responses undertaken, and of the interlinkages between each of these elements.
19 DPSIR on SOE Web Sites” The model should be seen as a help in organising the work, and not as a form to be filled in .” (GEOKit)Two important constraint:We need efficient navigation for the Web SiteWe are writing and performing QC on large amount of text in short time span.Examples from the web:SOE Durban (SA)SOE Oslo (Norway)SOE Tbilisi (Georgia)SOE NorwayDPSIR a tool to help organise information, not a form to be filled in.
20 Writing a theme for SOE Ask yourself the following questions: What is the general situation?Does the situation have any consequences?What is influencing the situation?Where does the influence come from?What is being done to improve the situation?Are there linkages to other issues?
22 another causal chain frameworks GIWA causal chain analyses“The aim of GIWA is to produce a comprehensive and integrated global assessment of international waters, the ecological status of and the causes of environmental problems in 66 water areas in the world, and focus on the key issues and problems facing the aquatic environment in transboundary waters.”Reminder: A causal chain is a series of statements that demonstrate and summarize, in a stepwise manner, the linkages between problems and their underlying (root) causes.Print: page 8 of DPSIRThe GIWA causal chain analyses will concentrate on five major problem areas of concern, initially divided into 22 major issues. The conditions in each area will determine which issues that will be considered relevant to address in that particular area:Freshwater shortageModification of stream flow - Pollution of existing supplies - Changes in the water tablePollutionMicrobiological - Eutrophication - Chemical - Suspended solids - Solid wastes - Thermal - Radio nuclide - SpillsHabitat and community modificationLoss of ecosystems - Modification of ecosystems or ecotones, including community structure and/or species compositionUnsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources Over-exploitation - Excessive by-catch and discards - Destructive fishing practices - Decreased viability of stock through pollution and disease - Impact on biological and genetic diversityGlobal changeChanges in hydrological cycle - Sea level change - Increased uv-b radiation as a result of ozone depletion - Changes in ocean CO2 source/sink function
23 So… I want you to finish the economics reading today So that you can begin your homework for this section.Question to you all: can you – the three of you – meet Friday to begin group work?
24 So – let’s talk more about the ‘how’ Key questions to be answered in the IEA frameworkWhat are the consequences for the environment and humanity?What is happening to the environment and why?What is being done and how effective is it?Where are we heading?What actions could be taken for a more sustainable future?In Step 1(Figure 1), you will learn about compiling and analysing quantitative and qualitative information related to the status and trends of the environment, including spatial and temporal characteristics of change. We also will address how drivers—natural or anthropogenic—exert influence.Step 2will guide you through identifying and analysing ways environmental changes affect the ability of the environment to provide specific services such as pollination of crops by insects, regulation of carbon in the atmosphere or the cultural or recreational value of landscapes. Here, you also will investigate direct versus indirect impacts on human vulnerability and well-being as well as the potential costs ofthose effects.Step 3involves identifying all policies that have significant influence on the environment and human well-being. It also helps identify policy gaps and opportunities for policy innovation, and determine the effectiveness ofpolicies.