Zheming CSCE715. A wireless sensor network (WSN) ◦ Spatially distributed sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, and to cooperatively.
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Presentation on theme: "Zheming CSCE715. A wireless sensor network (WSN) ◦ Spatially distributed sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, and to cooperatively."— Presentation transcript:
A wireless sensor network (WSN) ◦ Spatially distributed sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. Node ◦ An embedded, highly resource-constrained, low cost and low-power WSN device.
Overview of AES algorithm Existing low-cost and low-power AES hardware designs Specialized processor architecture for AES implementations Conclusion
Iterated architecture ◦ Long latency ◦ Low-resource
Pipelined/Loop-unrolled architecture ◦ High speed ◦ Large area ◦ High power consumption ◦ Feedback mode unfriendly
Enable low-resource implementation ◦ (e.g. multiplication and division) Full-speed utilization in feedback mode Width of AES data path reducible for lower area and power ◦ 128 vs. 8 Focus of the paper
Memory-based LUT vs. combinational logic The amount of parallelism Galois Field computation transferred to another arithmetic domain Pre-computed vs. on-the-fly expansion
Mainly targeted at Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technologies. Major FPGA vendors: Xilinx & Altera ASIC vs. FPGA
Ref16 A thorough study of AES data path implementation with different architectural choices Ref18,19 A folded design in which the datapath width can be decreased from 128 bits Folding technique 1) most compact & low-power 2) increase latency Direct comparison between Ref16 and Ref18,19 is not possible due to different implementations
Ref8 iterative ASIC designs with varying data path widths Roundkey generated on-the-fly The results still valuable though the cell counts are not the lowest. But best area-throughput ratios of existing compact implementations.
Ref13 Use precomputed key expansion Use dedicated memory block of FPGA to implement S-box as LUT Proposal of states arrangement for efficient storage in memory components. It allows addressing logic for shiftRow operation. Use equal amount of memory components but uses more efficiently.
Ref10 Roundkey generation shares S- boxes with main data path. Use varying data widths for different phases of the algorithms Support for CBC encryption mode Older ASIC technology (.60 um) prevents absolute area comparisons.
Ref11 8-bit datapath for round oepration and on-the-fly key expansions. One S-box implemented as combinational logic. State and roundkey stored in 32x8 RAM. Folding increases latency and decreases throughput.
Ref9 A 8-bit AES processor in FPGA. Datapath includes S-Box and GF MAC. The execution is controlled with a program stored in ROM. Use RAM as a data memory Fairly inefficient design !
Ref12 Low throughput and high latency Low clock frequency Old technology Ref20 A novel architecture based on the 8-bit permutation structure Most efficient in area-throughput ratio Parallel operations of 8-bit pieces Maintain low hardware area and power consumption
Best approach for AES seems 8-bit designs (Ref 12, 20). ◦ Lowest hardware area ◦ Lowest power consumption FPGA technologies currently not feasible solution for WSN node. High power consumption!
A performance-area trade-off between dedicated hardware implementation and general-purpose process. Typically general purpose but tailored to support a specific application domain. Still Low-cost and low consumption devices
Convey Computer Highlights 4 Xilinx FPGAs or Application Engines (AE) 8 memory controllers The host computer interface, or Application Engine Hub (AEH).
Ref 22 Use Xtensa configurable processor architecture Execution of AES is accelerated by using extension instruction for AES. Performance improved by several ten-folds Ref 23 Use 32-bit MIPS processor architecture Use fast LUT functionality for accelerating AES and RC4 algorithm Low power consumption
Ref 24 Use LEON-2 processor architecture prototyped in an FPGA 1.43 encryption speedup and 30-40% reduction in code size Ref 25 A microcoded cryptogprocessor for DES, AES and ECC. Low frequency and throughput
Compared to dedicated AES hardware implementations ◦ Significant larger hardware area ◦ Higher power consumption ◦ Programmability and/or reconfigurability A 32-bit general-purpose processor with its special support for AES is a feasible solution
Currently 8-bit dedicated hardware designs seem to be the most feasible solutions for WSN nodes. Alternatively, compact special functional units can be used for extending the instruction sets of WSN node processors for efficient AES execution. Design that meets the throughput requirements of WSN communication, hence achieving considerable power savings by decreasing the clock speed.