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Diverse Structures and Common Characteristics

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1 Diverse Structures and Common Characteristics
Study of Developing Nations

2 Classification of Economies
World Bank classifies 208 economies (population=/> 30,000) based on gross national income per capita, 2000 LIC =/< $755 LMC =$756-$2995 UMC =$2996-$9265 High- income OECD =/>$9226 Other high-income countries Different classification of other-high income countries

3 Classification of Economies
Gross National Income is the total final output of goods and services produced by the economy, plus net factor income from the rest of the world, minus sales taxes Gross domestic product (GDP) + net factor payments = Gross national product (GNP) GNP- sales taxes = Gross national income


5 Classification of Economies
East Asia and the Pacific: Korea, Rep China Indonesia UMC LMC LIC Europe and Central Asia: Czech Republic Lithuania Armenia Latin America and the Caribbean: Brazil Cuba Nicaragua

6 Classification of Economies
Middle East and North Africa: Bahrain Iraq Yemen, Rep UMC LMC LIC South Asia: Sri Lanka India Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa Namibia Ethiopia

7 Classification of Economies
High Income OECD: Australia Canada USA Japan Denmark France Switzerland UK Other high income countries: The Bahamas Kuwait Hong Kong, China

8 Structural Diversity of Developing Economies
Size (geographical, population) and income of the country Historical and colonial background Physical and HR endowments Ethnic and religious composition Relative importance of public and private sectors Nature of its industrial structure Degree of dependence on external economic and political forces Distribution of power, institutional and political structures


10 Structural Diversity of Developing Economies: Population and Income
Population (mill) GNP per capita (USD) Most Populous 1. China 2. India 3. USA 10. Japan 1,261 1,016 282 127 840 460 34,260 34,210 Least Populous 1. St Kitts-Nevis 2. Antigua and Barbuda 3. Dominica 41 68 73 6,660 9,190 3,260

11 Structural Diversity of Developing Economies: Industrial structure
Country % of L Force % of GDP Agriculture Industry Nigeria 54 5 43 25 Bangladesh 64 14 30 18 Brazil 31 27 36 All Developing 60 17 20 38 USA 2 29

12 Structural Diversity of Developing Economies: Important observations
There is no necessary relation among a country’s size, per capita income, and degree of equality/ inequality Colonialism exposed African and Asian countries to new forms of potential exploitation and have resulted in different institutional and social patterns Except for the Persian Gulf oil states, most developing countries have minimal endowments of raw materials and minerals

13 Structural Diversity of Developing Economies: Important observations
Ethnic and religious conflicts have become frequent post cold war. Indigenous populations continue to be discriminated against in Latin American countries. Malaysia and Mauritius are exceptions Most developing economies have mixed economic systems and the degree of corruption differs widely across countries Majority of developing countries are agrarian and agriculture is a way of life for the people.

14 Structural Diversity of Developing Economies: Important observations
The various interest and power groups among different segments of the populations in a developing country is a result of their economic, social, and political history Case Study of Brazil and Costa Rica

15 Common Characteristics of Developing Nations:
Low levels of living and income inequality Extent of Poverty Health characterized by high IMRs and malnutrition Low levels of education and literacy Low levels of labor productivity High rates of population growth and dependency burdens Substantial dependence on agricultural production and primary product exports Prevalence of Imperfect markets and incomplete information Dominance, dependence, and vulnerability in international relations

16 Income inequality: Per Capita Gross National Product in Selected Countries, 1997 (in U.S. dollars at official exchange rates)

17 Income: Comparison of GNP Per Capita
GNP Per Capita (US $) Country Exchange rate PPP UK 24,500 23,550 USA 34,260 Zimbabwe 480 2,590 Bangladesh 380 1,650 China 840 3,940 India 460 2,390 Sri Lanka 870 3,470

18 Income gaps: growth rates of real GNP per capita (avg annual growth)
Country Africa: Kenya Nigeria 0.3 -3.0 -0.3 -0.4 Asia: India South Korea 3.2 8.9 4.2 4.7 Latin America: Brazil Mexico 0.6 -0.9 1.5

19 Distribution of Income

20 Poverty: Share of population living on < $1/ day
Region 1990 1998 East Asia and Pacific 27.6 15.3 Europe and Central Asia 1.6 5.1 Latin America and the Caribbean* 16.8 15.6 Middle East and N. Africa 2.4 1.9 South Asia* 44 40 Sub-Saharan Africa* 47.7 46.3 Total 29 24 * Increase in absolute number of people

21 Health: Infant Mortality Rates in Selected Countries, 1998 (per 1,00 live births)

22 Health and Education: Indicators

23 HDI and GDP Ranks

24 HDI variations for similar incomes, 1999
Country HDI HDI rank GNP per cap~ PPP $1000 Kenya Uganda 0.514 0.435 123 141 GNP per cap~ PPP $2000 Vietnam Pakistan 0.682 0.498 101 127 GNP per cap~ PPP $3000 Sri Lanka Indonesia 0.735 0.677 81 102

25 Population and Labor Force

26 Composition of World Exports (percentages of primary and manufactured products)

27 Markets are imperfect in developing countries due to:
Composition of World Exports (percentages of primary and manufactured products) Markets are imperfect in developing countries due to: Economies of scale Thin markets for many products due to limited demand Widespread externalities (good and bad) Prevalence of common property resources Incomplete information Information is costly to obtain

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