2 Ways to Improving Writing Skill Study writing principles and techniques.Watch for their appearance in the writing of others.Try them out in your own writing—over and over and over again.Imitate sentences and passages of good writing.
3 Breast cancer strikes more than 212,000 American women each year and kills more than 40,000, making it the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer.MRI tends to produce false positives at about twice the rate of mammography, forcing more women to undergo repeated tests and sometimes biopsies and subjecting them to anxiety, distress and discomfort. But the panel concluded that the benefits outweigh the downside for those at high risk.The champion smiled, recalling the roar of the crowd.His mother waited, tapping her foot on the hardwood floor.Dicey looked out over the tall marsh grasses, blowing in the wind.The children stared down at the honeybees, careening from flower to flower.
4 Congress gave final approval to a broad overhaul of federal student loan programs Friday, sharply cutting subsidies to lenders and increasing grants to needy students.The United States Air Force has decided to push development of a new type of fuel to power its bombers and fighters, mixing conventional jet fuel with fuels from nonpetroleum sources that could eventually limit military dependence on imported oil.The World Health Organization on Wednesday urged nations with rampant AIDS epidemics to begin offering free or subsidized circumcisions in hopes of preventing millions of new infections and deaths.The American Cancer Society’s guidelines stress that the MRI exams should be done in addition to annual mammograms and regular physical exams in the hope of driving down the death toll from the common, widely feared malignancy.
5 Novartis said it will stop phase II development of NKS104, a treatment for elevated total cholesterol, after data showed the drug wasn't competitive enough to invest further resources.
6 Outline for “English Technical Writing” Course Traits of good technical writingFive steps to successful writingStructure and content for scientific papers/research reports, and proposalsElements of composition: words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and punctuationDictionPhrasesClausesSentences: structures and patternsPunctuationVariation of sentences: expansion, transformation, reduction, sentence combining, inversion, and ellipsisKeys to clear, concise, and grammatically correct sentencesTransition words and phrases: conjunctive adverbs and conjunctionsParagraphs: topic sentence, elaboration, unity, and coherenceEssays: thesis statement, unity, and coherenceCommon expressions in technical writingCritical analyses of published journal articlesDemonstration of editing with drafts of students’ papers
7 Traits of Good Technical Writing Unit 1Traits of Good Technical Writing
8 Good Technical Writing Is : Technically accurateClearConciseCorrect in spelling, punctuation, and grammarCompliant with the conventions of institutions or professional societiesWell organizedUsefulTargetedCompleteConsistentEthical
9 Five Steps to Successful Writing Unit 2Five Steps to Successful Writing
10 Five Steps to Successful Writing PlanningEstablish your purpose or objective.Identify your readers.Define your scope.Select the appropriate medium.ResearchFind information and take notes.Gather all your own data.
11 Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued) OrganizationGroup related information with headings and subheadings.Arrange information in a logical order (e.g., general to specific, specific to general, chronological, spatial, sequential, cause and effect, and comparison).Write an outline.ComposingArticulate your thesis and support it with evidence.Achieve unity and coherence in structure.
12 Five Steps to Successful Writing (Continued) RevisionCheck for completeness and accuracy.Check for unity and coherence.Activate the writing.Clarify the writing.Check for sentence variety (i.e., structure and length).Check for appropriate word choice.Eliminate problems with grammar.Check for spelling and punctuation.Check for the adherence to format guidelines.
13 Unit 3Structure and Content for Scientific Papers/Research Reports, and Proposals
14 Elements of Technical Paper or Reports Title – What is the paper about?Need to reflect an overview of the paper’s content and emphasis.Be brief, honest, and communicative.Avoid phrase such as “on the”, “a study of”, “research on”, “regarding”, and “use of”.Avoid nonquantitative, meaningless word such as “rapid” and “new”.
15 Capitalizing Words in Titles Always capitalize the first and last words and main words of titles and subtitles. Also capitalize in accordance with parts of speech.CAPITALIZED PARTS OFSPEECHNounsPronounsVerbsAdjectivesAdverbsNOT CAPITALIZEDPARTS OF SPEECHArticlesPrepositionsCoordinating conjunctionsTo in infinitivesSubordinating conjunctions
16 Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Abstract – What is the basic content?– Summarize its objectives, the work performed,and the major conclusions reached in aninformative, concise, one-paragraph statement.
17 Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Introduction – What is the problem and why should anyone care?An Opening Attention-GrabberPoint out the problem or issue.Offer your reasons for studying it.Background InformationGive a concise and appropriate review of the preexisting literature of the problem.Describe how your work differs or is related to work previously published.A Preview of the WholeState your purpose or thesis and give a blueprint of the contents to be presented.
18 Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Materials and Methods – How was the evidence obtained?Identify the materials used and give information on the degree of and criteria for purity.Describe apparatus only if it is not standard or not commercially available.Describe the procedures used unless they are established and standard.Note any safety precautions.
19 Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Results – What was found or seen?Summarize the data collected and their statistical treatment.Include only relevant data, but give sufficient detail to justify your conclusions.Use equations, figures, and tables only where necessary for clarity and brevity.
20 Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Discussion and Conclusion – What do these findings mean?Relate your results to current knowledge in the field and to your original purpose in undertaking the project.State the logical implications of your results.Suggest further study or implications if warranted.Be objective while pointing out the features and limitations of your work.
21 Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Be tactful about disagreements when discussing other people’s results and hypotheses that are relevant to yours. If possible, offer approaches to resolve the conflicts.
22 Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) Acknowledgements – Who help, support or sponsor this work?Thank those persons, other than coauthors, who added substantially to the work, provided advice or technical assistance, or aided materially by providing equipment or supplies.State grant numbers and sponsors, as well as auspices under which the work was done, including permission to publish.
23 Elements of Technical Paper or Reports (continued) References – Who did what?Check original references for accuracy and appropriate content.Follow the journal’s guideline or company’s policy on the style of references.
24 Proposal Summary of Proposal Need Proposed Solution Briefly state the purpose of the proposal.NeedDefine the problem or need.State why addressing it is important.Proposed SolutionPresent a detailed solution.Explain its benefits.Restate the problem or need and the benefits of the solution.
25 Unit 4Elements of Composition: Words, Phrases, Clauses, Sentences, Paragraphs, and Punctuation
26 Parts of speechIt describes the class of words to which a particularword belongs, according to its function in asentence. The eight parts of speech in the Englishlanguage are:Nouns (common and proper; concrete and abstract;singular and collective;count and noncount)Pronouns (personal, demonstrative, relative,interrogative, indefinite, and reflexive)1. Words
27 Adjectives & Articles (a, an and the) Verbs, Auxiliaries (be, have, do and modals)and Verbals (gerund, infinitive, and participle)AdverbsPrepositionsConjunctions (coordinating, correlative, subordinating, and conjunctive adverb)Interjections
28 PART OF SPEECH FUNCTION noun, pronoun name/referringverb asserting/actingadjective, adverb describing/modifyingpreposition, conjunction linking/joininginterjection exclaiming
29 The function of a word in a sentence always determines its part of speech in that sentence.Examples: The government sent the city aid.Governments aid citizens.It is company policy.He went home.
30 2. PhrasesA phrase is a group of related words that is usedas a single part of speech and that does notcontain both a verb and its subject.ClassificationGerund Phrases, Participial Phrases, InfinitivePhrases, Prepositional Phrases, Appositive phrases,and Absolute phrases
31 3. PunctuationPeriod, Comma, Semicolon, Colon, Dash, QuestionMark, Quotation Marks, Apostrophe, Parentheses,Brackets, Slash, Hyphen, Ellipsis points, andExclamation Mark4. ClausesA clause is word group that contains a verb and itssubject and that is used as a sentence or as partof a sentence. There are two basic kinds of clauses:Independent (main) Clauses and Dependent(subordinate) Clauses.
32 5. Sentences Subject + Predicate A sentence is word group that contains a subjectand a verb and that expresses a complete thought.Subject + PredicateSTRUCTURE: Simple, Compound, Complex, andCompound-complexPURPOSE: Declarative, Interrogative,Exclamatory, and Imperative
33 6. ParagraphsTopic Sentence (Main Point),Adequate ElaborationUnity (Focus or Consistency), and Coherence
34 7. Composition Thesis Statement (main Idea or Message), Unity Frame work for a CompositionIntroduction Engage the reader Set the tone Present the thesis statementBody Give the major pointsSupport the major points withdetailsConclusionReinforce the main idea statedin the thesis Tie the ideas togetherLeave the reader with a senseof closureThesis Statement (main Idea or Message), Unity(Focus or Consistency), and Coherence
35 Pursuasive EssayClearly state the issue and your position on it in the introductionUse language appropriate to the audience you’re trying to convince.Support your position with facts, statistics, and reasons.Answer possible objections to your position.Provide clear reasoningConclude with a summary of your position or a call to action,
37 NOUNSA noun names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.Common Nouns Proper nounsEvent Academy Awards, FrenchRevolutionHoliday Fourth of July, Mardi GrasCity Houston, New York CityLanguage Spanish, ChineseConcrete Nouns Abstract NounsTree, car, pencil peace, courage, honor, citizenship
38 Singular Nouns Collective Nouns Person, dog, flower crowd, jury, family, flock,committeeCount Nouns Noncount NounsOne chair furnitureMany chairs a lot of furnitureSuggestions adviceOperas, songs Music
39 Remember that some nouns may be used as count or as noncount nouns depending on their meanings.Materials and abstract concepts are noncount nouns,but they may be used as count nouns to expressspecific meanings.I have a paper due Monday.Let’s use paper to make the present.Dr. Chan will receive a special honor at thegraduation.
40 We need a glass (glasses) for the juice. She needs to find work.War is as old as mankind.Space is the last frontier for man to conquer.8. It is generally believed that an M.B.A. degree is good preparation for a career in business.
41 PRONOUNSA pronoun is a word used in place of one or morenouns or pronouns.The word or word group that a pronoun stands for iscalled the antecedent of the pronoun.Examples: Jay enjoys hiking and camping; in factthey are his favorite pastimes.The students complained to the principalabout the dress code. They wished he hadconsulted with them about it.
42 Personal PronounsA personal pronoun refers to the one(s) speaking(first person), the one(s) spoken to (second person),or the one(s) spoken about (third person).
43 he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its they, them, their, theirs SingularpluralFirst PersonI, me, my, minewe, us, our, oursSecond Personyou, your, yoursThird Personhe, him, his, she, her, hers, it, itsthey, them, their, theirsExamples: If I give you my address, will you writeto me?We told them that they could go with us.
44 himself, herself, itself themselves Reflexive PronounsA reflexive pronoun refers to the subject of a verb andfunctions as a complement for emphasis, as an objectto rename the subject, or as an object of a preposition.SingularPluralFirst PersonmyselfourselvesSecond PersonyourselfyourselvesThird Personhimself, herself, itselfthemselves
45 Examples: I myself faxed the report to him. I wrote this script myself.Mary excused herself from the table.He hit himself with the hammer.Robert bought himself a pair of shoes.They baked the pie for themselves.Anna lives by herself.
46 this that these those Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points out somebody orsomething already mentioned or identified or somethingunderstood by both the speaker and hearer.thisthatthesethoseExamples: Is this the one you want?That may be the only reasonablesolution.These or those are the pictures fromour vacation.
47 The new program comes as social-networking sites grabble with how to build on their success among young users and convert this into profit.
48 who whom whose which what Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.whowhomwhosewhichwhatExamples: Everyone knows many examples of energy and itsuse, but what does the term energy really mean?To whom should I direct your call?Whose is this red sweater?The department manager decided whoshould be hired.
49 that which who whom whose Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause.thatwhichwhowhomwhoseExamples: I thanked the woman who helped me.The college that I chose is in Ohio.The birds, which usually have flownsouth by this time of the year, were stillcongregating in our backyard.
50 Indefinite PronounsAn indefinite pronoun refers to a person, a place, athing, or an idea that may or may not be specificallynamed. In other words, the pronoun may not have aspecific antecedent.
51 Common Indefinite Pronouns allbothfewnobodyseveralanothereachmanynonesomeanyeithermoreno onesomebodyanybodyeverybodymostnothingsomeoneanyoneeveryonemuchonesomethinganythingeverythingneitherothersuchExamples: All of the members have voted.Does everyone favor a weekly meeting?
52 The fallen tree provided homes for several of the creatures of the woods.One should always be polite.The cervical cancer vaccine is aphenomenal breakthrough, one that hasthe potential of eliminating this diseasealmost completely.
53 ADJECTIVES & ARTICLESAn adjective is a word used to modify or describe anoun or pronoun.Examples: The tired and hungry hikers straggledinto camp.The hikers, tired and hungry, straggledWhat time will you be back?I much prefer this painting to that one.This confusion is costly.
54 A and an are called indefinite articles because they refer to any member of a general group. A is used beforewords beginning with a consonant sound; an is usedbefore words beginning with a vowel sound.Examples: A manual has been written on that subject.He seems an unlikely candidate for the job.The interviewer arrived an hour early.
55 The is called the definite article because it refers to a specific person, place, thing, or idea.Examples: The package was delivered yesterday.Please open the door.
56 VERBSA verb is a word that expresses an action, a condition,or a state of being.There are two main types of verbs: action verbs andlinking verbs.An action verb expresses action. The action may bephysical or mental.Examples: The band marches onto the field. (physical)The audience expects a great performance.(mental)
57 An action verb that has an object-a word or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb iscalled transitive verb.Examples: They posted a card on her door.The rain lashed the windows.This kid’s behavior in schoolworried his parents.
58 An action verb does not have an object is called intransitive verb.Examples: The rain fell.My cousin arrived yesterday.He travels around the country withthe other musicians.
59 A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. Such aword or word group is called a subject complement.Common linking verbs:Forms of Be Verbam, are, is, was, wereVerbs That Express Conditionfeel, look, smell, sound, taste appear, seem, remain,stay, become (and get, turn, grow when they mean“become”)
60 Examples: John is a student. John is intelligent.This food tastes delicious.The children feel happy.The weather became cold.Note: The forms of be are not always used as linkingverbs. That is, they are sometimes used asstate-of-being verbs. In such cases, words that tellwhere or when are generally used to complete themeaning of the verb forms.
61 Examples: He is upstairs. You should have been here yesterday.Note: While action verbs may be transitive or intransitive,linking verbs and state-of-being verbs are alwaysintransitive.
62 A main verb and one or more helping verbs (also called auxiliary verbs) make up a verb phrase. A verb phrasemay be used to express a particular tense of a verb (thatis, the time referred to) or to indicate that an action isdirected as the subject.Examples: Sally is a nice person and you canspeak freely with her.The stadium is filled to the capacity.
63 Common Helping VerbsForms of BeambeenwasarebeingwerebeisForms of HavehadhashaveForms of DododoesdidModalscanmightshouldcouldmustwillmayshallwould
64 VerbalsA verbal is a verb form that is used as a noun, an adjec-tive, or an adverb. The three kinds of verbals are the par-ticiple, the gerund, and the infinitive.A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjec-tive. Three kinds of participles are the present participle,the past participle and the present perfect participle. Pre-sent participles end in –ing. Most participles end in –d or–ed. Others are irregularly formed. Present perfect formsare formed by adding having or having been to the pastparticiples of verbs and indicate complete actions.
65 Examples: The freezing rain made the road slick. This medicine represents a significantimprovement compared with existingtherapies.Bowing, the performers acknowledgedthe applause.Did I hear someone knocking the door?First prize was an engraved trophy.The lab tested samples of water takenfrom wells in the area.
66 Rested and relaxed, we returned to work. Having completed his chores, Andy decidedto join his friends playing football in the park.Having been declared the winner, she calleda press conference to thank her supporters.
67 Note: A present participle should describe a person or thing causing or stimulating an experience; a past participle should describe a person or thingundergoing an experience. Also a present participle is used to indicate an on-going or active action whereas a past participle a completed or passive one.Examples: The lecturer was boring.The audience was bored.A developing countryA developed countryTrained nursesExperienced cardiologistsExaggerated fearsOne unshared pair of electronsA teacher-dominated classroom culture
68 A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun. Examples: Smoking is indisputably a danger toone’s health.Please stop whispering.In answering, give specific examples.During 2006, incomes from wages andsalaries rose 4.2% after adjusting forinflation, the strongest year since 2000.
69 His favorite hobby these days is playing video games. Delivering long- and short-term results at the same time is what good managers do for a living.Among other things, figuring out where this one came from will help us prevent future problems.World powers hoped that approving the resolution quickly and unanimously would signal that Iran will face stricter sanctions each time it ignores a Security Council deadline to suspend uranium enrichment, a process that can be used to produce nuclear energy or nuclear weapons.
70 Note: Use a possessive noun or pronoun before a gerund.The issue is his whining.Wang's pitching won the game.His wife resented his going out and havingbusiness lunches.What did the teacher say about yourmissing the test yesterday?
71 An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitivesbegin with to. In addition to the present form, infi-nitives have a present perfect form. This form addsto have or to have been to the past participle of averb and indicates a completed action.Examples: To error is human.No one wants to stay.
72 The survivors had little to celebrate. Is everybody ready to go?The rain seems to have stopped.Kelly was happy to have been chosen.
73 Sometimes, infinitives omit the word to. Examples: All you have to do is [to] write yourbook this year.Who dares [to] challenge a champion?Help me [to] wash the car.Let’s [to] wait here.The clowns made us [to] laugh.We saw him [to] leave.
74 Note:With verbs of perception such as see, hear, feel, smell, notice, observe and watch, we can use a present participle or an infinitive without “to” as its objective complement in a sentence.Examples: I saw him running (or run) down the stairs.He could feel his bed shaking (or shake)during the earthquake last night.
75 ADVERBSAn adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverbor a clause.Examples: Teresa spoke eloquently.Have you heard this melody before?The brochure design used extremelybright colors.When Dell first started making PCs, itentered an industry with lots of built-infat, namely reseller commissions andretailer markups.
76 The redesigned brake pad lasted much longer. Surprisingly, the machine failed.Frankly, I could do without it.Sadly, he died before I managed to reach himagain.Fortunately, I had enough money left to pay myfare home.Hopefully, it will be over by Christmas.
77 PREPOSITIONSA preposition shows the relation of a noun or pronoun,called the object of the preposition, to another word.Examples: I found this information on the internet.The manager sat behind the desk inher office.As of today, she hasn’t made her finalchoice.You can log on to this web site toaccess the following information.
78 Bond prices rose, taking the yield on the 10-year note down to 4 Bond prices rose, taking the yield on the 10-year note down to 4.41 percent, the lowest interest rate on that closely-watched bond since December.
79 Coordinating Conjunctions A conjunction is a word that joins or connects words,phrases, or sentences.Coordinating Conjunctionsand but for nor or so yet
80 Examples: The old man is extremely kind and generous.He will leave at eight and arrive at nine.It was raining hard, and there was astrong wind.It was raining hard. And there was a
81 There have been a series of studies over the past 20 years which show that people in their70s, 80s and 90s are functioning at asubstantially higher level than they were only 20years ago, and there is a much lowerpercentage of disability in older people thanthere was 20 years ago. And of course, lifeexpectancy has gone up dramatically, as you'rewell aware, for the last 80 years.Mr. Bush needs to make clear to the Iraqileader that continued American support willdepend on his active cooperation. And that,ultimately, the Iraqis have even more to losethan the Americans from an unending civil war.
82 This disease is incurable but treatable. We missed the opening scene, but we enjoyedthe rest of the play.The U.S. expansion has shown it can tolerate $50 oil with hardly a hesitation. But how will it handle $60 oil when the Federal Reserve has more than tripled short-term interest rates over the past year, signs of corporate jitters have resurfaced, and the dollar has rallied, making exports once again more expensive on global markets?
83 A major change in the national diet is under way: Heart-damaging trans fat is rapidly disappearing from grocery aisles and restaurant food, too. But are its replacements really healthier?He was tired, so he went to bed.The child hid behind his mother’s skirt, for hewas afraid of the dog.She did not study, yet she passed the exam.Americans live longer than ever, yet more of usare told we are sick.
84 Correlative Conjunctions both…andeither…orwhether…ornot only…but alsoneither…norwould rather…thanExamples: Neither my sister nor my parents are here.Both the students and the teacher areplanning to come.I’m going to go swimming tomorrowwhether it is cold or not.
85 A growing body of research suggests that diversity in the workplace not onlyhelps companies stay in tune with theircustomers, but also adds to the diversityof ideas and attitudes.In writing, we can error not only byusing the wrong words but also bymisusing the right words.I would rather try something great andfail than try nothing great and succeed.
86 Commonly Used Subordinating conjunctions A subordinating conjunction begins a subordinatingclause and connects it to an independent clause.Commonly Used Subordinating conjunctionsafterbecausesinceuntilalthoughbeforeso thatwhenashowthanwheneveras ififthatwhereas much asin order thatthoughwhereveras thoughprovidedunlesswhile
87 Examples: Please turn down the stereo so that I can concentrate on my homework.Before you write your paper, you mustsubmit an outline.Robert enjoyed the movie as much asSarah did.Because I have two cousins living inSan Francisco, I always have a place tostay when I visit the West Coast.Where there is a will, there is a way.
88 A conjunctive adverb has the force of conjunction because it joins two independent clauses. The mostcommon conjunctive adverbs are however, moreover,therefore, further, then, consequently, besides,accordingly, also, and thus.Example: The engine performed well in the laboratory;however, it failed under road conditions.
89 INTERJECTIONSAn interjection expresses emotion and has no gram-matical relation to the rest of the sentence.Examples: Hey! I think I know the answer.Wow! Profits more than doubled lastquarter!Well, we need to rethink the proposal.
90 Diction (Proper Words in Proper Places) Unit 5Diction(Proper Words in Proper Places)
91 5a Know the meanings of words ab·sentadjective Definition: 1. not present: not attending a place or event, especially when expected toHe was absent from school yesterday.2. inattentive: not paying attentionHis face took on an absent expression.preposition Definition: without: in the absence ofAbsent a cure, or more effective drugs, Alzheimer’s disease is a march to oblivion.
92 Human DNA isn't that different from what you find in other mammals Human DNA isn't that different from what you find in other mammals. So how does it combine to form people in some cases and dogs or chimps in others? It's one of the big mysteries of biology.
93 5b Choose precise words Note: His remark left the audience in a confused state.His remark bewildered the audience.He went quickly down the street.He scurried down the street.China's top electronics makers on Wednesday unveiled dozens of video players made with a homegrown DVD format in a campaign to promote a Chinese alternative to foreign technology.Note:Unveiltransitive verb expose something secret: to reveal something that has been hidden or kept secret
94 Imply means “to suggest or state indirectly”; infer means to “to draw a conclusion.” John implied that he knew all about computers, but the interviewer inferred that John was inexperienced.Global sea-level rise is probably not going to happen as fast as Gore implies in his movie.
95 5c Watch out the connotations of certain words One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical process is the use of cheap raw material.One of the advantages of this newly developed chemical process is the use of inexpensive raw material.Talk is cheap unless you can deliver.The words in each of the following groups have the same denotation, but different connotations.smile, beam, smirk thin, slender, scrawnylaugh, chuckle, guffaw look, peek, gawk
96 5e Express idiomatic expressions correctly 5d Use vivid wordsThe politicians spent hours talking about what was the proper choice of action.The politicians debated for hours what was the proper choice of action.5e Express idiomatic expressions correctlyOnly experts can distinguish a master piece from a fake.Many credit Thomas Edison with having invented the light bulb.The author does a good job of tying motivational theory to obtainable results.
97 The debate centers on the still-in-development process of extracting material from days-old human embryos that can morph into any tissue in the body.
99 Phrases A phrase is a group of related words, generally having neither subject nor predicate and used as though itwere a single word. It cannot make a statement andis therefore not a clause.
100 Knowledge of the phrase and how it is used will suggest to you ways of diversifying and enliveningyour sentences. Variety in using sentences willremedy the monotonous "subject first" habit. The useof the participial phrase, for instance, will add life andmovement to your style because the participle is anaction word, having the strength of its verbal nature inaddition to its function as a modifier.
101 We classify phrases as gerund, participial, infinitive, prepositional, appositive, and absolute. The followingsentences will show how the same idea may beexpressed differently by the use of different kinds ofphrases:Sue swam daily. She hoped to improve herbackstroke.By swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her
102 3. Swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her backstroke.4. Sue's only hope of improving her backstrokewas to swim daily.5. With a daily swim, Sue hoped to improve her6. Sue knew of one way to improve her backstroke:swimming daily.7. Sue swam daily, hoping to improve her backstroke.
103 6a Gerund phraseA gerund phrase consists of a gerund and anycomplement or modifiers it may have. The function of thegerund phrase is always that of a noun:1. Being late for breakfast is Joe’s worst fault.2. Substituting vo = C into v = at + C gives us v = at + vo.3. She finally succeeded in opening the camera.4. Bill hated driving his golf balls into the lake.5. His hobby, making furniture, is enjoyable and useful.
104 6b Participial phraseA participial phrase consists of a participle and anycomplement or modifiers it may have. It functions asan adjective or an adverb:Believed to have originated in Africa, AIDS has become an epidemic, infecting tens of millions of people worldwide.Given a list of potential school improvements andasked which one they would most like theirchildren’s school to make, 24 percent of parentsselected smaller class size.Having gotten a large bonus, the smiling, contented sales representative worked harder than ever.
105 The Department of Education recently awarded 18 federal grants totaling more than $38 million toprovide financial incentives to educators.In efforts directed toward the synthesis of this newcancer drug, we put eight researchers work on thisproject.Note that electronegativity generally increasesgoing from left to right across a period and decreasesgoing down a group for the representative elements.The first step is to calculate theΔH for the reactionusing the Hess law.
106 The woman improved her health running five miles a day. The oxidation potential for the dimer was lowerthan that of the 2,6-dimethylphenol (DMP)monomer, suggesting that the oxidation potentialof the terminal phenolic group becomes lower asthe polymerization progresses.
107 6c Infinitive PhraseAn infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and anycomplement or modifiers it may have. Infinitives functionas adjectives, adverbs, or nouns:1. In 1995, Steve Fossett became the first person tofly solo across the Pacific Ocean in a balloon.2. To be in Mr. Foster’s class was to learn themeaning of discipline.3. China's goal is to foster a higher-wage economybuilt on science and innovation.
108 4. Millie left early to avoid the heavy traffic. To express the very large and very small quantitieswe often run into in physics, we use scientific notation,which employs powers of 10.6. We decided to go for a long walk.7. Her fiancé seems to be very pleasant.
109 6d Prepositional phrase A prepositional phrase consists of a prepositionfollowed by a noun or pronoun used as its object,together with any modifiers the noun or pronounmay have. The prepositional phrase functions usuallyas an adjective or an adverb:
110 The plan of the house is very simple. The river runs through rich farmland.3. Throughout the house there was an aroma ofcorned beef and cabbage.The conformations about the Re- Re bond, inaddition, are different for all three complexes.We shouldn’t jump to a quick conclusion yet withour test results still ambiguous.
111 6e Appositive phraseAn appositive is a word or phrase that explains,identifies, or renames the word it follows.An appositive phrase may be a noun phrase (that is, a noun and its modifiers), a gerund phrase, an infinitive phrase, or a prepositional phrase:
112 Ascorbic acid, a valuable preservative, is ubiquitous in processed and other foods.Jean knew a way out of her difficulty: telling the truth.His greatest ambition, to make a million dollars,was doomed from the start.The rustler's hideout, in the old cave by the river,was discovered by the posse.The core feature of planthood is autotrophy,that is, the happy ability to make one’s own food.
113 The United States remains the leading source of the carbon dioxide, the main emission linked to global warming.In 1995, Microsoft added a free Web browser to its operating system in an attempt to fend off new rivals, an effort ultimately blocked by the courts.
114 An appositive may be essential or nonessential; it is essential if it positively identifies that which it renames,frequently by use of a proper noun. Examples of bothessential and nonessential appositives occur in theSentences below:In late 1990s, a Nobel laureate Professor Y. T. Leeplayed an active and significant role in Taiwan’spolitical and educational arenas.In late 1990s, Professor Y. T. Lee, a Nobel laureate,
115 Note: A modifying phrase must modify a word or phrase appearing in thesentence and be next to what itmodifies.
116 6f Absolute phraseAn Absolute phrase consists of a subject, usually anoun or a pronoun, and a participle, together with anyobjects or modifiers of the participle. It allows you toadd specific, concrete detail to a general statement withgreater economy than most alternative constructions.Extremely flexible besides, it can be placed at thebeginning or end of a sentence, or often in the middle.
117 When the participle of an absolute phase is a form of the verb be, the verb is frequently omitted entirely, sothat the absolute consists simply of a noun followed byadjectives.1. Each child carrying his little bag of crackling, wetrod the long road home in the cold winter afternoon.2. If f(x) = xn, then f’(x) = nxn-1 for all n, n being a realnumber.3. The theater being nearby, I decided to walk.4. Their dinner finished, the two industrialists wereready to talk business.
118 5. The rain having stopped, we went to the beach. 6. He lay flat on the bed, his chin on his folded armsOur opponent has chosen to ignore scientific principles, his theories a wish list of insupportable propositions.8. Our atmosphere is currently about 20 percent oxygen, all of it the bounty of the planet’s green-skinned autotrophs.9. His research complete, he began to write his report.10. I shall do as I please, all things considered.11. The driver of the wrecked car, one leg trapped beneath the dashboard, body pinned firmly against the steering wheel, waited patiently for the rescue squad.12. About the bones, ants were ebbing away, their pincers full of meat.
119 13. Six boys came over the hill half an hour early that afternoon, running hard, their heads down, their forearms working, theirbreath whistling.14. The little boy stood crying besides the road, his bicyclebroken, his knees bruised, and his confidence badly shaken.15. The pianist played beautifully, her technique flawless, herinterpretation sure and sensitive.
120 Note: The following sentences are elliptical because of the omission of the subject “we” understood in the context. They are not dangling.1. The conclusions were premature, considering the lack ofavailable data.2. Judging from the spectral changes, exhaustive photolysis ofcompound 4 had occurred.3. Assuming that each gas behaves ideally, the partial pressure ofeach gas can be calculated from the ideal gas law:P1=n1RT/V, P2=n2RT/V, P3=n3RT/V, …4. Taking this value as an upper limit, the two shortestdistances are sometimes too long for incipient hydrogenbonds.
121 5. Building an new fab for more capacity would seem not only superfluous, but also incredibly risky, given the high costinvolved, the fears of an industrywide chip glut, and theincreasingly fierce competition in the microprocessor market.6. Stocks may be at record highs, but the value of the profitsfrom the rally are worth less given the sharp drop in the dollaragainst foreign currencies.7. Given that half of the 65-year-olds alive today will likely livebeyond age 83, outliving one's assets is an all-too-likelypossibility for some retirees.
122 What’s the problem with this sentence? Using a pipette, 25 mL of 0.05 N aqueous HCl solution was slowly added to the stirred mixture.
124 Scheduled to give a keynote speech early the next morning, she didn’t want to sit in the emergency room all night.Long used as a substitute for saturated fats in baked goods, fried foods, salad dressings, margarine and other foods, trans fats also have a longer shelf life than other alternatives.The war being over at last, the task of arranging the peace terms began.New York has never been a cheap place to stay, but today's high prices are remarkable, considering where the city has been.A strike lasting close to a month or more would cause GM to burn up $8.1 billion in the first month and $7.2 billion in the second month, assuming the company can't produce vehicles in Mexico or Canada, according to Lehman Brothers analyst Brian Johnson.
125 Plants essentially eat the sun, transforming solar energy into sugars and starch through the stepwise enzymatic stitchery of photosynthesis.The federal government has financed research and development of energy technology and alternative fuels for decades, often focusing on basic science, and has a mixed record of incubating winners, including some widely used technologies.Stocks like Microsoft and Dell look like buys, given their earnings growth and their past P/Es.Given the risks involved in such personal revelations, including job discrimination and health insurance woes, no one knows how many people will take that route.The big deterioration this month was unexpected, given that other readings on consumer confidence have been showing strength.
127 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION WORD 7a Noun clausesNOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTIONWORDQUESTIONNOUN CLAUSEWhere does she live?What did he say?When do they arrive?(a) I don’t know where she lives.(b) I couldn’t hear what he said.(c) Do you know when they arrive?Who lives there?What happened?Who is at the door?(d) I don’t know who lives there.(e) Please tell me what happened.(f) I wonder who is at the door.Who is she?Who are those men?Whose house is that?(g) I don’t know who she is.(h) I don’t know who those men are.(i) I wonder whose house that is.What did she say?What should they do?(j) What she said surprised me.(k) What they should do is obvious.
128 For anyone who has cancer, there is one moment that you can never forget. It's when the doctor tells you, "It's cancer." Now, the exact words may vary, but the impact is the same. Your heart begins to pound; your brain screams out in disbelief. Your hearing stops, too, but usually only after you hear the words that so often come next: "There's no cure."
129 NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH WHETHER OR IF YES/NO QUESTIONNOUN CLAUSEWill she come?Does he need help?(a) I don’t know whether she will come.I don’t know if she will come.(b) I wonder whether he needs help.I wonder if he needs help.(c) I wonder whether or not she will come.(d) I wonder whether she will come or not.(e) I wonder if she will come or not.(f) Whether she comes or not is unimportant to me.
130 (a) I think that he is a good actor. (b) I think he is a good actor. NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH THATSTATEMENTNOUN CLAUSEHe is a good actor.The world is round.(a) I think that he is a good actor.(b) I think he is a good actor.(c) We know (that) the world is round.She doesn’t understand spoken English.(d) That she doesn’t understand spoken English is obvious.(e) It is obvious (that) she doesn’t understand spoken English.(f) That the world is round is a fact.(g) It is a fact that the world is round.
131 Other experts challenge the idea that a warmer world means more and stronger storms. Today, because of the growing consensus that the nation must wean itself from imported oil and sharply curb climate-altering carbon emissions, new energy options are in vogue.Retail sales in the U.S. rose less than forecast in August, adding to concerns a softening labor market and a deeper housing slump will curtail demand.Note: The “that” may be omitted when the “that clause” is the object of a verb or functions as an appositive.
132 Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects Delete the preposition when be + adjectives + preposition phrases are used with that-noun clauses. The adjectives (e.g., afraid, certain, delighted, glad, interested, pleased, positive, satisfied, and surprised) here express personal feelings or states of the mind.I am convinced that my sister would attend this party.I am afraid that he won’t make it.We are all surprised that this catalyst is so active in the reaction.President Bush said he was confident the nation would stand with him despite "gut-wrenching" televised images of fallen Americans.Educators were still not aware that there are better ways to teach science.Oil traders are nervous that any escalation in violence in the Middle East may disrupt oil supplies from the region, which holds two-thirds of global reserves.We are concerned that a lot of our retirees will end up losing their health benefits.Scientists are actually pretty grateful by and large that Gore has succeeded in bringing the issue of global warming to the public's attention.
133 Prepositions do not take that-noun clauses as their objects (Continued) When the that-clause refers to a statement of fact, the words the fact are inserted between the preposition and the clause.The fire was due to the fact that someone had dropped a lighted cigarette.Note:except that: with the exception of the fact that, or if it were not for the fact thatThe pyridine molecule is like benzene except that a nitrogen atomreplaces one of the carbon atoms in the ring.The twins looked identical, except that one had dyed his hair.I would come, except that I have another engagement.
134 in that: introduces an explanation of a statement She's unusual for a commuter in that she's never late for work.Surfuric acid is unique among the common acids in that it is a strongacid in its first dissociation step and a weak acid in its second step.
135 whoeverwho(m)everwhateverwhicheverwheneverwhereverhowever(a) Whoever wants to come is welcome.Anyone who wants to come is welcome.(b) He makes friends easily with who(m)ever he meets.He makes friends easily with anyone who(m) he meets.(c) He always says whatever comes into his mind.He always says anything that comes into his mind.(d) There are four good programs on TV at eight o’clock. We can watch whichever program (whichever one) you prefer.We can watch any of the four programs that you prefer.(e) You may leave whenever you wish.You may leave at any time that you wish.(f) She can go wherever she wants to go.She can go anyplace that she wants to go.(g) The students may dress however they please.The students may dress in any way that they please.
136 USING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES The teacher demands that we be on time.(b) I insisted that he pay me the money.(c) I recommended that she not go to the concert.(d) It is important that they be told the truth.(e) I suggested that she see a doctor.(f) I suggested that she should see a doctor.
137 COMMON VERBS AND EXPRESSIONS FOLLOWED BY THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN A NOUN CLAUSEAdvise(that)propose(that)it is essential(that)it is critical(that)ask(that)Recommendit is imperative(that)it is necessary(that)Demandrequest(that)it is important(that)it is vital(that)insist(that)suggest(that)
138 7b Adjective clauses (a) I thanked the woman who helped me. (usual) RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECT(a) I thanked the womanwhohelped me. (usual)(b) I thanked the womanthathelped me. (less usual)(c) The bookwhichis on the table is mine. (less usual)(d) The bookis on the table is mine. (usual)
139 A function is a rule that assigns to each element in the domain one and only one element in the range.
140 RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB (a) The manwho(m)I saw was Mr. Jones. (usual)(b) The manthatI saw was Mr. Jones. (less usual)(c) The manØ(d) The moviewhichwe saw last night wasn’t very good. (less usual)(e) The moviewe saw last night wasn’t very good. (usual)(f) The movie
141 RELATIVE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION (a) She is the womanabout whomI told you.(b) She is the womanwho(m)I told you about.(c) She is the womanthat(d) She is the womanØ(e) The musicto whichwe listenedlast night was good.(f) The musicwhichto(g) The music(h) The music
142 USING WHOSEI know the man whose bicycle was stolen.(b) The student whose composition I read writes well.(c) Mr. Catt has a painting whose value is inestimable.
143 USING WHERE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES The buildingwherehe livesis very old.(b)in whichwhichinthatØ
144 USING WHEN IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES (a) I’ll never forget the daywhenI met you.(b) I’ll never forget the dayon which(c) I’ll never forget the daythat(d) I’ll never forget the dayØ
145 The housewife-traders were so secretive that many market analysts did not realize how widespread the trend had become until this summer, when the police arrested a Tokyo housewife accused of failing to pay $1.1 million in taxes on her foreign exchange earnings.She called My Home Doctor a second time when her daughter had a respiratory infection.
146 Note: THAT can be a conjunction used to introduce a clause expressing cause or result.I felt hurt that you should think such a thing.This result was shocking and totally smashed allthe good reasons (that) we initially went into palm oil.The reason (that) we care about cancer is that it is a killer.One reason that students are filing more applications is the increasing use of the Common Application, a form that can be completed and filed via the Internet.The eroding economics of practicing basic medicine was a reason (that) fewer medical students were going into primary care, which pays much less than specialties.It made such a noise that we had to cover our ears.
147 USING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS There is someone (whom) I want you to meet.(b) Everything he said was pure nonsense.(c) Anybody who wants to come is welcome.(d) Paula was the only one I knew at the party.(e) Scholarships are available for those who needfinancial assistance.
148 USING EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES In my class there are 20 students, most of whomare from Asia.(b) He gave several reasons, only a few of whichwere valid.(c) The teachers discussed Jim, one of whoseproblems was poor study habits.(d) Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., the maker of the mostprescribed diabetes pill, is developing three newdrugs to target the world's fastest-growing disease,each of which carries sales potential of $1 billiona year.
149 USING NOUN + OF WHICHWe have an antique table, the top of which has jadeinlay.
150 Note:Generally an adjective clause must be placed right beside the word it describes. However, when the adjective clause is too long, a compromise will be made as long as the role of the modifier for the adjective clause is clear (see the following example).A new kind of medical practice is flourishing nationwide that offers to go to where the patients are — whether a home, an office or a hotel — to treat ailments as diverse as a sprained ankle or a bad case of bronchitis.
151 USING WHICH TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE (a) Tom was late.(b) That surprised me.(c) Tom was late, which surprised me.(d) The elevator is out of order.(e) This is too bad.(f) The elevator is out of order, which is too bad.
152 Their consensus was that chip sales will be flat to slightly up this year, which doesn't bode well for chipmakers or companies that make chip-manufacturing gear.Treasury prices rallied at the expense of stocks Friday - after news that the economy shed 4,000 jobs last month, which jolted economists who were expecting a gain of at least 110,000 positions.The Democrats want to actually pass some things that people actually care about, which would never happen if this dragged on.
153 Intel also reiterated plans to build graphics capabilities into Nehalem processors, a sign that it is mounting a challenge to AMD chips scheduled to come out in early 2009.Orders to U.S. factories surged in March by the largest amount in a year, an encouraging sign that the recent slowdown in manufacturing may be ending.Dialysis is a dreary experience, one in which people with failed kidneys sit for hours hooked to machines that cleanse their blood, assisted by technicians who often have to work a second job to make ends meet.
154 The embryonic stem cells have the ability to transform into a "dazzling array of specialized cells," the Web site says — the property that scientists and others say offers the potential for the development of treatment for diseases as varied as juvenile diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.The Intel factory, slated to go online in 2010, will produce 12-inch wafers with circuitry 90 nanometers thick, which is a generation behind the current top of the line, chips with 65-nanometer circuits. Later this year U.S. plants will begin producing 45-nanometer chips, a factor which probably helped Intel win approval for the project from the U.S. government.
155 The Fed's last rate increase occurred in June 2006 and since that time the central bank has left rates unchanged, a stance that is expected to remain intact when Fed officials meet next week.Scientists have identified a gene that makes roundworms live longer when they eat less, a finding they hope could lead to drugs that promote human longevity, but without the pain of strict dieting.Iran appears to be enriching uranium on a far larger scale than before, a finding that may affect effort by diplomats to stem Tehran’s program.Most have agreed that data is best understood by experts, a view that might not prove popular with patients.
156 New York City produces almost 1 percent of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions -- an amount that puts it on par with Ireland or Portugal -- according to a city study.House and Senate negotiators reached an agreement Wednesday to boost aid to college students, a deal that calls for slashing roughly $20 billion in government subsidies to banks that issue student loans.The bill calls for research on alternative techniques to derive stem cells without the use of human embryos, an approach that is certainly worth pursuing but is deemed less promising by most experts.
157 A RELATIVE PRONOUN NEXT TO AN INTERRUPTER CLAUSE AND ONE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE Thomas M. Siebel, founder of Siebel Systems, pledged $100 million this year to support basic research that he hopes will reduce dependency on carbon-based fuels.A major draw of Duke is that we have an athletic prowess which separates us from Harvard, Princeton, Yale, which I know are schools the administration tends to compare Duke to.
158 The Environmental Protection Agency, which Knatz says should be doing more to help clean up America's ports, did not respond to our interview requests.New technology is allowing energy producers to capture speedier wind that environmental activists say has the potential to provide 20 percent of the state's electricity within 10 years.People are living longer, and the extra years of life, which I think have been one of the crowning achievements of the last century, have to be financed somehow.
159 In his testimony on Friday, Mr In his testimony on Friday, Mr. Nifong faulted himself for his inflammatory public statements last winter, which he said were intended to pressure witnesses to come forward when the police investigation stalled."In retrospect we got it wrong partly because the truth was so implausible," he writes. The truth Tenet refers to, we now know, is that no unconventional weapons would be found in Iraq.Hydrogen peroxide, the chemical that the German police say two terrorism suspects planned to use to make bombs, is a simple molecule — two oxygen atoms and two hydrogen atoms — with myriad uses.
160 Dr. Lipkin, whose focus is human disease, became involved because the quest for a cause for the beehive collapses employed new genetic sifting techniques that he said might also prove useful in investigating outbreaks of human diseases.Still, Mr. Broad dedicates his biggest gifts to areas that he thinks lack government support, like the $25 million he gave to the University of Southern California last year to found an institute for integrative biology and stem cell research, or the tens of millions he dedicated to complete the new Disney concert hall in Los Angeles.
161 Yet Jaffe feels strongly that her patients need someone to hunt down lower-cost options, negotiate with insurers, and find other ways to help them to get the medical care she thinks they need.
162 John didn't disclose who he thought should lead the ticket. I am pleased that after reviewing all the evidence the Executive Directors of the World Bank Group have accepted my assurance that I acted ethically and in good faith in what I believed were the best interests of the institution, including protecting the rights of a valued staff member.This new catalyst has changed the reaction pathway. That's what I think takes place now.
163 More Examples Involving Noun/Adjective Clauses: What we're facing now is a crisis that is by far the most serious we've ever faced.He takes issue with what he describes as unfair accusations that his company’s profits are built on a product that causes harm to patients.The Food and Drug Administration is changing the rules on who can serve on its advisory committees. Some members who have advised the agency on drugs and medical devices have had financial dealings deemed to represent conflicts of interest.
164 How we cope with crises in our lives is as individual as we are. Many of the hardest-hit regions are where the poor live — in Africa and in many other parts of the tropics.The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a United Nations scientific group, will report in May on what kinds of things can be done to lessen the impacts of climate change.Federal regulators should relax restrictions on which patients are included in clinical trials of a widely used treatment for a common heart malfunction, a panel of experts told the Food and Drug Administration on Thursday.
165 In those dark hours of the night, when we're left alone with our greatest fears, when the power of the disease seems strongest, it's important to remember that others are always with us, even if we don't even know them.These are the kinds of things that we expect to see more of as a result of global warming.A thermometer is an instrument that measures the temperature by expansion and contraction of mercury or alcohol in a capillary tube and bulb.A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed itself.
166 The standard enthalpy of formation ( ) of a compound is defined as the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound at 25℃ from its elements with all substances in their standard states at that temperature.The rewards teachers receive for outstanding performance range from a few hundred dollars to $10,000 or more in a few districts.For the union, guarantees for future investment are pivotal to ensuring the sacrifices it makes today will pay off tomorrow.
167 7c Adverb clauses When we were in New York, we saw several plays. (b) We saw several plays when we were in New York.(c) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.(d) He went to bed because he was sleepy.(e) INCORRECT: When were in New York. We sawseveral plays.(f) INCORRECT: He went to bed. Because he wassleepy.
168 USING ADVERB CLAUSES TO SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT because(a) Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.(b) He wet to bed because he was sleepy.now that(c) Now that the semester is over, I’m going to rest a few days and then take a trip.(d) Jack lost his job. Now that he’s unemployed, he can’t pay his bills.since(e) Since Monday is a holiday, we don’t have to go to work.(f) Since you’re a good cook and I’m not, you should cook the dinner.
169 SHOWING DIRECT CONTRAST: WHILE AND WHEREASMary is rich, while John is poor.(b) John is poor, while Mary is rich.(c) Mary is rich, whereas John is poor.(d) Whereas Mary is rich, John is poor.COMPARE(e) While I was studying, the phone rang.
170 EXPRESSING CONDITIONS IN ADVERB CLAUSES: IF-CLAUSES (a) If it rains, the streets get wet.(b) If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella.
171 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING WHETHER OR NOT AND EVEN IFWHETHER OR NOTI’m going to go to swimming tomorrow whether ornot it is cold.(OR: whether it is cold or not.)EVEN IF(b) I have decided to go to swimming tomorrow. Evenif the weather is cold, I’m going to go swimming.
172 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING IN CASE AND IN THE EVENT THATI’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you (should)need to reach me.(b) In the event that you (should) need to reach me,I’ll be at my uncle’s house.
173 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING UNLESS or EXCEPT WHEN I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold.(b) I’ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn’t cold.(c) He dislikes the game except when he wins.
174 ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION: USING ONLY IF The picnic will be canceled only if it rains.If it’s windy, we’ll go on the picnic.If it’s cold, we’ll go on the picnic.If it’s damp and foggy, we’ll go on the picnic.If it’s unbearably hot, we’ll go on the picnic.(b) Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled.
175 More examples for Adverb Clauses: Engineers are working on methods for capturing the carbon dioxide emitted when coal is burned.In the semiconductor industry, prices are always falling as chip companies scramble to cram more semiconductors into less space, allowing them to deliver more computing power per buck.I'm sure most people, whether they're 40 or 60 or 75, would say the same thing: They are not ready to die.Because multiplying any quantity by unity leaves the quantity unchanged, we can introduce conversion factors wherever we find them useful.
176 If we have a contract that enables us to be competitive we will invest; if not we will disinvest in the U.S. and use our money where we think we can get a better return.Where there’s life, there’s hope.
177 Sentences: Structures and Patterns Subject + Predicate Unit 8Sentences: Structures and PatternsSubject + Predicate
178 8a Simple Sentence–one independent clause.Five Basic Sentence PatternsS + Vi1. The phone rang.2. This method won’t work.3. Many people swim daily.
179 4. These two sisters don’t get along. 5. One loses by conceit and gains by modesty.6. Useful solvents result when propylene oxide reactswith alcohols to form glycol ethers.7. You can go broke by not spending money oninsurance where you should.8. The price of oil fell to its lowest level in two monthson Wednesday as evidence builds that the high costof gasoline and other fuels is sapping demand.
180 9. Many lawmakers say their hope is growing that Congress will pass an immigration bill next year.10. Evidence could surface of a previously unknownvictim — a homeless person, perhaps, or an illegalimmigrant.11. Evidence also emerged that some detainees hadbeen involved in shipments of weapons to illegalarmed groups in Iraq.12. If the hypothesis holds up that the drop in hormoneuse is the main cause, as seems likely, it shouldpersuade even more women to curb their use exceptwhen absolutely necessary.
181 13. A consensus is building across the political spectrum that rewarding teachers with bonuses orraises for improving student achievement, workingin lower income schools or teaching subjects thatare hard to staff can energize veteran teachers andattract bright rookies to the profession.14. The policymaking FOMC meets on June andexpectations have risen that, as the economy gainsmomentum, they soon will raise rates at least aquarter percentage point to keep inflationpressures in check.
182 15. Productivity improves as companies, unable to pass along costs as higher prices, are forced to operatemore efficiently.16. The business of manufacturing intermediates andactive pharmaceutical ingredients (API) forcommercial drugs is still suffering due to overcapacityand the dearth of new products at the end of thepharmaceutical industry’s pipeline.
183 16. Oil prices rose Monday after the foiled weekend attempts to bomb Iraq's key Basracrude export terminal revived fears of moreattacks on the country's oil infrastructure.
184 S + Vi + C 1. This is a formula for success: underpromise and overdeliver.2. We are not at an impasse now.3. Our bus was late.4. The price seemed reasonable.5. The food tasted good.
185 6. The appropriate place to really render honors, and to acknowledge the sacrifice that somebody has madeis at the gravesite.7. For cancer survivors, the prospect of death is nolonger a cerebral awareness but is an unavoidablepart of daily life.8. The whole point is that you withdraw the stimuluswhen you no longer need it.
186 9. There are concerns insurers may be seeking to exclude from the pool applicants at risk for adisorder, even if it’s a relatively small risk.10. Google's software, which is expected to beintroduced soon, according to several people withknowledge of the company's plans, is the clearestindication to date that the company, based inMountain View, Calif., hopes to extend its searchbusiness to compete directly with Microsoft's controlof desktop computing.
187 11. Corporations are well positioned to benefit from strong economic growth.12. It is apparent that smoking can cause cancer.13. It is one of my goals to visit South America.14. It will be necessary for him to sign these papers.15. It is a fact that English is the principal language ofthe business community throughout much of theworld.
188 16. It has been well known that Mr. Powell was the most skeptical among Mr. Bush's senior advisersabout the wisdom of invading Iraq.17. It was ironic to some investors that stocks weresagging at a time when oil prices were falling moresharply than they have been in some time.
189 18. As the new session of Congress begins this week, it appears as murky as ever whether someconfluence of forces will draw together and pushCongress to do what it did more than a decade agoand pass national energy legislation.
190 19. For some people, fear of getting the disease is nearly as debilitating as the ailment itself. But agrowing health-care movement known aspredictive medicine, aided by recent advances inhuman genetics, is starting to ease some patients‘minds – or at least provide tailored strategies forbetter managing their risk and their care, expertssay.
191 S + Vt + O 1. The student reads a book. 2. A storm has delayed the plane.3. A translucent object reflects some light and trans-mits some light.4. The Fed cuts short-term rates to boost economicgrowth and raises them to try to ward off inflation.
192 5. This case provides evidence that long-term freezing can successfully preserve sperm quality and fertility.6. The increase in energy cost over the past few yearshas hurt chemical companies that depend on natural gasfor feedstock and fuel.7. Monetary and fiscal stimuli have created excessliquidity that must be leached during an economicrebound.
193 8. Still, many companies are planning further job cuts in order to boost profit, as excess productioncapacity makes it difficult to raise prices in manyindustries.9. This new piece of legislation established newprotections for the unborn by making it a separatecrime to harm a fetus during an assault on themother-to-be.
194 10. MTBE makers are facing a growing number of lawsuits in dozens of states and cities where their product has wound up in drinking water, most likely from leaking gasoline storage tanks. The bill would give them liability protection from these suits in return for an MTBE phaseout by 2014.11. Greenspan has no idea right now when he will have to raise the overnight federal funds rate from its four-decade low of 1 percent.12. The bill’s fate appears to continue to rest with these five senators.
195 13. Catalysis continues to grow in importance in the production of fine chemicals.14. Potential impact on the environment has becomeas large a factor as economics in the design of newchemical products and processes.15. Chinese mine owners regularly flout safetyregulations to meet insatiable demand for a fuelpowering the country's booming economy.
196 16. Following a diet and exercise regime similar to that for diabetics and people with heart diseasemay delay the onset of Alzheimer's.17. Group of Seven nations should indicate stepsthey can take to achieve sustainable globaleconomic growth and to reduce geopolitical risks,including the situation in Iraq.
197 S + Vt + Oi + Od and S + Vt + Od + ( to or for) + Oi 1. My father often gives me a gift.2. The boy wrote his parents a letter.3. My aunt will send us the money.4. This change provided me a unique opportunity toexperience life as a sixth-grader in an American JuniorHigh school.
198 5. My brother bought two books for me. 6. Please offer your seat to anyone in need.7. I would recommend it for kids who have a lot ofinitiative and who are truly interested and not justlooking for something to do.8. The central bank lowered interest rates to almostzero in March 2001.9. Being the oldest, Jane set an example for herbrother and sister.
199 10. Crystallization usually affords highly purified solids from relatively impure solutions in a singleprocessing step.11. The Fed isn't going to wean the economy from life-support until there's enough personal income being generated to sustain economic growth without excessive monetary stimulus.12. A new power plant chimney that converts greenhouse gases into helpful substances could have a huge impact on global warming.
200 13. Bush has dismissed congressional proposals as "the same old tax-and-spend policy that the Democrats have tried before."14. As public servants, we owe it to American taxpayers to complete our work responsibly.15. The report cites as examples the sharply reduced use of chemical pesticides to grow gene-altered, pest-resistant cotton, and the rising incomes of small cotton farmers in countries, such as China and South Africa, which have embraced the technology.
201 16. In the coming weeks, the city will be required to disclose to us many more details about its preconvention surveillance of groups and activists, and many will be shocked by the breadth of the Police Department’s political surveillance operation.”17. The nurse would record an agreed-upon time in the appointment book and pass on to the patient instructions like not eating or drinking from midnight before the day of the requested procedure.18. The swift move would promote to the supremeCourt’s top job a newcomer who currently is beingconsidered as one of eight associate justices.
202 S + Vt + O + C1. This interest-rate thing has me all confused.2. We got that message loud and clear.3. Eric called his friend a liar.4. The power of creativity and intelligence canmake the world a better place.
203 5. Research on human embryonic stem cells holds the potential to cure Alzheimer's,Parkinson's disease, spinal injuries, diabetesand other conditions.6. The man and his wife, who chose to remainanonymous, wanted their case publicized toencourage young cancer patients to have hopefor the future.
204 7. You should do research on what risks the manager takes, and how he or she expects tomake money.8. He let his opportunities slip.9. On Tuesday, stocks took a dive when FedChairman Alan Greenspan let slip that deflationwas no longer a concern.
205 10. The Energy Department revised upward earlier estimates of heating costs for households using oiland propane this winter, citing continued highprices for energy supplies.11. Mr. Chirac made clear that he still viewed thewar and its aftermath very differently than hisAmerican counterpart did.12. Saudi Arabia, the only OPEC member with anysignificant immediate spare capacity, has alreadymade clear it will be pumping real extra volumes ofsome 700,000 bpd, irrespective of quotas.
206 13. Intel’s new chips will make possible higher-speed computing, more reliable storage and more advanced audiovisual standards and will represent fundamental change in the internal structure of the standard PC.
207 14. The report, by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, explicitly rejects as too extreme the position embraced by many environmental and advocacy groups that have called for bans on genetic engineering of plants and animals. Many of these groups are opposed in principle to a technology in which genes are deliberately transferred from one species to another to confer new traits.
208 15. The Bush administration’s regulatory czar, John Graham publicly dismissed as unproventhe idea that the hormonal system could bedisrupted by multiple low-dose exposures toindustrial chemicals.16. I would like to make (it) clear that the newsuperconductors have many useful properties.17. Powell has made it clear that he wants toknow how this could have happened.
209 18. The evolution of more complex national and global financial markets during the past quarter-century has made it easier and cheaper to finance a business or home purchase, while spreading financial risk more widely.19. Every Fed official who takes to the podium makes it clear he'd like to see the unutilized resources (of labor) reduced.
210 20. Over the years, counterfeiters have found it financially advantageous to substitute diethylene glycol, a sweet-tasting syrup, for its chemical cousin glycerin, which is usually much more expensive.21. Central heating systems have made it possible to live and work comfortably in winter.22. The French, Russian and Canadian representatives made it clear that they will not supply troops for Iraq but that they are willing to help with reconstruction.
211 8b Compound Sentence–two or more independent clauses.1. A barrel of oil now costs more than $40, but whenadjusted for inflation, that price is less alarming.2. Life is limited and there is an end to it.3. Glucose is to industrial biotech what crude oil is to petrochemicals.4. Across China, villages are becoming aware ofnew environmental laws, but they're usually toopoor and powerless to stand up to local officials.
212 8c Complex Sentence–one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.1. By searching in wild and wonderful environments, microbiologists hope to find new genes that might be of use to investors and customers.
213 2. But what biotechnology mostly cannot do yet is produce either feedstock or finished product more cheaply than the petrochemical industry.3. Asian stocks fell after a gain in oil and gasoline futures renewed concern higher energy prices may damp global growth.
214 OriginalDDT became available for public use in 1945, and it is the grandfather of the synthetic organic pesticides, and perhaps it is the best known insecticide.BetterDDT, which became available for public use in 1945, is the grandfather of the synthetic organic pesticides—and perhaps the best known insecticide.
215 8d Compound-complex Sentence–two or more independent clauses and one or moredependent clauses.1. John was close to his sister Linda when theywere young, but now they seldom see eachother.2. Not only is soy a rich source of high-qualityprotein, but it also contains complexcarbohydrates that don't raise blood sugar ashigh as more processed carbohydrates.
216 3. Once the pathways have been selected, and the new enzymes designed, it is just a question of adding the relevant genes to E. coli, removing the genes for the undesired pathways, and seeing whether the result lives up to expectations.4. Yes, high fuel costs could ultimately endanger the economic recovery, but there is no reason to believe that they will do so at this level.
217 5. Samuel Johnson was known for his concern about the environment and in 1975 SC Johnson & Sons Inc. voluntarily stopped using chlorofluorocarbon propellants in aerosol products, three years before the U.S. government banned the ozone-depleting substances.
218 6. In the business world, chief executives must know when their strategies aren’t working and react, or they go out of business.
219 7. Money that might have gone toward other purchases would be drained away paying for fuel, and indirectly, higher fuel costs would gradually add to inflation as they work their way through the economy, business people here said.
221 b. Use periods after initials and abbreviations. 1. THE PERIOD (.)a. Use a period to end a sentence.He is a student.Take this medicine three times a day.b. Use periods after initials and abbreviations.K. D. Tau, A.M. Fig. i.e. R.F.D. U.S.Exceptions: Many abbreviations made up of the first letters of words that name an organization are written without period (UN, WHO, TVA).Periods are also often omitted after many technical abbreviations (PC, IT).
222 Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence. 2. THE QUESTION MARK (?)Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence.Is it time for the train to arrive?Did you see the eclipse?3. THE EXCLAMATION POINT (!)Use an exclamation point after a forceful or emotional statement and sometimes after a command.Listen to me! Watch out! Shut that door!
223 4. THE COMMA (,)a. Use a comma to separate independent clauses that are connected by a coordinating conjunction (“for,” “and,” “nor,” “so,” “but,” “or,” and “yet”).We left the house early to drive to the airport, but heavy traffic caused us to miss our plane.
224 Note: The comma is often omitted from a compound sentence if its clauses are very short. I called and she answered.
225 b. Use a comma to separate an introductory clause or phrase. Although they had only two weeks to travel, they managed to see many villages in Mexico.After hiking for three hours, we stopped to rest.In the middle of the first semester, he began to understand the principles of economics.Note: The comma is often omitted following a very short introductory prepositional phrase.At work he was friendly and industrious.
226 c. Use commas to set off any adverbial phrase between the subject and the verb. Bloated budget deficits, if not curbed, could pose a danger to the economy's long-term health, he warned.The court, in a manner surprising to all, excluded the press from the courtroom.
227 The new church, which was built with donated d. Use commas to set off nonrestrictive clauses or phrases within a sentence.The new church, which was built with donatedfunds, will open next week.e. Use commas to set off conjunctive adverbs.Minnesota’s experience shows, however, that an incentiveplan created with union input can draw teacher support.As a matter of fact, I never expected him tocomplete his studies.The house is, for the most part, very satisfactory.
228 f. Use commas to separate words, phrases, or clauses in a series. We gave them food, clothing, and shelter for thenight.At the beach they learned to swim, to fish, and towater ski.g. Use a comma to separate elements of placenames.Leningrad, Russia, used to be named St. Petersburg.
229 h. Use a comma to separate day and year when you state a precise date (month, day, and year).The convention was to be held on March 18, 1984, inSan Francisco, California.i. Use commas to set off a contrasted element.The boy’s uncle, not his aunt, will meet you at theairport.
230 k. Put a comma after the clarifying devices i.e. and e.g. j. Put a comma before etc.Please bring your report, files, meeting minutes, etc., to myoffice.k. Put a comma after the clarifying devices i.e. ande.g.The problems on the control system cannot be attributed to shoddyTechnology alone (i.e., human error has played a large role).Several endangered species (e.g., the red wolf and the snowy owl)are being introduced into the park.
231 l. Use commas to set off interrupters or parenthetical expressions. Carl Sandburg, the biographer of Lincoln, wonthe Pulitzer Prize.The committee’s decision, to say the least, sparkedconsiderable controversy.
232 m. Use commas to set off direct address. Come inside, Michael, and join us.You see, my friends, the problem is not a simpleone.n. Use commas to set off absolute elements.Rain or shine, he plays tennis every day.I wonder what will happen next, his ambitionbeing what it is.
233 o. Use a comma to set off interjections. Well, I decided to try to turn the boat around.Oh, how beautiful the tropical sunset is!p. Use a comma to prevent misreading.In the morning, light began to flood our room.The problem is, is there time to shower beforelunch?q. Use a comma after last names when thenormal order of names is reversed.Kennedy, Howard J.
234 r. Use a comma as a thousands separator in numbers of 1,000 and higher.1, , , ,000,000 (or $45 million)s. Use commas to set off dialogue from nondialoguecomponents in a sentence.He said, “I have found the key.”“If you leave this afternoon,” he said, “you willarrive in plenty of time.”
235 t. Use a comma to indicate omitted text in a parallel construction. To error is human; to forgive, divine.In the U.S., we have two research centers; in China, one; in Europe, three.
236 Use a semicolon to connect two main clauses 5. THE SEMICOLON (;)Use a semicolon to connect two main clauseswhen there is no coordinating conjunction.The debate was drawing to a close; each teamgathered together to prepare its final remarks.I closed the book; I had grown tired of reading.
237 b. Use semicolons to separate coordinate elements containing internal punctuation.The extra $22 billion includes $4 billion for veterans' healthcare and administrative services; $2 billion for port security;$3 billion for education; nearly $1 billion for sewageand water treatment improvements; and money forlocal law enforcement, housing for the poor, and road andbridge upgrades.
238 Voters approved the controversial amendment by an extremely 6. THE COLON (:)Use a colon before a word, phrase, sentence, or several sentences that clarify, explain, amplify, or summarize the preceding expression.Voters approved the controversial amendment by an extremelynarrow margin: 20,100 in favor and 19,899 against.The different affinities of atoms for the electrons in a bond aredescribed by a property called electronegativity: the ability ofan atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.
239 Figure X. Variable-temperature proton-decoupled 31P NMR spectra of compound YY: top, 350 K; middle, 303 K; bottom,273 K.I have one objection to this advertisement: it is far tootechnical for its intended audience.Your first draft is like a rich uncultivated field for thefarmer: it is waiting for you to bring it into full bloom.After a week of meetings with Chinese energy, environmentaland clean-car experts, I’m left with one big, gnawing question:can China go green without going orange?
240 b. Use a colon to introduce a list. Make sure that the expression preceding the colon is acomplete sentence.Our research focuses on two areas: inexpensive feedstocks for ethanol production and new catalysts forbio-processes.c. Use a colon to introduce a quotation.The advertisement for the Hawaiian trip read asfollows: “Visit six islands and learn for yourselfwhat Paradise of the Pacific means.”
241 d. Use a colon to express direct ratio. a ratio of 50:1 5:2:1e. Use a colon after the salutation of abusiness letter, between a title and subtitle,between a chapter and verse reference fromthe Bible, and between the hour and minutefigures in time designations.To Whom It May Concern:Science Problems: A Handbook for Studentsaccording to Ecclesiastes 3:910:50 A.M.
242 An apostrophe is used for these reasons: 7. THE APOSTROPHE (‘)An apostrophe is used for these reasons:Use an apostrophe to indicate the possessive case,except for personal pronouns.If the word (either singular or plural) does not endin an /s/ or /z/ sound, add the apostrophe and s.the girl’s dressyesterday’s problemthe car’s upholstery
243 2. If the singular ends in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add the apostrophe and s unless the second s makes thepronunciation difficult; in such case, add only theapostrophe.Lois’s coatCharles’s dogbutMoses’ storyAristophanes’ comedies(The addition of a second s would change thepronunciation of Moses to Moseses and Aristo-phanes to Aristophaneses.)
244 3. If the plural ends in an /s/ or /z/ sound, add only the apostrophe.ladies’ dresses (dresses for ladies)boys’ shoes (shoes of the boys)five dollars’ worth4. In compound words, make only the last wordpossessive.brother-in-law’s books (singular possessive)mothers-in-law’s books (plural possessive)someone else’s book
245 5. In noun of joint possession, make only the last noun possessive. In nouns of individual possession, makeboth nouns possessive.Jane and Alice’s book (joint possession)Jane’s and Alice’s books (individual possession)
246 6. An apostrophe indicates the omission of a letter or a number.shouldn’tdoesn’tcan’to’ clockthe gold rush of ‘49
247 Writers should cross their t’s and dot their i’s. An apostrophe and s form the plural of letters,figures, symbols, and words. (Such forms arealso italicized.)Writers should cross their t’s and dot their i’s.Count to 100 by 5’sTry to cut down on the number of and’s youuse in your writing.We live in the 80’s.
248 Use a dash to indicate a sudden break in thought. 8. THE DASH (—)Use a dash to indicate a sudden break inthought.She had her reasons — or did she?Could he — I mean, would he be willing towork with us?Her eyes lighted up with love — or was it pity? — whenshe read the letter.
249 b. Use a dash before an appositive or brief summary. The best universities and colleges have stuck to theirmissions — hiring the most qualified professors, offering thehighest-quality courses, and providing the broadest possibleeducations not only for the world of work but also for publicservice and personal development.He asked Congress to set an immediate freeze on emissions ofcarbon dioxide — that's the main pollutant responsible fortrapping heat in the atmosphere.Doctors are looking at cancer more and more as a chronicdisease — something people can live with for a longer periodof time.
250 c. Uses dashes (instead of commas or parentheses) to These three experimental parameters — activity, selectivity,and life span — should be considered for the selection of acatalyst employed in a commercial chemical process.c. Uses dashes (instead of commas or parentheses) toset off strong parenthetical element.The new chip — which took us two years to complete itsdesign — will be in commercial production next month.The president — reversing his position — now opposes thislegislation.
251 d. Uses dashes to set off a parenthetical expression when that expression interruptsthe flow of thought.If you wish to stress the idea — the decision is up toyou — then use dashes rather than commas or parentheses.
252 a. Hyphenate two or more words as a compound 9. THE HYPHEN (-)a. Hyphenate two or more words as a compoundnoun, verb or adverb or as a compound modifierof a noun:a well-known actor technology’s cost-effectivenessa risk-taking strategy birth-control movementbroad-based effortshydrogen-powered cars cross-link two polymersshort-sighted thinking vacuum-dry this materialMany U.S. hospitals aren't set up to provide state-of-the-art treatmentfor heart attacks on a 24/7 basis.
253 Phrases hyphenated before a noun are not hyphenated when they appear in the predicate unless they arepermanent compounds:He is a well-liked man.He is well liked.She is old-fashioned. (Permanent compound)It is an up-to-date book.This book is up to date.
254 b. Place a hyphen between the numerator and denominator of a fraction unless either partcontain a hyphen:two-thirdsfive-eighthsbut: twenty-two sixteenthsIn an expression like one half of and in a fractionintended as merely roughly approximate, the hyphenis generally omitted:About three fourths of the students attended thegame.
255 c. Hyphenate compound numbers between twenty and one hundred: thirty-five sixty-three ninety-nined. Use a hyphen to avoid ambiguity.resign (to quit) refund (to give money back)re-sign (to sign again) re-fund (to bring money in again)re-collect recollectre-cover recoverre-form reformre-treat retreat
256 e. Use a hyphen to indicate a season that straddled two calendar years.The winter of was especially severe.f. Use a hyphen to designate a continuous period oftwo or more years.The presidency of George Bush ( ) was good for thedomestic economy.
257 The lumber is available in 8-, 16-, and 32-foot lengths. g. Use a hyphen to indicate “suspended compounds” (where the important element is omitted in all but the last term).The lumber is available in 8-, 16-, and 32-foot lengths.The national test scores for 4th- and 8th-graders show modestimprovements in math, but flat scores in reading.h. Use a hyphen to denote a precise numericalmeasurement.a two-hour test 12-inch-diameter pipea ten-year-old brother. six-game winning streak.
258 i. Use a hyphen at the end of the first line to mark the separation of syllables when a wordis divided between two lines. Never divideone-syllable words.In your essay you should avoid using frag-ment sentences.
259 j. In compounds not covered by the above rules, a writer must depend chiefly upon memory of theindividual words and upon help from a reliable,up-to-date dictionary. As with spelling ingeneral, hyphen usage cannot be reduced to a logical system. The general tendency is to use the hyphen only if joined elements are not felt to be thoroughly fused or if the omission of the mark between separate elements might cause a misreading.
260 Use parentheses to enclose numbers in a series. The treaty stipulated that the countries would (1)cease fighting, (2) respect each other’s boundaries,and (3) resume trade.
261 b. Use parentheses to introduce acronyms and abbreviations (including abbreviations ofmeasurement).The organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) cannot agree on a quota.
262 c. Use parentheses to set off parenthetical, supplementary, or illustrative material.He said (and we assumed that he was sincere) that he wouldattend the ceremony without fail.As we drove down the mountain road (could this truly becalled a road?), our brakes began to smoke.
263 Brackets are used to set off editorial corrections or additions to quoted matter.On his desk he found a note: “Do not try to findme for i [sic] will be far away when you read this.”(A bracketed sic－meaning thus－tells the readerthat the error appears in the original and is not amisprint.)The Cardinal sent a message to histrusted subordinate in Rome [Bishop Francetti] toask for further information.
264 12. THE SLASH (/)a. Use the slash to indicate “per” in technicalabbreviation.m3/sec kg/cm2b. Use the slash to indicate a twelve-monthperiod overlapping two calendar years.academic year 2006/ fiscal year 1999/2000
265 c. Use the slash in the expression “and/or” only after other alternatives have been considered.The crash was caused by mechanical failure and/or piloterror.d. Use a slash to represent a ratio or to connectcomponents of a mixture.dissolved in 4:1 isopropanol/waterthe methane/oxygen/argon (1/50/400) matrix
266 a. To show omission of a word or words from 13. ELLIPSIS POINTS (…)a. To show omission of a word or words froma quoted sentence, use ellipsis points (threespaced periods).The senator said, “The American public … can’t befooled for long.”
267 No science is immune to the infection of politics and the corruption of power….The time has come to consider how we might bring about a separation, as complete as possible, between Science and Government in all countries.－ Jacob Bronowski…Remember that the fear of failure is the most paralyzing of all human emotions. The fear of failure stops us from trying, from daring, from succeeding. It must be confronted. Don’t grow old saying, “I wish Ihad. I should have. Why didn’t I?” Failure is not to be dreaded, but to confront, reject, and overcome.－ Mark Shields
268 14. QUOTATION MARKS (“ ”)(‘ ’) Follow these rules in punctuating quoted material:Use double quotation marks to enclose a directquotation from both spoken and written sources.He said, “Wait for me at the corner.”The handbook says, “Students are responsiblefor keeping their rooms clean.”Notice that indirect quotations are not punctuated:He said that I should wait for him at the corner.
269 b. Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation.She replied, “Look for the letter that ends ‘Mostsincerely yours.’”
270 c. Use quotation marks to set off titles of poems, songs, and of articles short stories, ad otherparts of a longer work.The class liked the story “A Rose for Emily” inour text Stories for Our Time.“Get me to the Church on Time” is a song fromthe musical play My Fair Lady.Look for the article in Time titled “A NewApproach to the Monetary Problem.”
271 d. Use quotation marks to set off words used in a special sense. What he calls “stylish” I would consider to bevery out of date.The professor referred to the student as a “friskycolt.”
272 e. Always place a comma or period inside quotation marks. “If you try again,” she said, “I think you willsucceed.”Although he told us that he is “restless,” I thinka more appropriate word would be “lazy.’He said, “The note read ‘No milk today.’ ”The desire of consumers for better access to a doctorhas also given rise to “concierge medicine,” in whichthey pay thousands of dollars annually to get convenient,no-wait appointments.
273 f. Always place a colon or semicolon outside quotation marks. I looked blankly at my music instructor whenhe said “Andante”; I did not understand themeaning of the term.He gave us what he called his “recipe”: thinkwell, listen carefully, speak cautiously.
274 g. Place a question mark, dash, or exclamation point inside the quotation when it applies only tothe quotation. Place it outside the quotationwhen it applies to the whole statement.He asked, “Will you be ready to recite tomorrow?”Did you hear her say, “I overslept yesterday”?He cried out, “I will never agree to that!”I can’t describe the horror of that “unfortunateincident”!
275 h. Use a comma to separate an opening quotation from the part of the sentence that follows unlessthe quotation ends with a question mark,exclamation point, or dash.“This case is closed,” he said firmly.“Is it time to eat?” she asked.“I can’t believe it!” he exclaimed. “Our housecan’t have burned down!”“You’ve misunderstood–” he began. “I meantsomething quite different.”
276 i. When a quotation is interrupted by explanatory words (he said, or similar ones), use a commaafter the first part of the quotation. In choosingthe punctuation mark to place after theexplanatory words, follow the rules forpunctuating clauses and phrases.“I have been told,” he said, “of the dangers ofskiing.”
277 “You follow directions well,” the supervisor said. “Your first two weeks with us have been verysatisfactory.”“Michael was an imaginative tour leader,” the girlsaid; “every day brought some new adventure.”
278 j. In punctuating explanatory words preceding a quotation, be guided by the length andformality of the quotation.No punctuationShe cried out “Wait!” and ran for the bus.Punctuation with a commaThe clerk said politely, “If you need any help, please call on me.”Punctuation with a colonThe politician began his lengthy speech with these words: “Never is the history of our country had there been a greater need for unity among us.” Never have the words ‘United we stand, divided we fall’ had greater meaning than they do today, my fellow citizens.
279 Variation of Sentences: Unit 10Variation of Sentences:Expansion, Transformation, Reduction, Sentence combining, Inversion, and Ellipsis
280 10a Expansion 1. One-Word Additions John hit the ball. Big John hit the slow ballBig John, the catcher, hit the slow ball.Big John, the reserve catcher, hit theslow ball.Big John, the reserve catcher,powerfully hit the slow ball.
281 2. Multiword Additions: Phrases His knees shaking with nervous energy, big John, the reserve catcher, powerfully hit the slow ball over the fence in the bottom of the ninth to win the ALC championship game before 50,000 screaming fans.
282 3. Multiword Additions: Clauses His knees shaking with nervous energy, big John, the reserve catcher, powerfully hit the slow ball over the fence in the bottom of the ninth to win the ALC championship game before 50,000 screaming fans, who drank large vats of cheap beer, which were provided by a local brewery.
283 Legislation overhauling U. S Legislation overhauling U.S. college student aid by slashing subsidies to lenders and using the money to boost student assistance by $20 billion was approved by Congress on Friday.The killings have outraged many Iraqis, who long have resented the presence of armed Western security contractors, considering them an arrogant mercenary force that abuses Iraqis in their own country.Doctor delivery is one of many new approaches springing up to address the demand for faster, more convenient medical care.
284 10b TransformationsThe empty house looked quite frightening.Empty, the house looked quite frightening.The house, empty, looked quite frightening.
285 Causing injuries for which she sues, the scale struck the plaintiff. The scale, causing injuries for which she sues, struck the plaintiff.The scale struck the plaintiff, causing injuries for which she sues.Desperate, the young mother called for help.Below, the traffic looked like a necklace of ants.
286 No matter how long it takes, our medical team will do our best to save your child’s life. Our medical team, no matter how long it takes, will do our best to save your child’s life.
287 This is one of the admiralty texts that are worth reading. Of the admiralty texts that are worth reading, this is one.Much is expected from those to whom much is given.From those to whom much is given, much is expected.
288 The S&P 500 gained 11. 8% a year between 1982 and 2001 The S&P 500 gained 11.8% a year between 1982 and But only investors who stayed the course managed to earn that big a return.
289 10c Reduction 1. Noun Clauses I don’t know what I should do. I don’t know what to do.Pam can’t decide whether she should go or stay home.Pam can’t decide whether to go or (to) stay home.Please tell me how I can get to the bus station.Please tell me how to get to the bus station.
290 Jim told us where we could find it. Jim told us where to find it.We are all surprised that this catalyst is so active in this reaction.We are all surprised about this catalyst’s high activity in this reaction.His parents were upset that he did so poorly in the school.His parents were upset with his poor performance in the school.
291 I couldn’t understand that he didn’t want to come. I couldn’t understand his (him) not wanting to come.That they ran away to get married shocked everyone.Their running away to get married shocked everyone.I will no longer tolerate that you are late to work every morning.I will no longer tolerate your (you) being late to work every morning.
292 2. Adjective ClausesCHANGING AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE TO AN ADJECTIVE PHRASE(a)CLAUSE:The manwhoistalking to John is from Korea.PHRASE:Ø(b)The ideaswhicharepresented in that book are good.(c)Ann is the womanresponsible for the error.
293 (d)CLAUSE:The booksthatareon that shelf are mine.PHRASE:Ø(e)English has an alphabetconsistsof 26 letters.Consist-ing(f)Anyonewhowantsto come with us is welcome.wanting
294 (g) George Washington, who was the first president of the United States, was awealthy colonist and a general in thearmy.(h) George Washington, the first president ofthe United States, was a wealthy colonistand a general in the army.(i) Paris, the capital of France, is anexciting city.
295 (j) I read a book by Mark Twain, a famous American author.
296 Note: If an adjective clause that contains be + a single adjective is changed, theadjective is moved to its normal positionin front of the noun it modifies.Clause: Fruit that is fresh tastes better than old, softer,mushy fruit.Correct Phrase: Fresh fruit tastes better than old, softer,Incorrect phrase: Fruit fresh tastes better than old, softer,
297 She has two children, ages 7 and 10. The general demanded absolute obedience, instant and unquestioning.Typewriters, once common in schools and offices, are rarely seen or used now.Wolves—once feared and killed—are being reintroduced into the environment.
298 Many compound adjectives used immediately before a noun can be viewed as reduced forms of adjective clauses.Environment-friendly transportation cellulose-rich materialTemperature-dependent reactions tumor-free timeStructure-specific sensors oxygen-sensitive catalystsFlood-prone mountain valleys energy-efficient technologyWater-soluble materials
300 Exceptions: Performance-related bonuses human-induced global warming Market-oriented incentives Chinese-made toysFastest-growing markets slow-growing crystalsFar-reaching influence forward-thinking strategyFast-spreading diseaseBroad-based support long-anticipated challengeForeign-born immigrants short-lived species a well-paid jobWell-defined policy far-fetched statement so-called new inventionExceptions:Cutting-edge research
301 For ADJECTIVE CLAUSES that use WHICH to modify a whole sentence Water around the island started to recede Thursday, which lessened the danger to others who remained stranded.Water around the island started to recede Thursday, lessening the danger to others who remained stranded.In a d6 metal ion, both low- and high-spin complexes are possible, which depends on the value of Δ. A high Δ leads to the low-spin form.In a d6 metal ion, both low- and high-spin complexes are possible, depending on the value of Δ. A high Δ leads to the low-spin form.The nickel-catalyzed reaction occurs at room temperature, making it ideal for coupling of chiral compounds, which racemize when subjected to high temperature, as happens with palladium.
302 American manufacturers say the yuan is undervalued by as much as 40 percent, making Chinese products cheaper for Americans and U.S. goods more expensive in China.Young people switch jobs and even careers frequently, meaning they don't build up enough years with a single employer to qualify for a big pension payment.A landmark report by the world's leading climate scientists and government officials, published in Paris last week, warned global warming will continue for centuries, creating a far different planet in 100 years.Scientists recently announced the discovery of important genetic clues to diabetes, opening a new chapter in the study of the fast-growing disease.Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity in 1916, profoundly affecting the study of physics and cosmology for years.
303 Microsoft's sales and profits jumped in the latest quarter, helped by strong results for database software and its gaming business.The market for video sharing and social networking sites has been sizzling, reflected by the $1.65 billion Google recently paid for YouTube.Medicare already costs four times as much as it did in 1970, measured as a percentage of the nation's gross domestic product.An international group of ecologists and economists warned yesterday that the world will run out of seafood by 2048 if steep declines in marine species continue at current rates, based on a four-year study of catch data and the effects of fisheries collapses."Based on AMD's preannouncement last week and Intel's result, we believe that there is clear evidence of Intel gaining lost share at a rapid pace," Jefferies & Co. analyst John Lau wrote in a research note. He rates Intel a buy and AMD a hold.
304 More Examples:As in America, higher education costs are hammering other developed nations, forcing a reassessment of who pays and how.Experts point to many short-term reasons the United States is running low on gasoline, causing prices to rise: many oil companies are doing maintenance work on refineries; new federal rules make fuels cleaner but costlier; and a string of delays, fires and accidents in the industry have reduced supplies just when drivers are starting to hit the road for summer vacations.Rates for 30-year mortgages this week sank to their lowest point since late May, providing a ray of sunlight for would-be home buyers.
305 The U.S. economy unexpectedly lost jobs in August for the first time in four years, increasing speculation that the Federal Reserve will have to reduce interest rates to counter an economic slowdown.College costs have soared in recent years in the United States, forcing students to rely increasingly on loans and driving growth for banks and specialized student lenders.Democrats described the legislation as costless to taxpayers, saying the rate cuts would be offset by a reduction of nearly $21 billion in subsidies paid by the government to lenders in the federal loan program.A hot air balloon burst into flames over western Canada, burning two passengers to death while their families looked on, police said Saturday.
306 Some services may even wheel in a mobile X-ray machine or an ultrasound machine, depending on the ailment, or perhaps pull out kits to test for strep throat or to draw blood.
307 The eldest children in families tend to develop slightly higher I. Q The eldest children in families tend to develop slightly higher I.Q.s than their younger siblings, researchers are reporting, based on a large study that could effectively settle more than a half-century of scientific debate about the relationship between I.Q. and birth order.Some 350,000 or so Americans currently need dialysis; that population is growing about 3 percent a year, fueled by a rise in diabetes.Amgen offers discounts and rebates to dialysis companies based, in part, on how much Epogen they use and how much that use increases year to year.
308 3. Adverb Clauses ADVERB CLAUSE: While I was walking to class, I ran into an old friend.MODIFYINGPHRASE:While walking to class, I ran into an old friend.(c) ADVERB CLAUSE:Before I left for work, I ate breakfast.(d) MODIFYINGBefore leaving for work, I ate breakfast.(e) CHANGE POSSIBLE:While I was sitting in class, I fell asleep.While sitting in class, I fell asleep.
309 (f) CHANGEPOSSIBLE:While Ann was sitting in class, she fell asleep. (clause)While sitting in class, Ann fell asleep.(g) NO CHANGEWhile the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.(h) NO CHANGEWhile we were walking home, a frog hopped across the road in front of us.(i) INCORRECT:While walking home, a frog hopped across the road in front of us.(j) INCORRECT:While watching TV last night, the phone rang.
310 CHANGING TIME CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES Since Maria came to this country, she has made many friends.(b) PHRASE:Since coming to this country, Maria has made many friends.
311 (c) CLUASE:After he (had) finished his homework, Peter went to bed.(d) PHRASE:After finishing his homework, Peter went to bed.(e) PHRASE:After having finished his homework, Peter went to bed.(f) PHRASE:Peter went to bed after finishing his homework.
312 EXPRESSING THE IDEA OF “DURING THE SAME TIME” IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES While I was walking down the street, I ran into an old friend.(b)While walking down the street, I ran into an old friend.(c)Walking down the street, I ran into an old friend.(d)Hiking through the woods yesterday, we saw a bee(e)Pointing to the sentence on the board, the teacher explained the meaning of modifying phrases.
313 EXPRESSING CAUSE AND EFFECT IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES Because she needed some money to buy a book, Sue cashed a check.(b)Needing some money to buy a book, Sue cashed a check.(c)Because he lacked the necessary qualifications, he was not considered for the job.(d)Lacking the necessary qualifications, he was not considered for the job.
314 (e)Having seen that movie before, I don’t want to go again.(f)Having seen that movie before, I didn’t want to go again.(g)Because she was unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle.(h)Being unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle.(i)Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle.
315 USING UPON+-ING IN MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES (a) Upon reaching the age of 21, I received myinheritance.(b) When I reached the age of 21, I received my(c) On reaching the age of 21, I received my
316 Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Prepositional Phrases When we keep the temperature constant, the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of reactant B.At constant temperature, the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of reactant B.Because several public transportation projects, such as the MRT, had been completed, commuting to work has become easier for people living in the suburbs.With the completion of several public transportation projects, such as the MRT, commuting to work has become easier for people living in the suburbs.
317 More examples: When in Rome, do as the Romans do. When found to be forged, the data was withdrawn from the paper immediately.When discussing the effects of global warming, scientists do care very much about how precise the details are.Though old, he still has a dream.Though a fair man, my boss often required us to work far into the night.If made into law, the Genetic Non-Discrimination Act would bar prejudicial treatment based solely on genetic data, such as genetic predisposition to disease.These problems can be treated if caught in time.
318 Today we are much better with therapies that are more specific, and also with supportive care and painmanagement that makes the course of cancer therapy,although not easy, much more tolerable.Intel Corp. said a new line of computer processors due out later this year will be about 40 percent faster than current chips when running computer games, videos and other heavy workloads.When faced with product concerns from Asian trading partners, China adopts an assertive tone.
319 4. Simple Sentences with Compound Verb The court reversed the lower court and ruled that consent is not required.The court reversed the lower court, ruling that consent is not required.The helicopter flew low over the forest, and spotted the missing prisoner just before dark.The helicopter flew low over the forest, spotting the missing prisoner just before dark.
320 More examples:The National Science Foundation believes in nanotech's future, estimating the market impact will exceed $1 trillion by 2015.The first Chinese person in space returned safely to Earth early Wednesday, landing as planned on the soft grass of Inner Mongolia.Cheney planned to return to Jordan later Sunday, ending his weeklong trip to the Middle East with talks with Jordan's King Abdullah.
321 Microsoft Corp. introduced a new version of its Office software Tuesday, betting that enhanced tools for collaboration will entice companies to spend $150-to-$500 for copies of the upgrade.Some oil executives are now warning that the current shortages of fuel could become a long-term problem, leading to stubbornly higher prices at the pump.The next morning I read what I wrote the day before, making only the most superficial changes, and then continue on my way. This is all you have to do.For other women, trading offered a more modest sort of independence, giving them a chance to build up savings separate from their husbands’ accounts.
322 Winds of 160 mph slammed the city of Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, peeling roofs off shelters and a police station, knocking down electric poles and destroying or damaging some 5,000 homes — many of them made of wood with roofs of corrugated metal or palm branches
323 10d Sentence Combining To make your writing flow, you may need to combine some of your short, relatedsentences. This technique helps you writeconcisely and express the relationshipsbetween the ideas clearly.
324 1. Inserting Words Separate Sentence He was in an exuberant mood. His mood was contagious.Combined Sentence His exuberantSeparate Sentence Butter the pan. Pourthe cake batter intothe pan.Combined Sentence Pour the cake batterinto the buttered pan.
325 2. Inserting Phrases · Prepositional Phrases Separate Sentence Great Salt Lake is aninland body of saltwater.The lake is in north-western Utah.Combined Sentence Great Salt Lake is aninland body of saltwaterin northwestern Utah.
326 Participial PhrasesSeparate Sentence Migrant laborersmove constantly.They search for work.Combined Sentence Searching for work,migrant laborers
327 Separate Sentence The hikers struggled on. They were gasping forbreath and nearlyexhausted.Combined Sentence The hikers, gasping forexhausted, struggled on.
328 Separate Sentence The Boston Red Sox won the American Leaguepennant Wednesday night.It trounced the New YorkYankees 10-3 in Game 7of the AL ChampionshipSeries at Yankee Stadiumand completed anunprecedented comeback.
329 Combined Sentence The Boston Red Sox won the AmericanLeague pennantWednesday night,trouncing the NewYork Yankees 10-3 inGame 7 of the ALChampionship Seriesat Yankee Stadiumand completing anunprecedentedcomeback.
330 Separate Sentence The ship was badly damaged by the storm.The ship finally reacheda safe harbor.Combined Sentence Badly damaged by thestorm, the ship finallyreached a safe harbor.
331 Separate Sentence Water around the island started to recede Thursday.This lessened the dangerto others who remainedstranded.Combined Sentence Water around the islandstarted to recedeThursday, lessening, thedanger to others whoremained stranded.
332 Separate Sentence Globalization brings people and institutionsin distant parts of theworld closer econo-mically. It enhancestheir opportunities totrade goods, servicesand labor.
333 Combined SentenceGlobalization brings people and institutions in distant parts of the world closer economically, enhancing their opportunities to trade goods, services and labor.
334 Appositive PhrasesSeparate SentenceNeil Armstrong is best known for his historic first steps on the moon. Neil Armstrong is a former U.S. astronautCombined SentenceNeil Armstrong, a former U.S. astronaut, is best known for his historic first steps on the moon.
335 Separate SentenceChinese calligraphy is donewith a brush. Chinesecalligraphy is the oldestform of calligraphy.Combined SentenceChinese calligraphy, theoldest form of calligraphy,is done with a brush.
336 Absolute PhrasesSeparate SentenceHe returned, shuddering, fiveminutes later. His arms weresoaked and red to the elbows.Combined Sentenceminutes later, his arms
337 Separate SentenceThe motorcycle on the sidewalk speeded and skidded obliquely into a plate-glass window. The front wheel was buckling and climbing the brick base beneath the window.Combined SentenceThe motorcycle on the sidewalk speeded and skidded obliquely into a plate-glass window, the front wheel buckling and climbing the brick base beneath the window.
338 3. Using Compound Subjects, Verbs and Predicates Separate SentenceAsia is home to the leopard. Africa is home to the leopard.Combined SentenceAsia and Africa are home to the leopard.
339 Separate SentenceA volcano begins as molten rock beneath the earth’s surface. It gradually rises upward.Combined SentenceA volcano begins as molten rock beneath the earth’s surface and gradually rises upward.
340 Separate SentenceMrs. Braxton could sponsor our class trip. Mrs. Braxton could recruit parents to help her.Combined SentenceMrs. Braxton could sponsor our class trip or recruit parents to help her.
341 Separate SentenceVolcanoes can create land area. Glaciers can also create land area. They both can destroy land area.Combined SentenceVolcanoes and Glaciers can create and destroy land area.
342 4. Creating a Compound Sentence Use coordination when two ideas are aboutequally important.Separate SentenceVeins carry blood to the heart. Arteries carry blood away from the heart.Combined SentenceVeins carry blood to the heart, but arteries carry blood away from the heart.Veins carry blood to the heart; arteries carry blood away from the heart.Veins carry blood to the heart; however arteries carry blood away from the heart.
343 Separate SentenceThe Panama Canal is a valuable engineering achievement. Ships using the canal can shorten their journeys by thousands of miles.Combined SentenceThe Panama Canal is a valuable engineering achievement, for ships using the canal can shorten their journeys by thousands of miles.
344 5. Creating a Complex Sentence Use subordination to help the main idea stand out and to clarify relationships in a sentence.Adjective ClausesSeparate SentenceThe student received a grant. She wanted to study genetics.Combined SentenceThe student who wanted to study genetics received a grant.
345 Separate SentenceMarie Curie won the Nobel Prize for chemistry. She founded the Radium Institute in Paris.Combined SentenceMarie Curie, who founded the Radium Institute in Paris, won the Nobel Prize for chemistry.
346 Separate SentenceHere is a machine called a respirator. The machine helps patients breathe.Combined SentenceHere is a machine called a respirator that helps patients breathe.
347 Separate SentencePolitical campaigns need committed and hard-working volunteers. Political campaigns are very exciting.Combined SentencePolitical campaigns, which are very exciting, need committed and hard-working volunteers.
348 Adverb ClausesSeparate SentenceSailing ships were sometimes trapped in the Sargasso Sea. There wasn’t enough wind to sail.Combined SentenceSailing ships were sometimes trapped in the Sargasso Sea when there wasn’t enough wind to sail.
349 Separate SentenceThe soldiers stood respectfully at attention. The flag was raised high above the army base.Combined SentenceThe soldiers stood respectfully at attention while the flag was raised high above the army base.
350 Separate SentenceJerry enjoyed the New York Philharmonic’s performance. He usually attends rock concerts.Combined SentenceJerry enjoyed the New York Philharmonic’s performance although he usually attends rock concerts.Although Jerry usually attends rock concerts, he enjoyed the New York Philharmonic’s performance.
351 Separate SentenceChildren are receptive to computers. They learn about them at an early age.Combined SentenceChildren are receptive to computers because they learn about them at an early age.
352 Someone will arrive first. That person will get the best seat. Noun ClausesSeparate SentenceSomeone will arrive first.That person will get thebest seat.Combined SentenceWhoever arrives first willget the best seat.
353 Separate SentenceThe players were informed. The game had been forfeited.Combined SentenceThe players were informed that the game had been forfeited.
354 OriginalOur new headquarters building, which is scheduled to be completed next year, will enable us to provide each employee with a private office , which should significantly improve productivity.BetterWhen we move into our new headquarters building next year, each employee will have a private office. As a result, productivity should improve significantly.
355 OriginalThe results of the survey among managers that was conducted to determine the relationship of dollars spent on training to improved productivity last month are summarized below.BetterLast month we surveyed managers to determine the correlation between training dollars and productivity. This report summarizes the results of the survey.
356 10e Inversion1. Complete inversionV + SSuch was the force of the explosion that all the windows were broken.So deep are their differences that few observers think the early 2005 deadline attainable.
357 To make sure your hard-earned savings don't go to waste, here are four strategies education experts recommend.Speak of the devil; here comes Tom.There remains much room for improvement.
358 At stake was a vast effort to remake the program that provides health insurance for 40 million elderly and disabled Americans.At stake are public health standards addressing fine pollution particles 2.5 micrometers or smaller, which lodge in people’s lungs and blood vessels.At issue now is a ruling last month by the World Trade Organization's highest panel, which found the tariffs illegal.
359 In the audience at the General Assembly, sat Ahmed Chalabi, this month's president of the Iraqi Governing Council, and President Jacques Chirac of France, who opposes Bush's plan for Iraq.With the pickup in the world economy has come an unexpectedly high jump in global demand for oil. Demand is up 3.5 percent this year, Mr. Goldstein said, far more than many experts who track oil markets predicted.
360 On the evolutionists' side is a legal team put together by the American Civil Liberties Union and Americans United for Separation of Church and State. These groups want to put intelligent design itself on trial and discredit it so thoroughly that no other school board would dare authorize teaching it.In the medical examiner's freezer may lie the remains of a victim who was never reported missing
361 Among the most politically attractive elements in the plan is a proposal to double the use of ethanol, a corn-based fuel additive popular with farmers in midwestern states such as Iowa, South Dakota and Minnesota.The good news is that there is a better sense today of what it takes to end hunger. Among the practices being used to help the hungry include focusing on economic and agricultural growth, lowering population growth, lowering HIV infection rates, improving access to water for irrigation and creating social safety nets to ensure that those who can't grow or buy food still get enough to eat.
362 We discover physics by learning how to measure the quantities involved in physics. Among these quantities are length, time, mass, temperature, pressure, and electric current.Among the measures being discussed are installing security camera above the front door of every office or lab and asking students to be more alert to outsiders inside the chemistry building.
363 Among the proposals being considered by the administration was making permanent early reporting requirements to detect any big influx of steel into the United States.Among the hardest hit areas of the U.S. economy was manufacturing, already losing thousands of jobs each year to dramatically cheaper labor next door in Mexico and Latin America and across the Pacific to China and Vietnam, as well.
364 Among the experiments that led John Dalton to propose the atomic theory were his studies of mixtures of gases.Behind much of the opposition to the state visit by President Bush is a feeling among many Britons that while the part of the association based on shared language, history, culture and economy remains solid and enduring, the political and diplomatic costs have become too high.
365 But behind them lies a detention system that treats all prisoners as terrorists regardless of their supposed offenses, and makes brutal interrogations all too common.Also in question was exactly when Rumsfeld informed Bush of the extent of the abuse.The president is a man on whom falls a heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or not.
366 Following are the stories of how Warner, who will begin college in the fall, and Moore, who is headed to law school, arrived at their decisions.No less sobering, commanders said, were new reports of children playing roles in guerrilla attacks.Joining us now to talk more about this is Michael Rothman, senior energy market specialist at Merrill Lynch. And he joins us from his firm’s trading floor. Hi, Mike.
367 Joining me is Reginald Dumas, the United Nations' special adviser on Haiti. Lying beneath 20,000 feet of mud and rock, and topped by more than 6,000 feet of ocean, are oil and gas reserves that were previously inaccessible.More troubling to some experts is the likelihood of an accelerating loss of quality scientists.
368 Also contributing to the bullish sentiment early on was the economic data, which provided further support for the accelerating economy and boded well for the manufacturing sector and the state of the consumer.The counties in violation included most of California, a ring of states around the Great Lakes, and a concentration of Northeast states from the Washington, D.C., area to Boston. Also failing the federal test are parts of eastern Tennessee, Georgia, and North Carolina, as well as the Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio areas.
369 Fueling the spring rally has been the end of the Iraqi war, indications that the Federal Reserve will keep interest rates low for the foreseeable future and a few early signs that the economy may be picking up steam.Also newly recommended are a vaccine against hepatitis A, a booster shot for chickenpox, a booster shot against whooping cough, and yearly flu shots until a child’s fifth birthday instead of only until the second birthday.
370 Attached is the file you requested. Cut out of the process, as usual, was Colin Powell's State Department. So were military lawyers for the uniformed services.Set at the top two corners of the stage were huge lavender hearts outlined in bright white lights.
371 Displayed in the glass case was a rare emerald. Crushed in the collision of these two grandiose dreams are all the smaller dreams of fallen soldiers, to raise kids and watch baseball and grill hot dogs on the Fourth of July.Included in this study is the possible site location should the construction of such a facility be deemed feasible.
372 "Microsoft is at or nearing a stage of maturity "Microsoft is at or nearing a stage of maturity. Analysts are expecting slower growth rates and so is the market," said Michael Cohen, director of research with Pacific American Securities.Although obesity can increase the risk of a host of health problems, skeptics argue, so do smoking and high cholesterol, which are not considered diseases.
373 As those wholesale prices went up, so did pump prices. As Microsoft goes, so does the PC sector.As violence deepens, so does pessimism.
374 As growth increases, so will the pressure for firms to expand their payrolls. If ethanol can be made cheaply from cellulose, so can a lot of other bulk chemicals.
375 Analysts say the cost of crude is now a less important factor in U. S Analysts say the cost of crude is now a less important factor in U.S. gasoline prices than are the high consumer demand, limited refining capacity and concerns about possible shortages in blending components for reformulated gasoline.Manual laborers are more strongly opposed to immigrants than are white-collar workers, whose jobs are not seriously threatened by outsiders that swarm into this country.
376 It was recently reported that many young parents today plan to have fewer children than did their parents or grandparents.Communication satellites transmit information more reliably than do ordinary short wave radios.
377 Henry James is as famous as is his philosopher brother William. They point out that the effects of the refinancing boom are beginning to wane, as are the effects of the tax cut.In addition to energy stocks, producers of other raw materials are classic hedges against inflation, as are companies that own valuable real estate.
378 Nearly 40 percent of engineering faculty members in the United States are foreign-born, as are a third of American Nobel Prize winners.The ambassador will be extremely influential, as will U.S. advisers who will remain attached to Iraqi ministries.
379 Being a leader in the new Iraq is a dangerous job Being a leader in the new Iraq is a dangerous job. One member of the national Governing Council has been assassinated, as have the deputy mayor of Baghdad and judges in Najaf and Mosul.If protected properly, a sewing machine usually lasts as long as does a typewriter.Mr. Love plans to testify at today's hearing, as do a number of consumer advocates and members of AIDS groups who have protested Abbott's pricing of Norvir.
380 2. Half inversionBe + S; Do/Does/Did + S +V; Have/Has/Had + S + P.P.; Modal + S + VShould the war drag on for a long time, it would have a disastrous effect.Had I been there, I could have done something to help.
381 Rarely have I eaten better food. Hardly ever does he come to class on time.Seldom do I sleep pass seven o’clock.There’s an old adage that no one in Washington can tell the difference between $1 million and $1 billion. Seldom has that Beltway learning disability been more vividly demonstrated than in the weeks since Katrina.
382 Not until then, he added, would the United States transfer authority from the American-led occupation to Iraq itself.Not once could President Bush admit to a concrete mistake on either the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, or the invasion of Iraq under false pretenses and the current deadly chaos there."Not since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948 has there been such a sustained attack on (its) values and principles," Khan told the press conference.
383 Never has one of my doctors said, "Sorry, I have to go, no more time Never has one of my doctors said, "Sorry, I have to go, no more time." They have always been willing to talk with me as long as I need them. That is invaluable.Never will I do that again.The Maine lobstermen labor long on capricious seas, but these are their glory days. Never in modern times have they harvested so many red-clawed lobsters.
384 "Never has the Democratic Party been more united than it is today," Kerry said. "Never have we been more poised to win a victory in November.“Never have stress levels for high school students been so high about where they get in, or about the idea that if you don’t get into a glamour college, your life is somehow ruined.
385 Never, other than during the two world wars, has there been such a concerted effort by opinion-forming institutions to indoctrinate Americans, 83 percent of whom now call global warming a " serious problem."No longer are a Porsche in the driveway, a country club membership and high-speed Internet access considered necessities.
386 Nowhere is the impact of this troubling pattern more evident than in the oil industry. Nowhere has this newfound confidence been on display more than in China’s rapidly improving international relations.
387 The principles of open competition, however, dictate that the company with the best product, marketed most effectively, ought to win. Nowhere would there be an asterisk that says if you can't win fair and square with customers, go complain to every court you can find until you snatch victory.
388 However, the chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee, John Scarlett, assured the ISC that he did not "at any time feel under pressure, nor was he asked to include material that he did not believe ought to be included in the dossier," Thursday's report said.
389 Bush's speech was not nearly as discouraging as some had feared, but nor did it move the Iraq controversy any closer to a viable solution.He did not speak, nor did he move.
390 Four Cabinet members, appearing at an unusual joint news conference, said the administration would not accept a petition filed last month by the AFL-CIO calling for stiff tariffs on Chinese imports to punish China for allegedly exploiting workers. Nor, they said, would they accept a petition readied by some industry associations that would threaten China with sanctions to force a rise in the value of the Chinese currency.
391 He would not say whether the United States agreed with Israel's contention that the site was a training camp for terrorists, nor would he say whether the Bush administration would veto a U.N. resolution condemning Israel's airstrike."They were not involved in leaking classified information, nor did they condone it," McClellan said.
392 Citizen soldiers can no longer expect to do only the minimum training — one weekend a month and a two-week session each summer — nor expect to rarely, if ever, get called to active duty."Occidental does not have the complications of a refining and marketing segment, nor is it of a scale that forces it to take multi-billion-dollar bets to see growth," Grubert said, as the majors have in places such as Russia and the Middle East.
393 Harlow said that "the committee has yet to take the opportunity to hear a comprehensive explanation of how and why we reached our conclusions," nor has it accepted an offer made Wednesday by Tenet to hear from him and senior intelligence officials.
394 "The president grieves the loss of every American soldier," said a White House spokesman. "He sends a note to the families, but beyond that he cannot issue a statement at the time every soldier dies, nor can he go to every memorial service that he'd like to go to.
395 Unlike the programs to eradicate smallpox and polio -- the only WHO efforts remotely comparable -- this goal is not one that when reached will allow public health officials to move on to other tasks. Nor is it achieved through bursts of intense effort, such as investigating disease outbreaks and mounting vaccination campaigns.
396 I don't have a lot of faith that they can expand their market share considerably, nor am I impressed with the demographics over the next five to 10 years.Bush offered no hint of his administration's preference for those leaders, nor did he say who would choose them.
397 There is nothing wrong with political passion There is nothing wrong with political passion. Nor is there anything wrong with criticizing the administration's conduct of the war."We have set a deadline of June 30. It is important that we meet that deadline. As a proud and independent people, Iraqis do not support an indefinite occupation and neither does America," Mr. Bush said, warning any change in this deadline would fuel suspicion of American objectives in Iraq.
398 Not only are we concerned with apprehending those individuals who commit computer crimes but also in limiting the damage done by these criminals to private industry and the public.Not only do you need to be involved in a lot of different things, but you need to be the head because you need to show a commitment.
399 Not only does continued strife in the Middle East increase the possibility of a disruption in oil supplies, but cheap oil is steadily being used up. That means that over the next decade oil prices should inevitably rise.Not only is soy a rich source of high-quality protein, but it also contains complex carbohydrates that don't raise blood sugar as high as more processed carbohydrates. It has fiber, folic acid (a key B vitamin), healthy fat and antioxidants that help protect against cancer.
400 Not only did China design, build and launch the satellite for Nigeria, but it also provided a huge loan to help pay the bill.
401 Only then can they find a cure. Only yesterday did I understand his predicament.Only in this way can we learn English well.Only by working hard can we make substantial contributions to scientific discovery.
402 Only when the public were alerted to the problem by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) did industry suddenly find substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).Reports in China have repeatedly hinted that only if China gets its way on chicken exports to the United States will Beijing lift its four-year-old ban on importing U.S. beef.
403 Last week, China urged the US to stop selling weapons to Taiwan and honor its commitment to the “One China” policy. “Only by doing so can the interests of both China and the US be safeguarded and peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait be maintained,” a foreign ministry spokesman said.Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled.
404 Only when people can be satisfied with what they have, will they be able to feel complete happiness. Only after these life stages (i.e., getting through school, getting married, having young kids, and then sending their kids to college) do "people start to think seriously about saving or putting money into their 401(k)s. The problem is if you put it off that long, then it's very hard to get big piles" of savings.
405 So diligently does he work that he often forgets to eat and sleep. So entrenched have hatreds become that neither side believes the other will ever accept their existence.So entranced with the video games do young students become that parents often have to restrict their children’s allowances to limit their play.
407 10f EllipsisIn Illinois, there are seventeen such institutions; in Ohio, twenty-two; in Indiana, three.John elected to attend Stanford; Mary, Harvard.Some were punctual; others, late.One manager comes from UNC, another from Duke, and a third from GW.
408 From its inception, Lake Powell, the nation’s second-largest artificial lake, after Lake Mead in Nevada, was a powerful symbol across the West. Some saw it as a statement of human will and know-how, others of arrogance.The weather here gets more humid than (it gets) in my hometown.
409 This year, we’ve gotten much less rain than (we got) last year. Many children respond better to rewards than punishments.Our reaction was faster than (it was or we) anticipated.The war could last much longer than originally predicted.
410 In Lu's view, the shame, stigma and silence surrounding mental health treatment among Asian immigrants appears to be greater than among other ethnic groups.High school students who take this core curriculum – four years of English and three each of mathematics, science and social studies – are better prepared for college.
411 David likes winter as much as (he likes) summer. Our goal is (to) maximize the reaction yield.Your president (’s) calling us a rogue nation and disrespecting our 5,000 years of civilization is offensive. How many years of civilization do you have?
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