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© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chapter 17 Computer Technology in Health Care
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 17:1 Introduction Greatest advancement in information processing since the invention of the printing press Computer use a necessity in health care
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Uses in Health Care Hospital or medical information systems (HIS or MIS) Diagnostic testing Education of health care personnel Basic and applied research: statistical analysis of data
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Computer Literacy Ability to understand basics of how a computer works and applications used in your field or profession Essential to health care professionals Comfort in using a computer for job Practice and experience in using computers is necessary to develop computer literacy
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning History of the Computer First computers installed in late 1950s and early 1960s Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) Microchips Sizes of computers
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 17:2 What is a Computer System? Electronic device that is a complete information processing system Hardware—machine components Software—programs or instructions
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Input Devices Information is entered into the computer by means of an input device Computer keyboard Magnetic tape Touch screen monitor Optical scanner Mouse Light pen
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Central Processing Unit (CPU) Processes all information or data entered into the computer Acts as the “brains” of the computer Internal memory unit Arithmetic and logic unit Control unit
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Output Devices Output is the finished work of the computer system Occurs after data has been processed by the CPU Printer Video display Forms of output
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 17:3 Computer Applications Word processing Compiling databases Scheduling Maintaining financial records Monitoring patients Performing diagnostic tests (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Computer Applications (continued) Maintaining inventories Developing spreadsheets Communicating through modems
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Examples of Uses Health information technician Physician Pharmacist Dietician Laboratory technician Nurse Environmental service worker
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Computer Uses and Issues Hand-held portable computer Confidentiality for strict enforcement Contingency backup plan essential
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Information Management Role of computers in health care –Tracking immense amounts of data –Storing the data –Having data easily accessible –Available in useful format
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Database Organized information Record: collection of related data Fields: separate pieces of information File: group of records See Figure 17-8 in text (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Database (continued) Advantages of a database –Easy retrieval of records –Organized in different ways –Access separate records at one time –Changes can be entered quickly –Generate reports as needed –Studies can be done (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Database (continued) Accuracy is essential when entering data Input must be carefully reviewed for errors Health care information managers may be required to design and create a database (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Database (continued) Computer software enables the user to create error free documents Functions of software programs –Design text and documents –Check spelling and grammar –Store documents –Send documents by e-mail, print, fax –Connect to other computers (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Database (continued) Spreadsheets provide –High-speed calculations of numerical data –Worksheet with intersecting rows and columns –Basis for billing and accounting programs –Graphs and charts for statistical use (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Database (continued) Commercially integrated systems are available for health care facilities Medisoft or Medical Manager programs for medical offices provide coordination of administrative tasks
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Computer Applications for Diagnostics Computer-based diagnostic tests Analyzing blood tests Electrocardiogram (ECG) computerized interpretation systems Computerized tomography (CT) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Computer Applications for Diagnostics (continued) Positron emission tomography (PET) Ultrasonography Oncology
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Computer Applications for Education Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) Interactive video or computer-assisted video technology Internet for distance learning and licensure examinations
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Computer Applications for Research Available information from the National Library of Medicine database Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to prepare and analyze data Computer technology research world-wide known as bioinformatics
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Computer Applications for Communication Networks—computers linked together in health care facilities Internet—links computers located around the world Electronic mail (e-mail) Telemedicine for medical/health care use (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Computer Applications for Communication (continued) E-medicine for contacting physicians Telepharmacies speed up the process of dispensing medicines Listserve mailing lists for sharing health information
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning 17:4 Using the Internet Network of computer users Modem—electronic device to send or receive data Browser—software to access the internet for information Many services and sources available for the health care professional
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Search Engines Defined as a database of Internet files Engines include: search program, index, and retrieval program Types of search engines: crawler-based, human-powered, mixed Many different search engines available
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Searching the Web Must develop a strategy Identify key words Combine key words Vary your search Use different search engines Evaluate the information source Identify the source (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Searching the Web (continued) Determine the author Check for accuracy Verify important data Looks for signs of quality Check for currency Health care workers are able to research many topics on the internet; can be an excellent learning tool
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Summary Computers used as cost-effective and efficient tools Enhance quality patient care Used for many areas of health care Computer technology has had tremendous impact on health care (continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Summary (continued) Used for health care research Internet has opened up a plethora of available information
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