# Solar Physics and Sun-Earth Connection ( introduction ) Samuel Danagoulian NC A&T State University Teacher’s Workshop, 1-27-05.

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Solar Physics and Sun-Earth Connection ( introduction ) Samuel Danagoulian NC A&T State University Teacher’s Workshop, 1-27-05

Solar Data  Solar radius = 695,990 km = 432,470 mi = 109 Earth radii  Solar mass = 1.989 1030 kg = 4.376 1030 lb = 333,000 Earth masses  Solar luminosity (energy output of the Sun) = 3.846 10 33 erg/s  Surface temperature = 5770 K = 10,400 ºF  Surface density = 2.07 10 -7 g/cm 3 = 1.6 10 -4 Air density  Surface composition = 70% H, 28% He, 2% (C, N, O,...) by mass

Solar Data (cont.)  Central temperature = 15,600,000 K = 28,000,000 ºF  Central density = 150 g/cm3 = 8 × Gold density  Central composition = 35% H, 63% He, 2% (C, N, O,...) by mass  Solar age = 4.57 10 9 yr  Solar Rotation: period 27 days  Solar Cycles: ~11 years, ~ 22 years

Solar Structure 15x10 6 K 6000 K X-rays and UV, 1x10 6 K Magnetic filed causes formation of Sunspots, flares, mass ejections

Introduction to Nuclear Physics  Molecular force is Electromagnetic: (long range) Atoms are held together by a dipole force which has an origin of Electro-Magnetism Atoms are held together by a dipole force which has an origin of Electro-Magnetism  Atom=nucleus + (orbiting electrons) The force between nucleus and electrons has EM origin  Nucleus= few nucleons together (protons and neutrons) The force between nucleons is STRONG (nuclear) which is present and attractive only at short distances. Between two protons, in addition, there is Electromagnetic force, which is repulsive. In order to create a stable nucleus, one needs to dilute the charged nuclear matter (protons) with neutral particles (neutrons). STRONG force is 137 times stronger than EM force. The force between nucleons is STRONG (nuclear) which is present and attractive only at short distances. Between two protons, in addition, there is Electromagnetic force, which is repulsive. In order to create a stable nucleus, one needs to dilute the charged nuclear matter (protons) with neutral particles (neutrons). STRONG force is 137 times stronger than EM force.

Particle Zoo PARTICLESSIZEMASS (AMU)  Molecules10 -8 m Atoms10 -11 m1-260 Atoms10 -11 m1-260 Nucleus <10 -14 m 1-260Nucleus <10 -14 m 1-260 Heavy Particles (BARIONS) Heavy Particles (BARIONS) Nucleons: (p, n), hyperons 10 -15 m1 – 1.5Nucleons: (p, n), hyperons 10 -15 m1 – 1.5 Light Particles (MESONS) <10 -15 m Light Particles (MESONS) <10 -15 m regular, strange, charm, top, bottom0.14 – 10regular, strange, charm, top, bottom0.14 – 10 -- QUARKS (u, d, s, c, t, b) <10 -18 m 0.001 - 5 -- QUARKS (u, d, s, c, t, b) <10 -18 m 0.001 - 5 GAUGE Particles( , W +-, Z 0, g)0 - 100 GAUGE Particles( , W +-, Z 0, g)0 - 100 LEPTONS<10 -18 m LEPTONS<10 -18 m Electron, mu, tau (e,  )0.0005 - 2Electron, mu, tau (e,  )0.0005 - 2 Neutrino - electron, mu, tau ( e, ,  )0 (?)Neutrino - electron, mu, tau ( e, ,  )0 (?) GAUGE particles provide interaction between particles and quarks

Nuclear Binding Energy http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/nucbin.html http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/nucbin.html

Solar Energy  Thermonuclear reactions, pp-chain (98% of energy) p+p  d+e + + e (neutrino energy is 0.42 MeV) p+e - + p  d+ e (1.44 MeV) p+d  3 He+  p+d  3 He+  3 He+ 3 He  4 He+2p 3 He+p  4 He+e + + e (18.8 MeV) 3 He+ 4 He  7 Be+  7 Be+e -  7 Li+  (0.38, 0.86 MeV) 7 Be+e -  7 Li+  (0.38, 0.86 MeV) 7 Li+ p  8 Be+  8 Be  2 4 He

Solar Structure 15x10 6 K 6000 K X-rays and UV, 1x10 6 K Magnetic filed causes formation of Sunspots, flares, mass ejections

Solar Neutrino puzzle Chlorine experiment (Davis, 1964-1999) 615 tons Liquid perchloroethylene (Homestake gold mine in South Dakota ) 37 Cl+  37 Ar+e - (threshold=0.814 MeV) Prediction from Solar Model Calculations: (7.6+-1.2) SNU Experimental result: (2.56+-0.23) SNU Japanese Experiment (Kamioka mine, 1996) 680 tons of water. Super-K: +e -  +e - (threshold=5.5 MeV, e - cherenkov light in the water). Experimental result: low rate, flavour change GALLEX, SAGE, GNO (1999, Gallium experiments) Experimental result: low rate SNO (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, heavy water experiment) Experimental result: neutrino flavour change

SNO results confirmed Super-K results on e count rate. There are three types of neutrinos: e  and  Neutrino oscillates from one flavour to another during it’s long journey to the Earth. KamLAND experiment (2003, detection of neutrinos from the reactor): confirmed the results of SNO and calculated the parameter responsible for the mixing of flavors.

Coronal Loops

 Coronal loops are found around sunspots and in active regions. These structures are associated with the closed magnetic field lines that connect magnetic regions on the solar surface. Many coronal loops last for days or weeks but most change quite rapidly  Some loops, however, are associated with solar flares and are visible for much shorter periods. These loops contain denser material than their surroundings. The three-dimensional structure and the dynamics of these loops is an area of active research. solar flaresthree-dimensional structuresolar flaresthree-dimensional structure

Solar Flares SOHO

Solar Flares (cont)

Solar Flare  is defined as a sudden and intense variation in solar brightness. The solar magnetic energy is suddenly released. Radiation occurs in the entire electromagnetic spectrum, (radio waves to X- and  -rays). The first solar flare recorded in astronomical literature was on September 1, 1859. Radiation electromagnetic spectrum  -rays Radiation electromagnetic spectrum  -rays

Polar Plumes SOHO

Polar Plumes  Polar plumes are long thin streamers that project outward from the Sun's north and south poles. These structures are associated with the "open" magnetic field lines at the Sun's poles. The plumes are formed by the action of the solar wind in much the same way as the peaks on the helmet streamers.

Solar Flares, Solar Wind SOHO

Solar Wind

Coronal Holes SOHO

 Coronal holes are regions where the corona is dark. These features were discovered with X-ray telescopes above the earth's atmosphere observing the solar disc. Coronal holes are associated with "open" magnetic field lines and are often found at the Sun's poles. The high-speed solar wind is known to originate in coronal holes. solar wind solar wind

Solar Activity

Solar Activity and Geomagnetic storm

Aurora

Aurora  Is caused by high energy particles (mainly electrons) interacting with the Earth's atmosphere over the North Pole. Due to the interaction of electrons with atoms of the air, an excitation of latter takes place following by the emission of the light quanta which removes the excitation of the atom.

Aurora (cont.)  This process is called scintillation of the air due to the passage of electrons through it. The spectrum of the light emission is in the UV- visible range, depending of the nature of the gas and maximum energy of the particles. The intensity of the emission depends on the intensity of electrons.

Aurora from the space

Aurora (cont.)  The effect of interaction of many electrons with atoms results in the Aurora that can be clearly seen during some nights in the higher latitude close to the North Pole. Since electrons mainly originate from the sun, the intensity depends greatly on the status of the solar activity.

Aurora (cont.)  However, the energy of electrons is not enough high to excite the air atoms unless they are accelerated in the way to the earth's atmosphere. The acceleration occurs during the disturbance of the geomagnetic field of the Earth, during geomagnetic storm.

Aurora (cont.)  The idea is that the geomagnetic field is responding to a disturbance from the Sun due to magnetic explosions on the Sun's corona and coronal mass ejection towards the Earth. The geomagnetic field of the Earth changes due to the flux of magnetic field, releasing energy and thereby accelerating electrons and other particles to high energies.

Aurora (cont.)  These particles are bent in the geomagnetic field to spiral along the magnetic field lines. Some amount of particles end up in the upper part of the earth's atmosphere causing the auroral mechanism to begin. http://www.oulu.fi/~spaceweb/textbook/auroras.html http://www.oulu.fi/~spaceweb/textbook/auroras.html http://www.geo.mtu.edu/weather/aurora/images/aurora/ jan.curtis

Aurora (cont.)

Happy New Year !

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